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Abbreviation: AF
Appearance Frequency: 25661 time(s)
Long forms: 813

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
atrial fibrillation
(19857 times)
Cardiology
(11578 times)
LA (1439 times)
CI (1322 times)
SR (889 times)
0 [Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation performed under general anesthesia: results of a unicentric randomized trial].
amniotic fluid
(1064 times)
Obstetrics
(396 times)
IAI (44 times)
MS (36 times)
PTL (36 times)
1975 The present status of prenatal detection of neural tube defects.
annulus fibrosus
(519 times)
Orthopedics
(184 times)
NP (299 times)
IVD (217 times)
MRI (30 times)
1975 The composition and protein metabolism in the immature rabbit intervertebral disc.
autofluorescence
(370 times)
Ophthalmology
(181 times)
AGEs (39 times)
RPE (38 times)
OCT (35 times)
1982 Autofluorescence as an index of ageing in human fibroblasts in culture.
aflatoxin
(293 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(89 times)
AFB1 (26 times)
OTA (22 times)
DON (19 times)
1976 Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxins Q1, M1 and P1 by mouse and rat.
antiferromagnetic
(179 times)
Medicine
(54 times)
FM (22 times)
SC (14 times)
DFT (6 times)
1996 The phase diagram and hidden order for generalized spin ladders.
2-aminofluorene
(153 times)
Neoplasms
(46 times)
AAF (80 times)
NAT (40 times)
PABA (17 times)
1979 Differential excision from DNA of the C-8 deoxyguanosine reaction products of N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene and N-acetoxy-N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene by endonuclease S1 from Aspergillus oryzae.
auranofin
(139 times)
Rheumatology
(69 times)
RA (23 times)
GSTM (17 times)
ROS (16 times)
1979 Effect of chrysotherapy on parameters of immune response.
arcuate fasciculus
(137 times)
Neurology
(43 times)
FA (40 times)
DTI (39 times)
UF (21 times)
2006 Potential of diffusion tensor MRI in the assessment of periventricular leukomalacia.
10  atrial flutter
(109 times)
Cardiology
(70 times)
SVT (12 times)
RF (10 times)
AV (7 times)
1975 [High-frequency electric stimulation of the atrium in treatment of supraventricular tachycardias and atrial flutter].
11  antifouling
(89 times)
Biology
(62 times)
FR (13 times)
TBT (6 times)
CLSM (3 times)
2001 Antifouling activity of six nontoxic chemicals on spore attachment of Ulva fasciata.
12  attributable fraction
(85 times)
Environmental Health
(12 times)
CI (8 times)
OR (8 times)
CVD (4 times)
1994 At least one in seven cases of cancer is caused by smoking. Global estimates for 1985.
13  Australian football
(82 times)
Sports Medicine
(61 times)
AFL (9 times)
ES (7 times)
RPE (5 times)
2001 Isokinetic strength related to jumping but not kicking performance of Australian footballers.
14  activation function
(77 times)
Endocrinology
(25 times)
ER (22 times)
ERalpha (8 times)
GR (7 times)
1998 Cross-talk between peptide growth factor and estrogen receptor signaling pathways.
15  atrial fibrillation/flutter
(65 times)
Cardiology
(32 times)
CI (11 times)
HR (7 times)
CABG (4 times)
1993 The signal-averaged electrocardiogram of P wave in patients with documented atrial fibrillation or flutter and in patients with left or right atrial overload without atrial fibrillation.
16  ascitic fluid
(55 times)
Gastroenterology
(21 times)
SBP (27 times)
PMN (6 times)
bactDNA (4 times)
1981 Ascites production in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
17  Aggressive fibromatosis
(53 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
NSAIDs (4 times)
OVCA (3 times)
APC (2 times)
1996 Imaging characteristics of aggressive fibromatosis in children.
18  aortic flow
(48 times)
Cardiology
(16 times)
CF (19 times)
CO (15 times)
HR (13 times)
1976 Blood-perfused working isolated rat heart.
19  ameloblastic fibroma
(44 times)
Dentistry
(23 times)
AFO (7 times)
AFS (4 times)
AOT (4 times)
1992 Ectomesenchyme of ameloblastic fibroma reveals a characteristic distribution of extracellular matrix proteins.
20  antisecretory factor
(43 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(7 times)
ICP (5 times)
SPC (5 times)
aa (1 time)
