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Abbreviation: AF
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Long forms: 925

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
atrial fibrillation
(24268 times)
Cardiology
(13563 times)
CI (1842 times)
LA (1712 times)
HR (1230 times)
0 [Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation performed under general anesthesia: results of a unicentric randomized trial].
amniotic fluid
(1122 times)
Obstetrics
(402 times)
IAI (48 times)
MS (40 times)
PTL (39 times)
1975 The present status of prenatal detection of neural tube defects.
annulus fibrosus
(645 times)
Orthopedics
(211 times)
NP (356 times)
IVD (270 times)
MRI (40 times)
1975 The composition and protein metabolism in the immature rabbit intervertebral disc.
autofluorescence
(434 times)
Ophthalmology
(204 times)
RPE (48 times)
OCT (44 times)
AGEs (43 times)
1982 Autofluorescence as an index of ageing in human fibroblasts in culture.
aflatoxin
(332 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(91 times)
AFB1 (32 times)
OTA (24 times)
DON (21 times)
1976 Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxins Q1, M1 and P1 by mouse and rat.
antiferromagnetic
(203 times)
Chemistry
(58 times)
FM (26 times)
SC (15 times)
DFT (10 times)
1996 The phase diagram and hidden order for generalized spin ladders.
arcuate fasciculus
(168 times)
Neurology
(49 times)
FA (53 times)
DTI (49 times)
ILF (26 times)
2006 Potential of diffusion tensor MRI in the assessment of periventricular leukomalacia.
2-aminofluorene
(155 times)
Neoplasms
(46 times)
AAF (80 times)
NAT (40 times)
PABA (17 times)
1979 Differential excision from DNA of the C-8 deoxyguanosine reaction products of N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene and N-acetoxy-N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene by endonuclease S1 from Aspergillus oryzae.
auranofin
(149 times)
Rheumatology
(69 times)
RA (23 times)
ROS (18 times)
GSTM (17 times)
1979 Effect of chrysotherapy on parameters of immune response.
10  atrial flutter
(117 times)
Cardiology
(75 times)
SVT (13 times)
RF (10 times)
AT (7 times)
1975 [High-frequency electric stimulation of the atrium in treatment of supraventricular tachycardias and atrial flutter].
11  attributable fraction
(104 times)
Environmental Health
(20 times)
CI (10 times)
OR (8 times)
RR (5 times)
1994 At least one in seven cases of cancer is caused by smoking. Global estimates for 1985.
12  antifouling
(103 times)
Biology
(70 times)
FR (15 times)
TBT (6 times)
CLSM (3 times)
2001 Antifouling activity of six nontoxic chemicals on spore attachment of Ulva fasciata.
13  Australian football
(101 times)
Sports Medicine
(73 times)
AFL (12 times)
ES (9 times)
RPE (5 times)
2001 Isokinetic strength related to jumping but not kicking performance of Australian footballers.
14  activation function
(79 times)
Endocrinology
(25 times)
ER (22 times)
ERalpha (8 times)
GR (7 times)
1998 Cross-talk between peptide growth factor and estrogen receptor signaling pathways.
15  atrial fibrillation/flutter
(79 times)
Cardiology
(37 times)
CI (13 times)
HR (9 times)
CABG (5 times)
1993 The signal-averaged electrocardiogram of P wave in patients with documented atrial fibrillation or flutter and in patients with left or right atrial overload without atrial fibrillation.
16  Aggressive fibromatosis
(59 times)
Neoplasms
(28 times)
NSAIDs (4 times)
IHC (3 times)
OVCA (3 times)
1996 Imaging characteristics of aggressive fibromatosis in children.
17  ascitic fluid
(59 times)
Gastroenterology
(21 times)
SBP (29 times)
PMN (6 times)
bactDNA (4 times)
1981 Ascites production in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
18  ameloblastic fibroma
(57 times)
Dentistry
(27 times)
AFO (9 times)
AFS (9 times)
AOT (5 times)
1992 Ectomesenchyme of ameloblastic fibroma reveals a characteristic distribution of extracellular matrix proteins.
19  allele frequency
(55 times)
Neoplasms
(11 times)
ctDNA (7 times)
HLA (7 times)
NGS (6 times)
2000 PMP22 Thr118Met is not a clinically relevant CMT1 marker.
20  antisecretory factor
(50 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(8 times)
SPC (7 times)
ICP (6 times)
MD (3 times)
