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Abbreviation : SD
Long Form : self-directedness
No. Year Title Co-occurring Abbreviation
2020 Temperament and character as risk factor for suicide ideation and attempts in adults with autism spectrum disorders. ASDs, CO, HA, NS, RD, ST
2019 Cloninger's TCI associations with adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. ANCOVA, CERQ, CO, HA, LCA, NS, PS, TCI-RS
2019 Temperament and character influence on depression treatment outcome. BD, HA, MDD, RD, ST, TCI
2018 Parental style and Cloninger's model in psychosis. CO, HA, NS, PS, ST
2018 Prediction of major depressive episodes and suicide-related ideation over a 3-year interval among Japanese undergraduates. MDEs, PHQ-9, TCI
2018 Temperament and character in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. CO, HA, NS, PS, RD, SLE, ST, TCI
2018 Temperament and Character Traits of Parents of Children With ADHD. HI, IA, SCID-I-CV
2018 The Risk Model of Developing Schizophrenia Based on Temperament and Character. HA, ST, TCI
2017 Comorbidity of schizophrenia and social phobia - impact on quality of life, hope, and personality traits: a cross sectional study. ADHS, BAI, BDI-II, HA, ICD-10, ISMI, LSAS, PANSS, Q-LES-Q, TCI-R
10  2017 Parkinsonian motor impairment predicts personality domains related to genetic risk and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia. CO, DUP, RD, ST
11  2017 Quality of life, self-stigma, and hope in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study. ADHS, BAI, BDI-II, DAI-10, HA, ISMI, LSAS, MINI, PS, TCI-R
12  2017 The temperament and character traits in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder with and without suicide attempt. BD, BD-sDE, CO, HA, MDD, MDD, NS, PS, ST, TCI
13  2017 Vulnerability to Psychopathology and Dimensions of Personality in Patients With Fibromyalgia. CPS, FM
14  2017 [Influence and Change of Self-Directedness in Dialectical Behavior Therapy]. BPS, DBT
15  2016 Anxiety and depression mediate the role of low self-esteem and low self-directedness in the development of eating disorders. EDI-3, EDs, IUS, RSES, SCL-90-R, SEM, STAI, TCI-R
16  2016 Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality and psychological distress in fibromyalgia. FM, HA, NS, PD, TCI-R
17  2016 Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients. CFS, FMS, PS, RD
18  2016 Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness Characterize Fibromyalgic Patients and the Symptom Severity. FM, HA, NS
19  2016 Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD, HA, NS, ST, TCI
20  2016 Predictive Capacity of Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI-R) in alcohol use disorder outcomes. HA, NS, TCI-R
21  2016 Self-directedness and the susceptibility to distraction by saliency. AMST
22  2015 Alexithymia and self-directedness as predictors of psychopathology and psychotherapeutic treatment outcome. TAS-20, TCI
23  2015 Associations of working models of the self and other with Cloninger's personality dimensions. HA, RD
24  2015 Increased Reward-Related Behaviors during Sleep and Wakefulness in Sleepwalking and Idiopathic Nightmares. ML-DA, NS, TCI
25  2015 Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression. BDNF, MDD, TCI
26  2015 Some personality traits converge gradually by long-term partnership through the lifecourse--genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions. HA, ICCs, MZ, TCI
27  2015 Temperament and character as predictors of recurrence in remitted patients with major depression: a 4-year prospective follow-up study. HA, MDDs, TCI
28  2015 Temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and their relations with dissociation. DES, HA, NS, RD, ST, TCI
29  2015 The temperament and character personality profile of the glaucoma patient. HA, NS, PS, RD, ST, TCI
30  2014 Childhood trauma, temperament, and character in subjects with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. BD, CT, MDD
31  2014 Meta-cognitive beliefs as a mediator for the relationship between Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions and depressive and anxiety symptoms among healthy subjects. BDI, CO, HA, MCQ, ST, STAI, TCI