1995 Molecular cloning and expression of a pituitary gland protein modulating intestinal fluid secretion.
21  allele frequency
(42 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(9 times)
HLA (6 times)
NGS (5 times)
NSCLC (4 times)
2000 PMP22 Thr118Met is not a clinically relevant CMT1 marker.
22  anaerobic filter
(41 times)
Environmental Health
(22 times)
COD (12 times)
UASB (6 times)
AH (5 times)
2001 Molecular weight distribution of Pinus radiata kraft mill wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.
23  autonomic failure
(37 times)
Neurology
(24 times)
MSA (9 times)
BP (8 times)
PAF (4 times)
1982 Impaired pancreatic polypeptide release to insulin hypoglycaemia in chronic autonomic failure with postural hypotension: evidence for parasympathetic dysfunction.
24  amaurosis fugax
(35 times)
Ophthalmology
(11 times)
TIA (6 times)
CRAO (4 times)
ICA (4 times)
1980 Demonstration of pathological circulating endothelial cells in patients with amaurosis fugax.
25  abdominal fat
(33 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(18 times)
FCR (6 times)
FC (4 times)
BWG (3 times)
1983 Factors affecting broiler processing parameters and plasma corticosterone.
26  accelerated fractionation
(32 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
CF (11 times)
HF (5 times)
AH (4 times)
1990 Accelerated fractionation in advanced head and neck cancer: results and analysis of late sequelae.
27  aldehyde fuchsin
(32 times)
Histocytochemistry
(12 times)
PAS (6 times)
AB (3 times)
GBHA (3 times)
1975 A procedure for the simultaneous demonstration of neurosecretory and mucosubstances in tissue sections.
28  AF group
(28 times)
Cardiology
(17 times)
SR (9 times)
LA (5 times)
CABG (3 times)
2000 Medium-term results after the modified Cox/Maze procedure combined with other cardiac surgery.
29  apical foramen
(28 times)
Dentistry
(24 times)
EALs (5 times)
AC (3 times)
CBCT (3 times)
2002 [The effect of instrumentation on original apical foramen shape using steel vs niti rotatory: computerized analysis].
30  aqueous fraction
(28 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
EAF (6 times)
BF (5 times)
CF (4 times)
1982 Effects of soluble fraction of porcine tissue on the aggregation of human blood platelets.
31  alcoholic fermentation
(26 times)
Microbiology
(14 times)
MLF (12 times)
LAB (5 times)
AAF (2 times)
2006 Effect of simultaneous inoculation with yeast and bacteria on fermentation kinetics and key wine parameters of cool-climate chardonnay.
32  active fraction
(22 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
CF (2 times)
DLA (2 times)
REE (2 times)
1995 Is measured energy expenditure correlated to injury severity score in major trauma patients?.
33  accumulation factor
(20 times)
Environmental Health
(15 times)
HRI (4 times)
Cd (2 times)
EF (2 times)
1991 Cadmium kinetics in freshwater clams. V. Cadmium-copper interaction in metal accumulation by Anodonta cygnea and characterization of the metal-binding protein.
34  aerobic fitness
(19 times)
Sports Medicine
(7 times)
BMI (4 times)
PA (4 times)
Ad (2 times)
1990 Aerobic fitness, psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress.
35  actin filament
(18 times)
Cell Biology
(7 times)
MT (5 times)
MTs (2 times)
SCs (2 times)
1986 Mechanisms of cytoskeletal regulation: modulation of aortic endothelial cell protein band 4.1 by the extracellular matrix.
36  aggregation factor
(18 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AR (5 times)
mAb (2 times)
esp (1 time)
1983 Two Ca2+ functions are demonstrated by the substitution of specific divalent and lanthanide cations for the Ca2+ required by the aggregation factor complex from the marine sponge, Microciona prolifera.
37  allantoic fluid
(16 times)
Virology
(5 times)
HA (3 times)
AIV (2 times)
CAM (2 times)
1980 Infectious bronchitis agar-gel precipitin test--use of infected allantoic fluid as antigen.
38  Atlantic Forest
(16 times)
Molecular Biology
(8 times)
Bd (1 time)
CAA (1 time)
CER (1 time)
2011 The genetic effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes over a tropical latitudinal gradient: diversification of an Atlantic Forest passerine.
39  acid fuchsin
(15 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
FTIR (2 times)
HSP (2 times)
MB (2 times)
1984 [Comparison of acid fuchsin (AF) staining and hematoxylin-basic fuchsin-picric acid (HBFP) staining for demonstration of early myocardial infarction].