1995 Molecular cloning and expression of a pituitary gland protein modulating intestinal fluid secretion.
21  aortic flow
(49 times)
Cardiology
(16 times)
CF (20 times)
CO (16 times)
HR (14 times)
1976 Blood-perfused working isolated rat heart.
22  anaerobic filter
(44 times)
Environmental Health
(24 times)
COD (13 times)
UASB (6 times)
AH (5 times)
2001 Molecular weight distribution of Pinus radiata kraft mill wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.
23  autonomic failure
(37 times)
Neurology
(24 times)
MSA (9 times)
BP (8 times)
PAF (4 times)
1982 Impaired pancreatic polypeptide release to insulin hypoglycaemia in chronic autonomic failure with postural hypotension: evidence for parasympathetic dysfunction.
24  amaurosis fugax
(36 times)
Vascular Diseases
(11 times)
TIA (7 times)
CRAO (4 times)
ICA (4 times)
1980 Demonstration of pathological circulating endothelial cells in patients with amaurosis fugax.
25  aqueous fraction
(35 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
EAF (7 times)
BF (5 times)
CF (5 times)
1982 Effects of soluble fraction of porcine tissue on the aggregation of human blood platelets.
26  abdominal fat
(34 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(19 times)
FCR (6 times)
FC (4 times)
TG (3 times)
1983 Factors affecting broiler processing parameters and plasma corticosterone.
27  AF group
(34 times)
Cardiology
(22 times)
SR (11 times)
LA (6 times)
CABG (3 times)
2000 Medium-term results after the modified Cox/Maze procedure combined with other cardiac surgery.
28  alcoholic fermentation
(33 times)
Microbiology
(15 times)
MLF (16 times)
LAB (7 times)
AAF (2 times)
2006 Effect of simultaneous inoculation with yeast and bacteria on fermentation kinetics and key wine parameters of cool-climate chardonnay.
29  accelerated fractionation
(32 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
CF (11 times)
HF (5 times)
AH (4 times)
1990 Accelerated fractionation in advanced head and neck cancer: results and analysis of late sequelae.
30  aldehyde fuchsin
(32 times)
Histocytochemistry
(12 times)
PAS (6 times)
AB (3 times)
GBHA (3 times)
1975 A procedure for the simultaneous demonstration of neurosecretory and mucosubstances in tissue sections.
31  apical foramen
(30 times)
Dentistry
(25 times)
EALs (5 times)
AC (3 times)
CBCT (3 times)
2002 [The effect of instrumentation on original apical foramen shape using steel vs niti rotatory: computerized analysis].
32  accumulation factor
(24 times)
Environmental Health
(18 times)
HRI (5 times)
Cd (3 times)
Cr (2 times)
1991 Cadmium kinetics in freshwater clams. V. Cadmium-copper interaction in metal accumulation by Anodonta cygnea and characterization of the metal-binding protein.
33  active fraction
(24 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
CF (2 times)
DLA (2 times)
REE (2 times)
1995 Is measured energy expenditure correlated to injury severity score in major trauma patients?.
34  aerobic fitness
(23 times)
Sports Medicine
(8 times)
BMI (5 times)
PA (4 times)
AD (2 times)
1990 Aerobic fitness, psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress.
35  Atlantic Forest
(23 times)
Molecular Biology
(10 times)
BA (2 times)
PA (2 times)
AM (1 time)
2011 The genetic effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes over a tropical latitudinal gradient: diversification of an Atlantic Forest passerine.
36  actin filament
(21 times)
Cell Biology
(7 times)
MT (5 times)
ER (3 times)
MTs (2 times)
1986 Mechanisms of cytoskeletal regulation: modulation of aortic endothelial cell protein band 4.1 by the extracellular matrix.
37  assessment factor
(21 times)
Environmental Health
(16 times)
SSD (11 times)
PNEC (8 times)
PNECs (3 times)
2002 A framework for prioritizing fragrance materials for aquatic risk assessment.
38  amplify-and-forward
(20 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(15 times)
DF (7 times)
BER (5 times)
MGF (4 times)
2013 Amplify-and-forward cooperative diversity for green UWB-based WBSNs.
39  acceleration factor
(18 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(9 times)
SNR (6 times)
CS (4 times)
CNR (3 times)
2007 Parallel imaging of knee cartilage at 3 Tesla.
40  aggregation factor
(18 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AR (5 times)
mAb (2 times)
esp (1 time)
1983 Two Ca2+ functions are demonstrated by the substitution of specific divalent and lanthanide cations for the Ca2+ required by the aggregation factor complex from the marine sponge, Microciona prolifera.
