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Abbreviation: AFR
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Long forms: 107

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
ascorbate free radical
(58 times)
Biochemistry
(21 times)
ESR (13 times)
ASC (6 times)
EPR (5 times)
1988 Ascorbate free radical reductase and ascorbate redox cycle in the human lens.
animal facility rearing
(35 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
MS (21 times)
PND (5 times)
MS15 (4 times)
2001 Development of adult ethanol preference and anxiety as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long Evans rats and reversal with antidepressant treatment.
ablative fractional resurfacing
(25 times)
General Surgery
(12 times)
FP (2 times)
HSP (2 times)
MAL (2 times)
2007 In vivo histological evaluation of a novel ablative fractional resurfacing device.
adverse food reactions
(22 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(18 times)
ED (3 times)
FA-SLIT (2 times)
CADESI (1 time)
2006 A retrospective analysis of case series using home-prepared and chicken hydrolysate diets in the diagnosis of adverse food reactions in 181 pruritic dogs.
African
(21 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(3 times)
EUR (12 times)
AMR (6 times)
EAS (6 times)
2000 Cord blood apolipoprotein-E genotype distribution and plasma lipid indices in newborns of different ethnicity.
atrial fibrillatory rate
(19 times)
Cardiology
(18 times)
AF (14 times)
fpm (5 times)
aRPs and aRPf (3 times)
1985 Biphasic effect of a gradual rise in plasma calcium concentration on vulnerability to fibrillation.
African Region
(18 times)
Public Health
(13 times)
WHO (14 times)
SIAs (6 times)
WPV (5 times)
1996 Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Eastern Africa, 1988-1995.
annual failure rate
(16 times)
Dentistry
(15 times)
GDPs (2 times)
SSC (2 times)
1SEa's (1 time)
2013 Long-term survival of calcium phosphate-coated dental implants: a meta-analytical approach to the clinical literature.
age at first reproduction
(11 times)
Biology
(8 times)
LRS (3 times)
ALR (2 times)
DCA (1 time)
2002 Life history changes in the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger induced by low concentrations of sediment-bound cadmium.
10  average flow rate
(9 times)
Urology
(3 times)
MFR (5 times)
BPH (4 times)
IPSS (3 times)
1989 [Studies of the new parameter based on the urinary flow rate curve in benign prostatic hypertrophy].
11  anthracnose fruit rot
(8 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
BFR (1 time)
BPH (1 time)
FISA (1 time)
1997 Efficacy and Economics of Management Strategies to Control Anthracnose Fruit Rot in Processing Tomatoes in the Midwest.
12  Accountability for Reasonableness
(6 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
REACT (3 times)
CHMT (1 time)
FGD (1 time)
2010 Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in Zambia.
13  air flow rate
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
AP (1 time)
AVE (1 time)
COD (1 time)
2014 Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.
14  albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio
(6 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
OS (3 times)
ALB (2 times)
C-index (2 times)
2017 Prognostic value of a novel FPR biomarker in patients with surgical stage II and III gastric cancer.
15  alveolar fluid reabsorption
(6 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
AECs (3 times)
ACF (1 time)
AEC (1 time)
2006 Beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation and adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase prevent the hypoxia-mediated decrease in Na,K-ATPase and alveolar fluid reabsorption.
16  average urinary flow rate
(6 times)
Urology
(2 times)
IPSS (4 times)
BPH (3 times)
IPSS-QoL (2 times)
1998 Clinical comparison of selective and non-selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonists for bladder outlet obstruction associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: studies on tamsulosin and terazosin in Chinese patients. The Chinese Tamsulosin Study Group.
17  adaptive frequency response
(5 times)
Audiology
(3 times)
AI (1 time)
SPL (1 time)
1990 Evaluation of an articulation-index based model for predicting the effects of adaptive frequency response hearing aids.
18  aortic flow rate
(4 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
CFR (3 times)
HR (3 times)
ACEI (1 time)
1978 Cardioplegic solutions for myocardial preservation: analysis of hypothermic arrest, potassium arrest, and procaine arrest.
19  Autofluorescence Reader
(4 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
AGEs (2 times)
AF (1 time)
AU (1 time)
2004 Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation.
20  1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
1,5-AF (1 time)
DD (1 time)
GFO (1 time)
2006 Crystal structure of NADP(H)-dependent 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase from Sinorhizobium morelense at 2.2 A resolution: construction of a NADH-accepting mutant and its application in rare sugar synthesis.
