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Abbreviation: AI
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
artificial insemination
(1266 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(906 times)
CL (46 times)
CIDR (39 times)
P/AI (39 times)
1974 Vibriosis: demonstration of Vibrio fetus and Vibrio bubulus organisms in preputial fluid by immunofluorescence and cultural techniques.
apoptotic index
(975 times)
Neoplasms
(265 times)
TUNEL (146 times)
PI (130 times)
MVD (57 times)
1978 The size of the aortic arch: a suitable criterion for differentiating between congenital heart diseases with left-to-right shunt?
aromatase inhibitor
(569 times)
Neoplasms
(325 times)
ER (64 times)
TAM (38 times)
BMD (32 times)
1994 Effect of blocking oestrogen synthesis with a new generation aromatase inhibitor CGS 16949A on follicular maturation induced by pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin in the immature rat.
avian influenza
(520 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(256 times)
HPAI (90 times)
HI (55 times)
HA (53 times)
1975 Further studies on the adjuvant effect of an interferon inducer (BRL 5907) on Newcastle disease and avian influenza inactivated vaccines.
artificial intelligence
(438 times)
Medical Informatics
(49 times)
ML (18 times)
ANN (15 times)
ANNs (9 times)
0 Future Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: What Can We Learn from Monsters in Popular Culture?
augmentation index
(358 times)
Vascular Diseases
(139 times)
PWV (118 times)
BP (56 times)
FMD (27 times)
1996 Validation of carotid artery tonometry as a means of estimating augmentation index of ascending aortic pressure.
auditory cortex
(327 times)
Neurology
(191 times)
CF (27 times)
AAF (26 times)
FM (15 times)
1974 Neural encoding of sound location: an electrophysiological study in auditory cortex (AI) of the cat using free field stimuli.
amelogenesis imperfecta
(291 times)
Dentistry
(160 times)
ENAM (15 times)
SEM (12 times)
ADAI (6 times)
1979 Amelogenesis imperfecta among Israeli Jews and the description of a new type of local hypoplastic autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta.
aortic insufficiency
(286 times)
Cardiology
(172 times)
AS (46 times)
AVR (41 times)
LVAD (29 times)
1974 Cardiovascular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis.
10  American Indian
(281 times)
Public Health
(56 times)
AN (22 times)
CI (11 times)
AA (10 times)
1989 Using 1990 national MCH objectives to assess health status and risk in an American Indian community.
11  adrenal insufficiency
(265 times)
Endocrinology
(112 times)
ACTH (32 times)
HPA (18 times)
GC (15 times)
1988 Evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immediately after pituitary adenomectomy: is perioperative steroid therapy necessary?
12  active ingredient
(247 times)
Environmental Health
(80 times)
EC (9 times)
SC (6 times)
AChE (5 times)
1977 Brain cholinesterase activities of birds from forests sprayed with trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil).
13  allelic imbalance
(241 times)
Neoplasms
(157 times)
LOH (34 times)
MSI (19 times)
PCR (15 times)
1993 Genetic alterations of the TP53 gene, p53 protein expression and HPV infection in primary cervical carcinomas.
14  angiotensin I
(238 times)
Pharmacology
(84 times)
AII (116 times)
ACE (78 times)
PRA (27 times)
1974 Renal hypertension in rats immunized against angiotensin I and angiotensin II.
15  apnea index
(233 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(49 times)
AHI (72 times)
OSA (47 times)
OSAS (42 times)
1983 Respiratory pauses in normal prematurely born infants. A comparison with full-term newborns.
16  avidity index
(229 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(31 times)
CI (29 times)
LN (14 times)
IgG (12 times)
1980 An index of inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease.
17  atherogenic index
(173 times)
Medicine
(22 times)
TC (72 times)
TG (63 times)
HDL-C (51 times)
1981 [Genetic analysis of the correlation of the cholesterol concentrations of blood plasma lipoproteins].
18  adequate intake
(170 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(90 times)
EAR (39 times)
UL (26 times)
RDA (25 times)
1997 Effect of calcium supplementation is greater in prepubertal girls with low calcium intake.
19  anterior insula
(161 times)
Neurology
(45 times)
ACC (27 times)
fMRI (23 times)
dACC (20 times)
1997 The autonomic-related cortex: pathology in Alzheimer's disease.
20  asymmetry index
(157 times)
Neurology
(45 times)
SPECT (20 times)
MRI (14 times)
PET (11 times)
1986 [Disruptions of hemispheric blood flow and deep cerebral hematomas].