41  albiflorin
(18 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
PF (12 times)
TNF-alpha (4 times)
ELISA (2 times)
2012 Preparative purification of peoniflorin and albiflorin from peony rhizome using macroporous resin and medium-pressure liquid chromatography.
42  advanced fibrosis
(17 times)
Gastroenterology
(11 times)
NAFLD (5 times)
APRI (3 times)
CHB (3 times)
1979 Histologic subclassification of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's disease.
43  Air Force
(17 times)
Military Medicine
(7 times)
CNS (2 times)
DSC (2 times)
JP (2 times)
1997 Comparison of acceleration subjects to other populations: spinal anomaly distribution.
44  aminoflavone
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
AhR (6 times)
TNBC (4 times)
EGFR (2 times)
2006 Urinary metabolite profiling reveals CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of NSC686288 (aminoflavone).
45  acid fuchsin
(16 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
MB (4 times)
MO (3 times)
CR (2 times)
1984 [Comparison of acid fuchsin (AF) staining and hematoxylin-basic fuchsin-picric acid (HBFP) staining for demonstration of early myocardial infarction].
46  Acne fulminans
(16 times)
Dermatology
(9 times)
AC (1 time)
AF-SS (1 time)
AF-WOSS (1 time)
1989 Osteomyelitis-like bone lesions in acne fulminans.
47  allantoic fluid
(16 times)
Virology
(5 times)
HA (3 times)
AIV (2 times)
CAM (2 times)
1980 Infectious bronchitis agar-gel precipitin test--use of infected allantoic fluid as antigen.
48  acid-fast
(15 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
AR (2 times)
IFA (2 times)
mAb (2 times)
1989 Comparison of conventional staining methods and monoclonal antibody-based methods for Cryptosporidium oocyst detection.
49  amentoflavone
(15 times)
Biology
(5 times)
AD (2 times)
AMPK (1 time)
BCR (1 time)
2012 Naturally Occurring Cytotoxic [3'→8″]-Biflavonoids from Podocarpus nakaii.
50  anchoring fibrils
(15 times)
Dermatology
(6 times)
DEB (3 times)
HS-RDEB (3 times)
EBD (2 times)
1977 The human cutaneous basement membrane--anchoring fibril complex: preparation and ultrastructure.
51  area fraction
(15 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
DCM (3 times)
DIA (3 times)
CV (2 times)
2002 Digital image analysis system for the quantification of infiltrates and cell adhesion molecules in inflammatory cardiomyopathy.
52  atretic follicles
(15 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(4 times)
FGP (4 times)
GSI (3 times)
LSGP (3 times)
1986 Effect of melatonin on oocyte growth and recruitment, hypophyseal gonadotrophs, and oviduct of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis maintained under natural photoperiod during the prebreeding phase.
53  attenuation factor
(15 times)
Environmental Health
(8 times)
FFQ (2 times)
24HDR (1 time)
24HR (1 time)
2005 Sorption and leaching potential of acidic herbicides in Brazilian soils.
54  1,5-anhydro-D-fructose
(14 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
AG (4 times)
AFGOS (1 time)
AKR1E1 (1 time)
1996 NMR of all-carbon-13 sugars: an application in development of an analytical method for a novel natural sugar, 1,5-anhydrofructose.
55  anaerobic fermentation
(14 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
WAS (6 times)
SCFAs (4 times)
AcoD (2 times)
2015 Metabolic flux analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a sealed winemaking fermentation system.
56  anal fissure
(14 times)
General Surgery
(7 times)
CA (1 time)
DTZ (1 time)
EMG (1 time)
2002 Oral lacidipine in the treatment of anal fissure.
57  anterior fontanelle
(14 times)
Pediatrics
(9 times)
PF (3 times)
MF (2 times)
AEDs (1 time)
1988 Anterior fontanelle size in Arab children: standards for appropriately grown full term neonates.
58  ascofuranone
(14 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(4 times)
TAO (4 times)
AOX (2 times)
AC (1 time)
1981 Unusual concentration of urine and prevention of polydipsia by fungal prenylphenols in DOCA hypertensive rats.
59  asialofetuin
(14 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
ASGPR (6 times)
DiI (2 times)
DOTAP (2 times)
1983 Effects of hyperthermia on plasma glycoprotein catabolism by the isolated perfused rat liver.
60  acriflavine
(13 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
AO (3 times)
CV (2 times)
5-ALA (1 time)
1972 Loss of lactose metabolism in lactic streptococci.
61  adaptive filtering
(13 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(6 times)
EEG (2 times)
BL (1 time)
DCNN (1 time)
1990 The active fitting (AF) programme of hearing aids: a psychological perspective.
62  adventitial fibroblast
(13 times)
Vascular Diseases
(5 times)
VSMC (3 times)
OPN (2 times)
PVAT (2 times)
2002 Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 signaling induces osteopontin expression and vascular smooth muscle cell-dependent adventitial fibroblast migration in vitro.