21  abdominal fat rate
(3 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
ALT (1 time)
aMHE (1 time)
AST (1 time)
2015 Correlation of abdominal fat ratio with hepatic CT enhancement.
22  Africa
(3 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
EAS (1 time)
eQTL (1 time)
ETEC (1 time)
1994 Breastfeeding in Africa and the Latin American and Caribbean region: the potential role of urbanization.
23  alternating fitting residue
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(3 times)
EJCR (2 times)
ATLD (1 time)
DNR (1 time)
2006 Determination of daunomycin in human plasma and urine by using an interference-free analysis of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence data with second-order calibration.
24  aqueous flare response
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
NO (2 times)
PACAP (2 times)
1975 The inhibiting effect of indomethacin on the disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye.
25  Atrial Flow Regulator
(3 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
BNP (1 time)
PAH (1 time)
2017 Atrial septostomy with a predefined diameter using a novel occlutech atrial flow regulator improves symptoms and cardiac index in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.
26  average firing rate
(3 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
BNP (1 time)
CAD (1 time)
CG (1 time)
2004 Relationship between plasma BNP levels and left ventricular diastolic function as measured by radionuclide ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease.
27  Aberrant facial nerve regeneration
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
MRD (1 time)
2004 Aberrant facial nerve regeneration (AFR): an under-recognized cause of ptosis.
28  acid-fast rods
(2 times)
Biology
(2 times)
--- 2006 Distribution of mycobacteria in clinically healthy ornamental fish and their aquarium environment.
29  aerobic fluorescence recovery
(2 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
GFP (1 time)
HGT (1 time)
MGEs (1 time)
2005 Rapid detection of a gfp-marked Enterobacter aerogenes under anaerobic conditions by aerobic fluorescence recovery.
30  AFR/DMSO
(2 times)
Perinatal Care
(2 times)
CS (2 times)
ESR (2 times)
UA (2 times)
2012 New evaluation of fetal oxidative stress: measurement of the umbilical cord blood dimethyl sulfate-induced ascorbyl free radical by an electron spin resonance method.
31  Air Force Reserve
(2 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(2 times)
ANG (2 times)
AD (1 time)
USAF (1 time)
1987 Retrospective cohort analysis of class A mishaps in aviators evaluated at USAFSAM: 1957-1984.
32  air-fuel ratio
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
TRQ (2 times)
NSLMC (1 time)
2008 Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.
33  amplitude-frequency responses
(2 times)
Technology
(1 time)
NA (1 time)
Rpc (1 time)
SHAM (1 time)
1996 [Experience in developing devices for medical use exemplified by the electronic stethophonoendoscope].
34  amyloid-forming-region
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
PBC (2 times)
NT-Als (1 time)
2014 The peptide-binding cavity is essential for Als3-mediated adhesion of Candida albicans to human cells.
35  anaerobic flotation reactor
(2 times)
Technology
(1 time)
CMS (1 time)
COD (1 time)
DCW (1 time)
2014 Experiences with anaerobic treatment of fat-containing food waste liquids: two full scale studies with a novel anaerobic flotation reactor.
36  anti-fibroblast reaction
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
MLC (2 times)
CTL (1 time)
HC (1 time)
1975 Heterogeneity in the development of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro revealed by sensitivity to hydrocortisone.
37  any first recurrence
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
LRR (2 times)
PMRT (2 times)
DM (1 time)
2017 Incorporating Risk Factors to Identify the Indication of Post-mastectomy Radiotherapy in N1 Breast Cancer Treated with Optimal Systemic Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis in Korea (KROG 14-23).
38  ASCUS, favor reactive
(2 times)
Obstetrics
(1 time)
ASCUS (2 times)
AFD (1 time)
AFHS (1 time)
1999 Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: A cytohistological study in a colposcopy clinic.
39  autofluorescence
(2 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
AGEs (2 times)
AU (1 time)
COPD (1 time)
2014 Plasma advanced glycation end-products and skin autofluorescence are increased in COPD.
40  aberrant facial nerve regeneration synkinesis
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
BDS (1 time)
BEB (1 time)
DME (1 time)
2019 Long-term outcome of flexible onabotulinum toxin A treatment in facial dystonia.
41  absolute F reticulocytes
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
FC (1 time)
FR (1 time)
Hb (1 time)
1989 Effect of hydroxyurea on the rheological properties of sickle erythrocytes in vivo.
42  absolute fracture risk
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
BMD (1 time)
CKD (1 time)
DXA (1 time)
2017 Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, the trabecular bone score and quantitative computed tomography in the evaluation of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders.
43  accelerated fractionated radiation
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CTC (1 time)
GTV (1 time)
LENT (1 time)
2006 Visual outcome of accelerated fractionated radiation for advanced sinonasal malignancies employing photons/protons.
44  acceleration of flow rate
(1 time)
Urology
(1 time)
CDP (1 time)
UPP (1 time)
USI (1 time)
2004 Preoperative pressure-flow studies: useful variables to predict the outcome of continence surgery.
45  accumulated flower ratios
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2006 Hyperspectral characteristics of canopy components and structure for phenological assessment of an invasive weed.