21  androgen-independent
(141 times)
Neoplasms
(66 times)
AD (51 times)
AR (41 times)
PCa (24 times)
1985 Phenotypic stability of mouse mammary tumor cells cultured on collagen gels.
22  adrenal incidentaloma
(102 times)
Endocrinology
(61 times)
SH (17 times)
CT (9 times)
SCS (9 times)
1997 Serum markers of bone and collagen turnover in patients with Cushing's syndrome and in subjects with adrenal incidentalomas.
23  acetabular index
(100 times)
Orthopedics
(74 times)
DDH (35 times)
CEA (14 times)
CE (11 times)
1990 Acetabular development in congenital dislocation on the hip.
24  anal incontinence
(82 times)
Gynecology
(37 times)
UI (21 times)
QOL (10 times)
OASIS (9 times)
1992 New grading and scoring for anal incontinence. Evaluation of 335 patients.
25  autoinducer
(58 times)
Microbiology
(21 times)
QS (31 times)
AHL (6 times)
AHLs (3 times)
1996 Purification and characterization of LasR as a DNA-binding protein.
26  arthritis index
(52 times)
Complementary Therapies
(17 times)
CIA (26 times)
AA (14 times)
MTX (14 times)
1975 Physiopathological aspect of Glynn's type of experimental arthritis.
27  articulation index
(50 times)
Audiology
(45 times)
STI (5 times)
AV (2 times)
NI (2 times)
1980 A physical method for measuring speech-transmission quality.
28  antibody index
(46 times)
Neurology
(20 times)
CSF (24 times)
MS (12 times)
LNB (9 times)
0 Improvement of diagnostic approach to Lyme neuroborreliosis in children by using recombinant antigens in detection of intrathecally produced IgM/IgG.
29  aggregation index
(45 times)
Vascular Diseases
(14 times)
RBC (14 times)
EI (9 times)
LORCA (6 times)
1979 [Sensitivity of human and pigeon erythrocytes to rubella virus].
30  anemia of inflammation
(44 times)
Hematology
(17 times)
IDA (8 times)
sTfR (6 times)
IL-6 (5 times)
2001 The ratio of serum transferrin receptor and serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron status.
31  anti-inflammatory
(42 times)
Chemistry
(22 times)
COX-2 (7 times)
NO (5 times)
PBS (5 times)
1978 A comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of copper aspirinate and other copper salts in the rat and guinea pig.
32  appreciative inquiry
(39 times)
Nursing
(19 times)
PAR (2 times)
APN (1 time)
CBPR (1 time)
2002 Going home from hospital -- an appreciative inquiry study.
33  atherosclerotic index
(39 times)
Complementary Therapies
(10 times)
TC (16 times)
TG (16 times)
HDL-C (11 times)
1988 A nation-wide study of atherosclerosis in infants, children and young adults in Japan.
34  Ambulation Index
(38 times)
Neurology
(30 times)
EDSS (31 times)
MS (19 times)
MRI (5 times)
1992 Low-dose (7.5 mg) oral methotrexate for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with sample size benefits from a composite outcome variable including preliminary data on toxicity.
35  anal intercourse
(34 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(12 times)
MSM (10 times)
CI (4 times)
UAI (4 times)
1977 Prevalence, goals and complications of heterosexual anal intercourse in a gynecologic population.
36  anchorage-independent
(33 times)
Neoplasms
(18 times)
AD (6 times)
TPA (3 times)
EGF (2 times)
1981 Induction of anchorage-independent growth in human fibroblasts by propane sultone.
37  autoimmune
(33 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
Abs (3 times)
Abzs (3 times)
pIgGs (3 times)
1983 Myasthenia gravis: overlap with 'polyendocrine' autoimmunity.
38  after infection
(30 times)
Tropical Medicine
(6 times)
CI (5 times)
CNR (2 times)
EC (2 times)
1982 Electron microscopic study on the development of Babesia ovis (Piroplasmia) in the salivary glands of the vector tick Rhipicephalus bursa.
39  aortic incompetence
(27 times)
Cardiology
(24 times)
AS (5 times)
AVR (4 times)
LV (3 times)
1978 Comparison between apexcardiographic and angiographic indexes of left ventricular performance in patients with aortic incompetence.