63  airflow
(13 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(9 times)
SAHS (7 times)
AHI (4 times)
LR (3 times)
2005 The controlled-environment chamber: a new mouse model of dry eye.
64  animal fat
(13 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
CLA (2 times)
CS (2 times)
DHA (2 times)
1983 The influence of premature weaning and the nature of the fat in the diet during development on adult plasma lipids and adipose cellularity in pair-fed rats.
65  after fertilization
(12 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
IAA (2 times)
NPA (2 times)
HTE (1 time)
1983 Ontogeny of the immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The appearance of antigenic determinants on lymphoid cells detected by mouse anti-carp thymocyte monoclonal antibodies.
66  ammonium formate
(12 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(6 times)
MC (3 times)
ESI (2 times)
FA (2 times)
2008 Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-capped dendritic gold nanoparticles by a one-step hydrothermal route and their high SERS effect.
67  anal fistula
(12 times)
Gastroenterology
(7 times)
AFR (1 time)
AM (1 time)
CCK-8 (1 time)
2001 Quality of life of patients after surgical treatment of anal fistula; the role of anal manometry.
68  anthocyanin fraction
(12 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(8 times)
alpha-SMA (2 times)
CF (2 times)
DMN (2 times)
2007 Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.
69  arterial filter
(12 times)
Transplantation
(5 times)
CPB (9 times)
OX (6 times)
CR (3 times)
1989 Quantitation of platelet loss with indium-111 labeled platelets in a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator and arterial filter during extracorporeal circulation in a pig model.
70  aseptic failure
(12 times)
Orthopedics
(5 times)
PJI (11 times)
AUC (2 times)
CRP (2 times)
2012 Multiplex PCR of sonication fluid accurately differentiates between prosthetic joint infection and aseptic failure.
71  augmented feedback
(12 times)
Sports Medicine
(6 times)
EF (3 times)
IF (2 times)
1RM (1 time)
2009 Changes in bar path kinematics and kinetics through use of summary feedback in power snatch training.
72  alcohol-fed
(11 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(3 times)
PF (8 times)
ALD (5 times)
AF/INU (2 times)
1996 In utero exposure to ethanol alters mRNA for insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in placenta and lung of fetal rats.
73  Alexa Fluor
(11 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
FRET (3 times)
CTB (2 times)
BDA (1 time)
2003 Projections from primary somatosensory cortex to the neostriatum: the role of somatotopic continuity in corticostriatal convergence.
74  allele fraction
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
NGS (5 times)
NSCLC (5 times)
cfDNA (3 times)
2014 Validation of a next-generation sequencing assay for clinical molecular oncology.
75  artificial feeding
(11 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
BF (3 times)
DHF (2 times)
APG (1 time)
1980 [Enteral nutrition by tube in burn patients].
76  association factor
(11 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
ACF (1 time)
AsA (1 time)
days (1 time)
1990 Thyrotropin potentiation of insulin-like growth factor-I dependent deoxribonucleic acid synthesis in FRTL-5 cells: mediation by an autocrine amplification factor(s).
77  Aurantii Fructus
(11 times)
Biology
(4 times)
AFI (5 times)
AMPK (2 times)
GC-MS (2 times)
2007 Anti-ischemic effect of Aurantii Fructus on contractile dysfunction of ischemic and reperfused rat heart.
78  acutely fatigued
(10 times)
Sports Medicine
(6 times)
FOR (6 times)
AIC (2 times)
CF (2 times)
2006 24 hours on-call and acute fatigue no longer worsen resident mood under the 80-hour work week regulations.
79  adaptive functioning
(10 times)
Psychiatry
(3 times)
SIB-R (2 times)
AFAT (1 time)
BT (1 time)
2011 Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.
80  adult females
(10 times)
Zoology
(3 times)
AM (4 times)
PAAM (2 times)
AKR (1 time)
2001 Fecundity of Hoplopleura scapteromydis (Phthiraptera: Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae), ectoparasite of Scapteromys aquaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in Rio de La Plata marshlands, Argentina.