40  acid-fast
(15 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
AR (2 times)
IFA (2 times)
mAb (2 times)
1989 Comparison of conventional staining methods and monoclonal antibody-based methods for Cryptosporidium oocyst detection.
41  Air Force
(15 times)
Military Medicine
(6 times)
CNS (2 times)
DSC (2 times)
JP (2 times)
1997 Comparison of acceleration subjects to other populations: spinal anomaly distribution.
42  Aminoflavone
(15 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
AhR (6 times)
TNBC (4 times)
EGFR (2 times)
2006 Urinary metabolite profiling reveals CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of NSC686288 (aminoflavone).
43  albiflorin
(14 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
PF (10 times)
TNF-alpha (4 times)
ELISA (2 times)
2012 Preparative purification of peoniflorin and albiflorin from peony rhizome using macroporous resin and medium-pressure liquid chromatography.
44  anchoring fibrils
(14 times)
Dermatology
(6 times)
HS-RDEB (3 times)
DEB (2 times)
EBD (2 times)
1977 The human cutaneous basement membrane--anchoring fibril complex: preparation and ultrastructure.
45  anterior fontanelle
(14 times)
Pediatrics
(9 times)
PF (3 times)
MF (2 times)
AEDs (1 time)
1988 Anterior fontanelle size in Arab children: standards for appropriately grown full term neonates.
46  asialofetuin
(14 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
ASGPR (6 times)
DiI (2 times)
DOTAP (2 times)
1983 Effects of hyperthermia on plasma glycoprotein catabolism by the isolated perfused rat liver.
47  1,5-anhydro-D-fructose
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AG (4 times)
AFGOS (1 time)
AKR1E1 (1 time)
1996 NMR of all-carbon-13 sugars: an application in development of an analytical method for a novel natural sugar, 1,5-anhydrofructose.
48  acceleration factor
(13 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(9 times)
SNR (6 times)
CNR (3 times)
CAIPIRINHA (2 times)
2007 Parallel imaging of knee cartilage at 3 Tesla.
49  Acne fulminans
(13 times)
Dermatology
(7 times)
AC (1 time)
SNA (1 time)
1989 Osteomyelitis-like bone lesions in acne fulminans.
50  acriflavine
(13 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
AO (3 times)
CV (2 times)
5-ALA (1 time)
1972 Loss of lactose metabolism in lactic streptococci.
51  area fraction
(13 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
DCM (3 times)
DIA (3 times)
CV (2 times)
2002 Digital image analysis system for the quantification of infiltrates and cell adhesion molecules in inflammatory cardiomyopathy.
52  assessment factor
(13 times)
Environmental Health
(8 times)
PNEC (4 times)
SSD (4 times)
2,4,6-TCP (2 times)
2002 A framework for prioritizing fragrance materials for aquatic risk assessment.
53  atretic follicles
(13 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
FGP (4 times)
GSI (3 times)
LSGP (3 times)
1986 Effect of melatonin on oocyte growth and recruitment, hypophyseal gonadotrophs, and oviduct of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis maintained under natural photoperiod during the prebreeding phase.
54  advanced fibrosis
(12 times)
Gastroenterology
(7 times)
SF (3 times)
APRI (2 times)
AUROC (2 times)
1979 Histologic subclassification of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's disease.
55  anal fissure
(12 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
CA (1 time)
EMG (1 time)
Fs (1 time)
2002 Oral lacidipine in the treatment of anal fissure.
56  animal fat
(12 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
CLA (2 times)
CS (2 times)
DHA (2 times)
1983 The influence of premature weaning and the nature of the fat in the diet during development on adult plasma lipids and adipose cellularity in pair-fed rats.
57  anthocyanin fraction
(12 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(8 times)
alpha-SMA (2 times)
CF (2 times)
DMN (2 times)
2007 Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.
58  arterial filter
(12 times)
Transplantation
(5 times)
CPB (9 times)
OX (6 times)
CR (3 times)
1989 Quantitation of platelet loss with indium-111 labeled platelets in a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator and arterial filter during extracorporeal circulation in a pig model.