46  achieved flow rate
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
CRBSI (1 time)
DLC (1 time)
TLC (1 time)
2003 A multicenter, prospective, randomized, comparative evaluation of dual- versus triple-lumen catheters for hemodialysis and apheresis in 485 patients.
47  acoustic focal region
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
BFR (1 time)
HIFU (1 time)
US (1 time)
2003 Study of a "biological focal region" of high-intensity focused ultrasound.
48  Action Familiale Rwandaise
(1 time)
Family Planning Services
(1 time)
LAM (1 time)
1996 An assessment of the nine-month lactational amenorrhea method (MAMA-9) in Rwanda.
49  acute fever and rash
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
--- 1995 An approach to acute fever and rash (AFR) in the adult.
50  acute functional reactivation
(1 time)
Psychology
(1 time)
DCS (1 time)
2015 Acute functional reactivation of the language network during awake intraoperative brain mapping.
51  adaptive frame rate
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CCE (1 time)
2014 [Clinical practice using colon capsule endoscopy].
52  adaptive frequency response hearing aid
(1 time)
Audiology
(1 time)
--- 1992 Performance with an adaptive frequency response hearing aid in a sample of elderly hearing-impaired listeners.
53  adaptive-frequency-range
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
CRPS (1 time)
HRV (1 time)
2013 Effects of long-term dharma-chan meditation on cardiorespiratory synchronization and heart rate variability behavior.
54  adiabatic fountain resonance
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2001 Superfluid fraction of (3)He-(4)He mixtures confined at 0.0483 microm between silicon wafers.
55  adjusted farrowing rate
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
AIs (1 time)
EXP 1 (1 time)
Exp. 2 (1 time)
2016 Single fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts and weaned sows using pLH at estrus onset administered through vulvar submucosal route.
56  adolescent fertility rate
(1 time)
Public Health
(1 time)
IPW (1 time)
2017 The health benefits of secondary education in adolescents and young adults: An international analysis in 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries from 1990 to 2013.
57  adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
COX (1 time)
mPFC (1 time)
MS (1 time)
2018 Why are maternally separated females inflexible? Brain activity pattern of COx and c-Fos.
58  Adverse Reactions to Food
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 2019 Epidemiologic studies about food allergy and food sensitization in tropical countries. Results and limitations.
59  affine registration
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
beta (1 time)
DCT (1 time)
GN (1 time)
2014 Online spatial normalization for real-time FMRI.
60  African descent
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
AMD (1 time)
CFH (1 time)
EUR (1 time)
2019 Association of age-related macular degeneration with complement activation products, smoking, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in South Carolinians of European and African descent.
61  African heritage
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
CAU (1 time)
2012 Low sex ratio in children of professional basketball players in Spain.
62  African Region of WHO
(1 time)
Public Health
(1 time)
AFP (1 time)
NIDs (1 time)
WHO (1 time)
2001 Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--West and Central Africa, 1999-2000.
63  African Regional Office
(1 time)
Public Health
(1 time)
WHO (1 time)
1999 Progress toward measles elimination--Southern Africa, 1996-1998.
64  African-Americans
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
EUR (1 time)
2009 Signatures of natural selection are not uniform across genes of innate immune system, but purifying selection is the dominant signature.
65  after flap reflection
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
BFR (1 time)
2017 Cortical lamina technique: A therapeutic approach for lateral ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration.
66  Air Force Regulation
(1 time)
Aerospace Medicine
(1 time)
CDE (1 time)
Tre (1 time)
1991 Limitations to heavy work at 21 degrees C of personnel wearing the U.S. military chemical defense ensemble.
67  air mixture flow rate
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
EBRT (1 time)
HFBR (1 time)
RE (1 time)
2012 A horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) technology for the removal of methane and hydrogen sulphide at low temperatures.
68  Alb-to-Fib ratio
(1 time)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
(1 time)
ALB (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
dNLR (1 time)
2019 Circulating CEA-dNLR score predicts clinical outcome of metastatic gallbladder cancer patient.
69  alcohol flush reaction
(1 time)
Substance-Related Disorders
(1 time)
ALDH (1 time)
1997 Acute reactions to alcohol.
70  alkaloid fraction
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 2010 Protective effects of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fractions of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation.
71  alkaloid fraction isolated from Ruta graveolens
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 2013 Oral administration of alkaloid fraction from Ruta graveolens inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
72  allergic fungal rhinosinusitis are non-invasive
(1 time)
Otolaryngology
(1 time)
FB (1 time)
2018 Fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery.
73  Altered fractionated radiotherapy
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CBT (1 time)
HFT (1 time)
NPC (1 time)
1997 Acute toxicities and feasibility of altered fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
74  Alternate forms reliability
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
BAM-COG (1 time)
CV (1 time)
DV (1 time)
2013 Puzzling with online games (BAM-COG): reliability, validity, and feasibility of an online self-monitor for cognitive performance in aging adults.