81  anatomic form
(10 times)
Dentistry
(5 times)
MD (5 times)
CM (3 times)
MI (3 times)
2000 Detection of a transitional ion concentration zone during electronic measurement of root canal length: a study in vitro.
82  antifibrinolytic
(10 times)
Orthopedics
(6 times)
TXA (3 times)
EBL (2 times)
NSQIP-P (2 times)
2005 Antifibrinolytic use and bleeding during surgery on the descending thoracic aorta: a multivariate analysis.
83  Armed Forces
(10 times)
Military Medicine
(4 times)
PTSD (3 times)
AUDIT (1 time)
CRIS (1 time)
2004 Epidemiological features of virus hepatitis in the Russian Army.
84  autofluorescence imaging
(10 times)
Ophthalmology
(6 times)
OCT (3 times)
RPE (2 times)
SD-OCT (2 times)
2002 Autofluorescence and 5-aminolevulinic acid induced fluorescence diagnosis of penile carcinoma -- new techniques to monitor Nd:YAG laser therapy.
85  fibrillation and flutter
(10 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
ELR (2 times)
CCS (1 time)
DES (1 time)
1998 Prevalence of atrial fibrillation and eligibility for anticoagulants in the community.
86  activity fronts
(9 times)
Gastroenterology
(7 times)
MMC (4 times)
CLA (1 time)
EM (1 time)
1983 Somatostatin and the interdigestive migrating motor complex in man.
87  adhesive factor
(9 times)
Cell Biology
(5 times)
FN (2 times)
CM (1 time)
PAGE (1 time)
1975 Study of the specificity of the action of adhesive factors isolated from the liver and lungs of adult mice and rats.
88  aminofluorescein
(9 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(3 times)
LOD (2 times)
QDs (2 times)
TMOS (2 times)
1992 Epstein-Barr virus enters B cells and epithelial cells by different routes.
89  anal furunculosis
(9 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
GSD (4 times)
CD (2 times)
MHC (2 times)
2006 The role of surgery in the management of canine anal furunculosis. A review of the literature and a retrospective evaluation of treatment by surgical resection in 51 dogs.
90  angiogenic factor
(9 times)
Urology
(2 times)
CAM (3 times)
VEGF (3 times)
BPH (2 times)
1987 Angiogenic activity in human wound fluid.
91  antral follicle
(9 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(8 times)
AMH (2 times)
OR (2 times)
BC (1 time)
2001 Antral follicle counting in predicting the retrieved oocyte number after ovarian hyperstimulation.
92  autofocusing
(9 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
HD-ACF (2 times)
AS (1 time)
CNN (1 time)
1991 Autofocus system for a surgical CO(2) laser.
93  alleged father
(8 times)
Jurisprudence
(3 times)
PI (2 times)
HID (1 time)
HLA (1 time)
1975 Dating patterns, sexual relationships and use of contraceptives of 700 unwed mothers during a two year period following delivery.
94  angina frequency
(8 times)
Complementary Therapies
(4 times)
SAQ (7 times)
AS (5 times)
PL (5 times)
2009 [A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of Xuefu Zhuyu Capsule on short-term quality of life in unstable anginal patients with blood-stasis syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention].
95  angiofibromas
(8 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
TSC (2 times)
FLPDL (1 time)
FP (1 time)
1994 CO2, argon, and pulsed dye laser treatment of angiofibromas.
96  antifungal
(8 times)
Microbiology
(5 times)
BDG (2 times)
IFI (2 times)
IPA (2 times)
2008 The clinical and pharmacoeconomic analysis of invasive aspergillosis in adult patients with haematological diseases.
97  atrial flutter or fibrillation
(8 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
AV (2 times)
SVT (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1981 [Atrial arrhythmias after surgical repair of an atrial septal defect (secundum-type). Six years follow-up in adults (author's transl)].
98  axial force
(8 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
SEMSs (3 times)
SEMS (2 times)
AAAF (1 time)
1997 Jump distance of dance landings influencing internal joint forces: I. Axial forces.
99  accessory function
(7 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(4 times)
AI (3 times)
AM (3 times)
IL-1 (2 times)
1983 Leukemia cell lines can replace monocytes for mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte responses: this accessory function is dependent upon their differentiation stage.
100  aetiological fraction
(7 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
AC (1 time)
ACs (1 time)
BP (1 time)
1996 Naevi and pigmentary characteristics as risk factors for melanoma in a high-risk population: a case-control study in New South Wales, Australia.