40  aortic valve insufficiency
(26 times)
General Surgery
(12 times)
LVAD (3 times)
AS (2 times)
AVr (2 times)
1976 Noninvasive measurement of velocity profiles and blood flow in the common carotid artery by pulsed Doppler ultrasound.
41  acceleration index
(25 times)
Radiology
(8 times)
AT (11 times)
RI (7 times)
E/I (5 times)
1983 A new spirometric parameter in clinical pharmacology.
42  airway inflammation
(22 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(9 times)
AHR (13 times)
OVA (7 times)
AAD (3 times)
1999 Role of the Th2 cytokines in the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.
43  arousal index
(22 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(8 times)
AHI (14 times)
PSG (7 times)
ESS (6 times)
1998 Effect of age on EEG arousals in normal sleep.
44  asynchrony index
(22 times)
Critical Care
(11 times)
PSV (10 times)
NAVA (7 times)
NIV (5 times)
2008 Physiologic response to varying levels of pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in patients with acute respiratory failure.
45  Acne inversa
(21 times)
Dermatology
(11 times)
DDD (2 times)
HS (2 times)
NCSTN (2 times)
2010 Gamma-secretase gene mutations in familial acne inversa.
46  acromion index
(20 times)
Orthopedics
(12 times)
CSA (10 times)
LAA (6 times)
AT (3 times)
2010 RADIOGRAPHIC STUDY ON THE ACROMION INDEX AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ROTATOR CUFF TEARS.
47  Astragalus injection
(20 times)
Complementary Therapies
(16 times)
CHF (3 times)
LVEF (3 times)
ELISA (2 times)
1999 [Effects of Astragaloside in treating myocardial injury and myocardial Sarco/Endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase of viral myocarditis mice].
48  axonal injury
(20 times)
Neurology
(14 times)
TBI (6 times)
APP (5 times)
BBB (3 times)
1995 Topography of axonal injury as defined by amyloid precursor protein and the sector scoring method in mild and severe closed head injury.
49  adhesio interthalamica
(19 times)
Psychiatry
(15 times)
CSP (9 times)
MRI (5 times)
FEP (2 times)
1998 Absence of the adhesio interthalamica as a marker of early developmental neuropathology in schizophrenia: an MRI and postmortem histologic study.
50  aluminum
(18 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
Si (3 times)
PTH (2 times)
AlB (1 time)
1982 Aluminum loading during total parenteral nutrition.
51  aortoiliac
(18 times)
General Surgery
(13 times)
FP (3 times)
EIA (2 times)
MACLE (2 times)
1980 Hyperemic response for accurate diagnosis of arterial insufficiency.
52  articular index
(18 times)
Rheumatology
(7 times)
RA (7 times)
ESR (4 times)
CIA (3 times)
1981 The assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis using a multivariate analysis.
53  Activity Inventory
(17 times)
Ophthalmology
(9 times)
LVR (4 times)
AMD (2 times)
NEI-VFQ (2 times)
2007 The Activity Inventory: an adaptive visual function questionnaire.
54  air insufflation
(17 times)
Gastroenterology
(11 times)
WE (11 times)
ADR (8 times)
WI (8 times)
1991 Airway insufflation. Increasing flow rates progressively reduce dead space in respiratory failure.
55  arginase I
(17 times)
Molecular Biology
(7 times)
AII (5 times)
OAT (2 times)
ODC (2 times)
1993 Arginase deficiency manifesting delayed clinical sequelae and induction of a kidney arginase isozyme.
56  acid invertase
(16 times)
Botany
(7 times)
SPS (8 times)
SS (8 times)
NI (7 times)
1993 Vascular cambial sucrose metabolism and growth in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in relation to transplanting stress.
57  acute ileus
(16 times)
General Surgery
(14 times)
DP (1 time)
EIS (1 time)
PSC (1 time)
1989 [Laparoscopy in acute intestinal obstruction].
58  androgen-insensitive
(15 times)
Urology
(6 times)
AS (8 times)
AR (6 times)
PCa (3 times)
1982 Defective activation of androgen-receptor complexes: a marker of androgen insensitivity.
59  apoptosis
(15 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
PI (7 times)
5-FU (2 times)
BC (1 time)
1977 Circadian rhythms of presumptive stem cells in three different epithelia of the mouse.
60  artifact index
(15 times)
Radiology
(10 times)
MARs (4 times)
FBP (3 times)
SD (3 times)
2015 Analysis of metal artifact reduction tools for dental hardware in CT scans of the oral cavity: kVp, iterative reconstruction, dual-energy CT, metal artifact reduction software: does it make a difference?