32  2014 Personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects by gender and the relationship with illness severity. HA, NS, RD, RD, ST, ST
33  2014 Predictors of response to individual and group cognitive behaviour therapy of social phobia. ICT
34  2014 Self-directedness: an indicator for clinical response to the HF-rTMS treatment in refractory melancholic depression. DLPFC, HA, HF, rTMS, TCI, TRD
35  2014 Temperament and character as determinants of well-being. CO, HA, ST, TCI, WEMWBS
36  2014 The Relationship between Major Depressive Disorder and Personality Traits. CO, MDD, SCID-I, TCI
37  2014 The relationship between temperament and character and subclinical psychotic-like experiences in healthy adults. CAPE, HA, PLE's, RD, ST, TCI
38  2014 [Temperament and character traits measured by temperament and character inventory (TCI) by Cloninger in patients with ischemic heart disease]. HA, IHD, NS, RD, ST, TCI
39  2013 Alexithymia and personality in relation to social anxiety among university students. BAI, BDI, DDF, DIF, HA, LSAS, TCI
40  2013 Heritability and linkage analysis of personality in bipolar disorder. BD, CO, HA, NS, PS, RD, ST, TCI
41  2013 Personality change after Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for depression. HA, iCBT, TCI
42  2013 Relationship of internet addiction severity with depression, anxiety, and alexithymia, temperament and character in university students. IA, NS
43  2013 Temperament and character traits in patients with epilepsy: epileptic personality. HA
44  2013 Temperament personality profiles in suicidal behaviour: an investigation of associated demographic, clinical and genetic factors. HA, NS, TCI, TPQ
45  2012 Biogenetic temperament and character in insomnia and depression. CO, HA, MDD, RD, SCID-IV
46  2012 Personality traits and schizophrenia: evidence from a case-control study and meta-analysis. CO, HA, NS, PS, RD, ST, TCI
47  2012 Relationship of defense styles with history of childhood trauma and personality in heroin dependent inpatients. RD, ST
48  2012 Temperament and character dimensions and their relationship to major depression and panic disorder. HA
49  2012 Temperament and character dimensions of patients with adult separation anxiety disorder. ASAD, HA, PD, TCI
50  2012 Temperament and character profile of patients with fibromyalgia. FM, HA, ST, TCI
51  2012 Temperament and character traits in patients with bipolar disorder and associations with attempted suicide. HA
52  2011 An Increase of the Character Function of Self-Directedness Is Centrally Involved in Symptom Reduction during Remission from Major Depression. ANX, ED, HA, RET, SEM, TCI
53  2011 Eating disorders and major depression: role of anger and personality. HA
54  2011 Individual differences in local gray and white matter volumes reflect differences in temperament and character: a voxel-based morphometry study in healthy young females. CO, HA, NS, RD, ST, VBM
55  2011 Temperament and character in psychotic depression compared with other subcategories of depression and normal controls. PD, RD
56  2011 The effects of temperament and character on symptoms of depression in a chinese nonclinical population. HA, RD, SDS, TCI
57  2011 The effects of temperament, character, and defense mechanisms on grief severity among the elderly. CO, ST
58  2011 The relationship between personality, social functioning, and depression: a structural equation modeling analysis. BDI, HA, SASS, TCI
59  2010 Alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality in patients with major depressive disorder. BDI, RD
60  2010 Direct and indirect effects of the temperament and character on alexithymia: a pathway analysis with mood and anxiety. CES-D, CO, HA, NS, RD, ST, STAI, TAS-20, TCI
61  2010 Measures of temperament and character are differentially impacted on by depression severity. HA, MADRS, TCI
62  2010 Personality correlates of impulsivity in subjects with generalized anxiety disorders. CGI, GAD, NS, RD
63  2010 Self-esteem and personality in subjects with and without body dysmorphic disorder traits undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty: preliminary data. BDD, BDDQ, HA, NS, TCI
64  2010 Smoking and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. HA