59  adaptive filtering
(11 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(6 times)
EEG (2 times)
BL (1 time)
EAFs (1 time)
1990 The active fitting (AF) programme of hearing aids: a psychological perspective.
60  adventitial fibroblasts
(11 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
VSMC (3 times)
OPN (2 times)
PVAT (2 times)
2002 Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 signaling induces osteopontin expression and vascular smooth muscle cell-dependent adventitial fibroblast migration in vitro.
61  after fertilization
(11 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
IAA (2 times)
NPA (2 times)
HTE (1 time)
1983 Ontogeny of the immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The appearance of antigenic determinants on lymphoid cells detected by mouse anti-carp thymocyte monoclonal antibodies.
62  airflow
(11 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(8 times)
SAHS (5 times)
RH (3 times)
AHI (2 times)
2005 The controlled-environment chamber: a new mouse model of dry eye.
63  amplify-and-forward
(11 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(9 times)
DF (4 times)
BER (3 times)
SNR (3 times)
2013 Amplify-and-forward cooperative diversity for green UWB-based WBSNs.
64  Attenuation Factor
(11 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
24-HDR (1 time)
3DCRT (1 time)
AFT (1 time)
2005 Sorption and leaching potential of acidic herbicides in Brazilian soils.
65  Alexa Fluor
(10 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
FRET (3 times)
CTB (2 times)
BDA (1 time)
2003 Projections from primary somatosensory cortex to the neostriatum: the role of somatotopic continuity in corticostriatal convergence.
66  anatomic form
(10 times)
Dentistry
(5 times)
MD (5 times)
CM (3 times)
MI (3 times)
2000 Detection of a transitional ion concentration zone during electronic measurement of root canal length: a study in vitro.
67  ascofuranone
(10 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(4 times)
DOCA (1 time)
FFA (1 time)
HAT (1 time)
1981 Unusual concentration of urine and prevention of polydipsia by fungal prenylphenols in DOCA hypertensive rats.
68  activity fronts
(9 times)
Gastroenterology
(7 times)
MMC (4 times)
CLA (1 time)
EM (1 time)
1983 Somatostatin and the interdigestive migrating motor complex in man.
69  adhesive factor
(9 times)
Cell Biology
(5 times)
FN (2 times)
CM (1 time)
PAGE (1 time)
1975 Study of the specificity of the action of adhesive factors isolated from the liver and lungs of adult mice and rats.
70  anal furunculosis
(9 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
GSD (4 times)
CD (2 times)
MHC (2 times)
2006 The role of surgery in the management of canine anal furunculosis. A review of the literature and a retrospective evaluation of treatment by surgical resection in 51 dogs.
71  angiogenic factor
(9 times)
Urology
(2 times)
CAM (3 times)
VEGF (3 times)
BPH (2 times)
1987 Angiogenic activity in human wound fluid.
72  application factor
(9 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
AsA (1 time)
DWC (1 time)
EPA (1 time)
1990 Thyrotropin potentiation of insulin-like growth factor-I dependent deoxribonucleic acid synthesis in FRTL-5 cells: mediation by an autocrine amplification factor(s).
73  artificial feeding
(9 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
BF (3 times)
DHF (2 times)
CF (1 time)
1980 [Enteral nutrition by tube in burn patients].
74  augmented feedback
(9 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
EF (3 times)
IF (2 times)
1RM (1 time)
2009 Changes in bar path kinematics and kinetics through use of summary feedback in power snatch training.
75  adult females
(8 times)
Zoology
(2 times)
AM (3 times)
PAAM (2 times)
BOMAB (1 time)
2001 Fecundity of Hoplopleura scapteromydis (Phthiraptera: Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae), ectoparasite of Scapteromys aquaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in Rio de La Plata marshlands, Argentina.
76  alcohol-fed
(8 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(2 times)
PF (5 times)
ALD (3 times)
AB (1 time)
1996 In utero exposure to ethanol alters mRNA for insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in placenta and lung of fetal rats.
77  amentoflavone
(8 times)
Biology
(3 times)
AD (1 time)
AMPK (1 time)
HCC (1 time)
2012 Naturally Occurring Cytotoxic [3'→8″]-Biflavonoids from Podocarpus nakaii.
78  anal fistula
(8 times)
Gastroenterology
(5 times)
AM (1 time)
CCK-8 (1 time)
CD (1 time)
2001 Quality of life of patients after surgical treatment of anal fistula; the role of anal manometry.
79  angina frequency
(8 times)
Complementary Therapies
(4 times)
SAQ (7 times)
AS (5 times)
PL (5 times)
2009 [A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of Xuefu Zhuyu Capsule on short-term quality of life in unstable anginal patients with blood-stasis syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention].