61  auditory field
(15 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
AAF (3 times)
VP (3 times)
BFs (2 times)
1980 Tonotopic organization in auditory cortex of the cat.
62  autoregulation index
(15 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
CBF (5 times)
RBF (4 times)
SAH (4 times)
1975 Disordered cholinergic neurotransmission and dysautoregulation after acute cerebral infarction.
63  activity
(14 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
CI (6 times)
CD (2 times)
LOC (2 times)
1983 Studies in antifertility agents--Part XLI : Secosteroids--X : Syntheses of various stereoisomers of (+/-) 2,6 beta -diethyl-7 alpha -ethynyl-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-trans-bicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-7 beta-ol.
64  apoptotic
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
MI (7 times)
PI (5 times)
bcl-2I (1 time)
1996 Apoptosis and mitosis in oral and oropharyngeal epithelia: evidence for a topographical switch in premalignant lesions.
65  Asian Indian
(14 times)
Public Health
(6 times)
AIW (1 time)
BA (1 time)
BF (1 time)
2007 Vascular phenotype and subclinical inflammation in diabetic Asian Indians without overt cardiovascular disease.
66  adiposity index
(13 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
Chr (3 times)
BMI (2 times)
BW (2 times)
1999 Gene-environment interaction: a significant diet-dependent obesity locus demonstrated in a congenic segment on mouse chromosome 7.
67  after inoculation
(13 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
BI (2 times)
MEP (2 times)
aa (1 time)
1979 Demyelinating encephalomyelitis induced by a long-term corona virus infection in rats. A preliminary report.
68  anaphase I
(13 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
GV (6 times)
MI (5 times)
TI (5 times)
1990 Timing of sequential changes in chromosome configurations during the 1st meiotic division of pig oocytes cultured in vitro.
69  Autobiographical Interview
(13 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
ABM (3 times)
AM (3 times)
AMI (2 times)
2009 Determinants of autobiographical memory in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy or excisions.
70  l-arabinose isomerase
(13 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
BHAI (2 times)
GKAI (2 times)
GSAI (2 times)
2004 Characterization of a thermostable L-arabinose (D-galactose) isomerase from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima.
71  amnioinfusion
(12 times)
Gynecology
(8 times)
AMIPROM (2 times)
MAS (2 times)
MSAF (2 times)
1995 The impact of a policy of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
72  association-induction
(12 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
PM (2 times)
AIH (1 time)
EMOC (1 time)
1982 The cellular resting and action potentials: interpretation based on the association-induction hypothesis.
73  Azadirachta indica
(12 times)
Pharmacognosy
(3 times)
ALE (2 times)
CL (2 times)
MC (2 times)
2003 Lens aldose reductase inhibiting potential of some indigenous plants.
74  ablation index
(11 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
CF (6 times)
PVI (5 times)
AF (4 times)
2017 Ablation index, a novel marker of ablation lesion quality: prediction of pulmonary vein reconnection at repeat electrophysiology study and regional differences in target values.
75  accumulation index
(11 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
AUC (3 times)
11C-COL (1 time)
11C-MET (1 time)
1994 Comparison of single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics using clinical bioequivalence data and Monte Carlo simulations.
76  alveolar-interstitial
(11 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
ET (3 times)
HRT (2 times)
HRTM (2 times)
2001 Dose to lung from inhaled tritiated particles.
77  auditory
(11 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
AEP (1 time)
AIIv (1 time)
ASEP (1 time)
1985 [Characteristics of the responses of auditory cortex neurons in the cat to tonal stimulation during nembutal anesthesia and after recovery from it].
78  auditory area
(11 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
MGB (2 times)
AAF (1 time)
AChE (1 time)
1980 Corticocortical neurons projecting to the medial and lateral banks of the middle suprasylvian sulcus in the cat: an experimental study with the horseradish peroxidase method.
79  adhesion index
(10 times)
General Surgery
(4 times)
PADA (3 times)
LC (2 times)
AMI (1 time)
1987 [Effect of antibiotics on Candida adhesion to epitheliocytes].