75  alternative fuels and raw materials
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
LCA (1 time)
2009 Model for cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of clinker production.
76  Alu-family repeat
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
--- 1987 Alu-family repeat binding protein from HeLa cells which interacts with regulatory region of SV40 virus genome.
77  American Falls Reservoir
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 1979 Mercury, arsenic, and cadmium in fish, water, and sediment of American Falls Reservoir, Idaho, 1974.
78  amplitude to frequency ratio
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
HF (1 time)
HH (1 time)
2009 [The effects of high frequency signal investigated in a neuron model].
79  Amplitude-Frequency-Reactivity
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
CRS-R (1 time)
MCS (1 time)
UWS (1 time)
2015 EEG predictors of outcome in patients with disorders of consciousness admitted for intensive rehabilitation.
80  amputation-free rates
(1 time)
Stem Cells
(1 time)
ABI (1 time)
aBMC (1 time)
CLI (1 time)
2017 Safety and Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate in the Treatment of Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia Utilizing a Rapid Point-of-Care System.
81  Angular filter refractometry
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
--- 2017 Angular filter refractometry analysis using simulated annealing.
82  Animal fat residues
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
AV (1 time)
FAMEs (1 time)
2013 Optimization of biodiesel production from animal fat residue in wastewater using response surface methodology.
83  anion free radical
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
AIM (1 time)
CPET (1 time)
EDA (1 time)
2010 The capture of H and OH radicals by vitamin C and implications for the new source for the formation of the anion free radical.
84  Annual fatality rates
(1 time)
Military Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2016 Estimating the risk of a scuba diving fatality in Australia.
85  antegrade fenestration and re-entry
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
ADR (1 time)
CTO (1 time)
PCI (1 time)
2018 Antegrade fenestration and re-entry: A new controlled subintimal technique for chronic total occlusion recanalization.
86  antibiotics with facilitated referral
(1 time)
Gynecology
(1 time)
LUNESP (1 time)
NRP (1 time)
TBAs (1 time)
2012 Training Zambian traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project (LUNESP).
87  antiferromagnetic resonance
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2017 Asymmetric Splitting of an Antiferromagnetic Resonance via Quartic Exchange Interactions in Multiferroic Hexagonal HoMnO_{3}.
88  application of formalin to the rectal mucosa
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
APC (1 time)
CRP (1 time)
2008 Efficacy of argon plasma coagulation compared to topical formalin application for chronic radiation proctopathy.
89  apprehended free-roaming
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2017 Survey of intestinal parasitism in dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area.
90  aqueous humor flow rate
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
ANP (1 time)
DYN (1 time)
IOP (1 time)
2002 Dynorphin modulates ocular hydrodynamics and releases atrial natriuretic peptide via activation of kappa-Opioid receptors.
91  arc-flash and fire-resistant
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CE (1 time)
2015 The Influence of Arc-Flash and Fire-Resistant Clothing on Thermoregulation during Exercise in the Heat.
92  arterial flow regulator
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
--- 2015 Arterial flow regulator enables transplantation and growth of human fetal kidneys in rats.
93  ascorbate and its free radical
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1998 Redox regulation of cAMP levels by ascorbate in 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D3-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells.
94  ascorbate free radical reductase
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
CAT (1 time)
CPX (1 time)
GPx (1 time)
1984 Genetically determined conidial longevity is positively correlated with superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and ascorbate free radical reductase activities in Neurospora crassa.
95  aspiration flow rate
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
OVD (1 time)
US (1 time)
2006 Thermal study of bare tips with various system parameters and incision sizes.
96  assured fitness return
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2006 Transactional skew and assured fitness return models fail to predict patterns of cooperation in wasps.
97  Astrakhan fever rickettsia
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
ISFR (1 time)
ITTR (1 time)
MLST (1 time)
2005 Proposal to create subspecies of Rickettsia conorii based on multi-locus sequence typing and an emended description of Rickettsia conorii.
98  atrial fibrillation
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
GH (1 time)
MH (1 time)
2013 Comparison of the health related quality of life of patients following mitral valve surgical procedures in the 6-months follow-up: a prospective study.
99  atrial fibrillation recurrence
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
PWD (1 time)
RFCA (1 time)
ROC (1 time)
2017 Prolonged P-wave duration is associated with atrial fibrillation recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
100  atrial filling rate
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
FS (1 time)
HCM (1 time)
LVDd (1 time)
1987 [Cardiac function and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].