80  atrial flutter or fibrillation
(8 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
AV (2 times)
SVT (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1981 [Atrial arrhythmias after surgical repair of an atrial septal defect (secundum-type). Six years follow-up in adults (author's transl)].
81  fibrillation and flutter
(8 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
ED (1 time)
ELR (1 time)
HR (1 time)
1998 Prevalence of atrial fibrillation and eligibility for anticoagulants in the community.
82  accessory function
(7 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(4 times)
AI (3 times)
AM (3 times)
IL-1 (2 times)
1983 Leukemia cell lines can replace monocytes for mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte responses: this accessory function is dependent upon their differentiation stage.
83  adaptive functioning
(7 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
AFAT (1 time)
CI (1 time)
EFs (1 time)
2011 Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.
84  allele fraction
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
NGS (4 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
PFS (2 times)
2014 Validation of a next-generation sequencing assay for clinical molecular oncology.
85  angiofibromas
(7 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
FLPDL (1 time)
FP (1 time)
QOL (1 time)
1994 CO2, argon, and pulsed dye laser treatment of angiofibromas.
86  anionic ferritin
(7 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
CF (7 times)
DCT (1 time)
HCF (1 time)
1979 Contributions of lipids and proteins to the surface charge of membranes. An electron microscopy study with cationized and anionized ferritin.
87  antifibrinolytic
(7 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
TXA (3 times)
EBL (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
2005 Antifibrinolytic use and bleeding during surgery on the descending thoracic aorta: a multivariate analysis.
88  antral follicle
(7 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(7 times)
OR (2 times)
BC (1 time)
BCG (1 time)
2001 Antral follicle counting in predicting the retrieved oocyte number after ovarian hyperstimulation.
89  Aurantii fructus
(7 times)
Biology
(3 times)
AFI (2 times)
GC-MS (2 times)
HPLC (2 times)
2007 Anti-ischemic effect of Aurantii Fructus on contractile dysfunction of ischemic and reperfused rat heart.
90  autofluorescence imaging
(7 times)
Ophthalmology
(6 times)
OCT (2 times)
RPE (2 times)
ARMD (1 time)
2002 Autofluorescence and 5-aminolevulinic acid induced fluorescence diagnosis of penile carcinoma -- new techniques to monitor Nd:YAG laser therapy.
91  autofocusing
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
AS (1 time)
HD-ACF (1 time)
NGS (1 time)
1991 Autofocus system for a surgical CO(2) laser.
92  axial force
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(5 times)
SEMS (2 times)
SEMSs (2 times)
AAAF (1 time)
1997 Jump distance of dance landings influencing internal joint forces: I. Axial forces.
93  Absorbed fraction
(6 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(2 times)
SAF (2 times)
CSDA (1 time)
CT (1 time)
1989 [Estimation of the energy fraction emitted by alpha particles in the mineralized part of trabecular bone which is absorbed in the bone marrow].
94  access flap
(6 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
AgP (2 times)
HD (2 times)
PPD (2 times)
2007 Nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy in single-rooted teeth.
95  acetofenate
(6 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
ROS (2 times)
AF-A (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
2008 Enantioselectivity in zebrafish embryo toxicity of the insecticide acetofenate.
96  adrenal failure
(6 times)
Therapeutics
(2 times)
CAF (1 time)
CON (1 time)
DHEA (1 time)
1989 [Clinico-functional characteristics of minimally pronounced aortal insufficiency].
97  aetiologic fractions
(6 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
AC (1 time)
ACs (1 time)
BP (1 time)
1996 Naevi and pigmentary characteristics as risk factors for melanoma in a high-risk population: a case-control study in New South Wales, Australia.
98  afferent facilitation
(6 times)
Nervous System
(3 times)
MEPs (4 times)
SAI (4 times)
TMS (3 times)
2012 Loss of short-latency afferent inhibition and emergence of afferent facilitation following neuromuscular electrical stimulation.
99  alkaloid fraction
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
ADA (1 time)
AhR (1 time)
CE (1 time)
2000 Mechanism of the hypotensive action of Rhazya stricta leaf extract in rats.
100  alleged father
(6 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
HLA (1 time)
PI (1 time)
POA (1 time)
1975 Dating patterns, sexual relationships and use of contraceptives of 700 unwed mothers during a two year period following delivery.