65  2010 Temperament and character in patients with bipolar II disorder and recurrent brief depression. HA, RBD
66  2010 The Relationships between Online Game Player Biogenetic Traits, Playing Time, and the Genre of the Game Being Played. FPS, NS, RPG, RTS, YIAS
67  2009 Comparison of Clinical Features and Personality Dimensions between Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Normal Control. AQ, BHS, BIS-11, CO, HA, MDD, NS1, RD, TCI
68  2009 Eighteen months of drug treatment for depression: predicting relapse and recovery. HA
69  2009 Emotional intelligence and personality in major depression: trait versus state effects. EI, HA, TCI
70  2009 Exploring the temperament and character traits of rural and urban doctors. CO, GPs, HA, NS, PS, RD, ST
71  2009 Personality dimensions in male patients with early-onset alcohol dependence who seek treatment. EOA, LOA
72  2009 Temperament and character in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder. OC, OCD, RD, TCI, Y-BOCS
73  2008 Effect of pharmacological treatment on temperament and character in panic disorder. HA, PD, TCI
74  2008 Harm avoidance and self-directedness as essential features of panic disorder patients. HA, MINI, PD, TCI
75  2008 Temperament and character of suicide attempters. HA, TCI
76  2008 The influence of temperament and character of psychotic individuals on the possibility of committing criminal offences. ANOVA, CO, HA, NS, PE, RD, SPSS, TCI
77  2007 Character and temperament in major depressive disorder and a highly anxious-retarded subtype derived from melancholia. HA, TCI
78  2007 Influences of parental rearing on the personality traits of healthy Japanese. HA
79  2007 Temperament and character dimensions in patients with social phobia: patterns of change following treatments? HA, ICT, IGCT, NS, ST, TAU, TCI
80  2007 Temperament and character in pathological gambling. HA, NS, PG, TCI
81  2007 Temperament and character in women with postpartum depression. CO, HA, ST
82  2007 The Gamblers' Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile. CO, non-PGs, NS, PPGs, TCI
83  2006 The effect of temperament and character on response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in panic disorder. HA, PD, TCI
84  2005 Adolescent attachment styles and their relation to the temperament and character traits of personality in a general population. ASQ, CO, HA, NS, RD, ST, TCI
85  2005 High harm avoidance and low self-directedness in euthymic young adults with recurrent, early-onset depression. BDI, HA, HRSD, RE-MDD, TCI
86  2005 Personality as a mediator of demographic risk factors for suicide attempts in a community sample. HA
87  2005 Psychometric properties of the abbreviated Spanish version of TCI-R (TCI-140) and its relationship with the Psychopathological Personality Scales (MMPI-2 PSY-5) in patients. CON, HA, NS, PS, RD, ST, TCI-R
88  2005 The contribution of temperament and character to schizotypy multidimensionality. SPQ, ST, TCI
89  2005 The TPH intron 7 A218C polymorphism and TCI dimension scores in alcohol-dependent patients: hints to nonspecific psychopathology. HA, TCI, TPH
90  2004 Bipolar disorder: I. Temperament and character. CO, HA, RD, TCI
91  2004 Quality of life and personality disorders in heroin abusers. MQOL, NS, PD, QOL, RD, SCID-II, TCI
92  2004 Temperament and character in eating disorders: ten years of studies. EDs, HA, NS, TCI, TPQ
93  2004 Temperament and character profiles of patients with tension-type headache and migraine. BDI, HA, NS, RD, ST, TCI, TTH
94  2004 Temperament and character: prognostic factors in whiplash patients? TCI
95  2004 [Temperament and character of Polish women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa]. HA, RD
96  2004 [Temperament and character profile of patients with chronic tension-type headache]. BDI, CTTH, HA, NS, RD, ST, TCI
97  2003 [Dimensional personality assessment of the members of the French junior national team of road cycling]. HA, NS, TCI
98  2002 Anorectic family dynamics: temperament and character data. AN, HA, NS, RD, TCI
99  2002 Temperament and character in obese women with and without binge eating disorder. BED, BMI, HA, NS, TCI
100  2002 The genetic structure of Cloninger's seven-factor model of temperament and character in a Japanese sample. CO, HA, NS, PS, RD, ST, TCI