80  adoptive immunotherapy
(10 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
IL-2 (2 times)
LAK (2 times)
LEV (2 times)
1977 Follow-up of the first (1962) pilot study of active immunotherapy of acute lymphoid leukaemia: a critical discussion.
81  analgesic intolerance
(10 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
AIA (2 times)
COX-2 (1 time)
CRS (1 time)
2000 From analgesic intolerance to analgesic induced asthma: are there some determinants?
82  anisotropy index
(10 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(5 times)
FA (5 times)
ADC (4 times)
DTI (3 times)
1999 Water diffusion in the human hippocampus in epilepsy.
83  autoinjector
(10 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
PFS (4 times)
ARS (2 times)
CI (2 times)
2013 A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a diazepam auto-injector administered by caregivers to patients with epilepsy who require intermittent intervention for acute repetitive seizures.
84  ab initio
(9 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
QM/MM (4 times)
SE (3 times)
MBAR (2 times)
2006 Towards accurate ab initio QM/MM calculations of free-energy profiles of enzymatic reactions.
85  accommodative insufficiency
(9 times)
Optometry
(5 times)
CI (5 times)
CISS (2 times)
NBV (2 times)
1999 Frequency of convergence insufficiency among fifth and sixth graders. The Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group.
86  activation index
(9 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
AIC (1 time)
CIM (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1993 Cortical activation during a cognitive challenge in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy-a dynamic SPECT study.
87  adult intussusception
(9 times)
Surgical Procedures, Operative
(2 times)
CT (4 times)
BAT (1 time)
KSA (1 time)
2009 Adult intussusception: a retrospective review of 41 cases.
88  antegonial index
(9 times)
Dentistry
(8 times)
MI (9 times)
MCI (6 times)
PMI (6 times)
2005 Radiomorphometric indices and their relation to gender, age, and dental status.
89  acoustic intensity
(8 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
CAG (1 time)
CAs (1 time)
CEU (1 time)
2002 Myocardial and microcirculatory kinetics of BR14, a novel third-generation intravenous ultrasound contrast agent.
90  acute inflammation
(8 times)
Communicable Diseases
(2 times)
CI (5 times)
CD (2 times)
EGF (2 times)
1995 Histopathological characteristics of explanted human prosthetic arterial grafts: implications for the prevention and management of graft infection.
91  adaptation index
(8 times)
Brain
(1 time)
4-AP (2 times)
BCF (2 times)
DI (2 times)
2000 Responses of tracheobronchial receptors to inhaled furosemide in anesthetized rats.
92  affective instability
(8 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
BPD (4 times)
ALS (2 times)
AA (1 time)
2014 Social context of anger in borderline personality disorder and depressive disorders: findings from a naturalistic observation study.
93  alcohol intoxication
(8 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
CI (2 times)
ABL (1 time)
aHR (1 time)
1988 Heavy drinking and accidents--a prospective study among men of working age.
94  anterior-inferior
(8 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
AS (4 times)
PI (4 times)
PS (3 times)
2004 Glenoid suture anchor fixation strength: Effect of insertion angle.
95  anthropometric indices
(8 times)
Tropical Medicine
(3 times)
WC (2 times)
BC (1 time)
BIA (1 time)
1994 Observations on nocturnal activity and man biting habits of malaria vectors, Anopheles fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. culicifacies in the hill tracts of Koraput District, Orissa, India.
96  antibiotic-impregnated
(8 times)
Neurosurgery
(4 times)
CSF (5 times)
EVD (4 times)
ICH (1 time)
2007 Lack of efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated shunt systems in preventing shunt infections in children.
97  Apathy Inventory
(8 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
NPI (4 times)
AD (2 times)
MMSE (2 times)
2008 Striatal dopamine transporter levels correlate with apathy in neurodegenerative diseases A SPECT study with partial volume effect correction.
98  arterial injury
(8 times)
Urology
(4 times)
EFS (2 times)
AI-MH (1 time)
AI-ML (1 time)
1996 FDG-PET evaluation of therapeutic effects on VX2 liver tumor.
99  accuracy index
(7 times)
Physical Medicine
(2 times)
NPV (2 times)
PPV (2 times)
CA-RT (1 time)
1991 Enhancing blood glucose awareness in adolescents and young adults with IDDM.
100  Acquired ichthyosis
(7 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
ALCL (1 time)
allo-PBSCT (1 time)
BMT (1 time)
1996 Acquired ichthyosis in bone marrow transplant recipients.