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Abbreviation: ARR
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
absolute risk reduction
(280 times)
Medicine
(64 times)
NNT (90 times)
RR (60 times)
RRR (60 times)
1995 Basic statistics for clinicians: 3. Assessing the effects of treatment: measures of association.
annualized relapse rate
(280 times)
Neurology
(155 times)
EDSS (112 times)
MS (104 times)
RRMS (78 times)
2002 No difference in efficacy of two different doses of intravenous immunoglobulins in MS: clinical and MRI assessment.
aldosterone-to-renin ratio
(241 times)
Vascular Diseases
(78 times)
PA (112 times)
PAC (52 times)
PRA (46 times)
1999 [Occurrence of primary aldosteronism in a group of ambulatory hypertensive patients].
aortic root replacement
(49 times)
General Surgery
(31 times)
AVR (8 times)
CPB (3 times)
CT (3 times)
1998 Aortic root replacement in adolescents and young adults: composite graft versus homograft or autograft.
apical root resorption
(14 times)
Dentistry
(12 times)
CBCT (5 times)
ARD (1 time)
CGRP (1 time)
1991 Risk factors associated with atypical root resorption of the maxillary primary central incisors.
arrhythmia
(14 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
CHF (5 times)
AF (2 times)
CAD (2 times)
1983 Radionuclide evaluation of left-ventricular function in chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy.
Arabidopsis response regulator
(12 times)
Botany
(5 times)
ARR6 (2 times)
AHK (1 time)
B-GATAs (1 time)
2000 Characterization of the response of the Arabidopsis response regulator gene family to cytokinin.
age-related resistance
(11 times)
Botany
(6 times)
SA (5 times)
dpp (3 times)
hpi (1 time)
2002 Age-related resistance in Arabidopsis is a developmentally regulated defense response to Pseudomonas syringae.
acquired rifamycin resistance
(9 times)
Communicable Diseases
(5 times)
TB (4 times)
HIV (3 times)
CI (2 times)
2004 Risk factors for relapse and acquired rifamycin resistance after directly observed tuberculosis treatment: a comparison by HIV serostatus and rifamycin use.
10  aldosterone to plasma renin ratio
(8 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
PA (4 times)
PRA (4 times)
ADRR (1 time)
2002 Ratio of serum aldosterone to plasma renin concentration in essential hypertension and primary aldosteronism.
11  aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio
(8 times)
Metabolism
(2 times)
PA (6 times)
PAC (3 times)
APA (2 times)
2002 Drug effects on aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio in primary aldosteronism.
12  annual rate of reduction
(7 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
UN IGME (2 times)
aOR (1 time)
ARC (1 time)
2000 Twenty-year trend of chronic excretors of tubercle bacilli based on the nationwide tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Korea, 1975-1995.
13  absolute reduction in risk
(6 times)
Health Services Research
(4 times)
RBC (4 times)
RR (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2003 Cell salvage for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion.
14  ammonia removal rate
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
NRR (4 times)
ALR (2 times)
ANAMMOX (2 times)
2016 ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.
15  accelerating rotarod
(5 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
AChE (1 time)
BDF (1 time)
FSRR (1 time)
1984 Toxicity of anticholinesterases: interactions of pyridostigmine and physostigmine with soman.
16  ankylosis-related resorption
(5 times)
Dentistry
(5 times)
IRR (5 times)
PCO (5 times)
PN (5 times)
2016 Alveolar process fractures in the permanent dentition. Part 2. The risk of healing complications in teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture.
17  annual recurrence rate
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
EDSS (2 times)
HR (2 times)
AQP4-IgG (1 time)
2007 Study of time-course changes in annual recurrence rates for breast cancer: data analysis of 2,209 patients for 10 years post-surgery.
18  absolute renal risk
(4 times)
Nephrology
(4 times)
IgAN (4 times)
AUC (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
2011 Predicting the risk for dialysis or death in IgA nephropathy.
19  absolute risk ratio
(4 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
NNH (2 times)
NNT (2 times)
RCTs (2 times)
2005 [The early postoperative complications and cost-effectiveness analysis of non-penetrating trabecular surgery in patients with primary open angle glaucoma].
20  aldosterone/PRA ratio
(4 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
PRA (3 times)
PA (2 times)
AER (1 time)
2000 High prevalence of primary aldosteronism in the Tayside hypertension clinic population.
21  androgen response region
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
PB (2 times)
AD (1 time)
AdVs (1 time)
1999 Selective activation of the probasin androgen-responsive region by steroid hormones.
22  Aphanomyces root rot
(4 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(2 times)
GBS (1 time)
GWAS (1 time)
LC-MS (1 time)
2015 A Mineral Seed Coating for Control of Seedling Diseases of Alfalfa Suitable for Organic Production Systems.
23  aquifer recharge and recovery
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AOP (1 time)
GAC (1 time)
NDMA (1 time)
2012 Restoration of wadi aquifers by artificial recharge with treated waste water.
24  arsenate respiratory reductase
(4 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
Arr-Mo (1 time)
arrA (1 time)
Mo (1 time)
2005 Arsenate respiratory reductase gene (arrA) for Desulfosporosinus sp. strain Y5.
25  attack rate ratios
(4 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
CI (2 times)
FBD (1 time)
ILI (1 time)
2016 Foodborne disease outbreak in a resource-limited setting: a tale of missed opportunities and implications for response.
26  acclimation response ratio
(3 times)
CTmax (1 time)
CTmin (1 time)
2015 Thermal biology of prey (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya from the Yucatan Peninsula.
27  acetabular reinforcement ring
(3 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
TM (1 time)
2013 Salvaged failed roof rings and antiprotrusion cages: surgical options and implant survival.
28  across-region range
(3 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
DPP-4 (1 time)
T2D (1 time)
2019 Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide: Baseline patient characteristics in the global DISCOVER study.
29  aerial righting reflex
(3 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(3 times)
RR (2 times)
BEC (1 time)
EtOH (1 time)
1981 Differential effects of TRH, amphetamine, naloxone, and fenmetozole on ethanol actions: attenuation of the effects of punishment and impairment of aerial righting reflex.
30  air-righting reaction
(3 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(2 times)
ARA (1 time)
CSF (1 time)
MRI (1 time)
1990 The postnatal development of the air-righting reaction in albino rats. Quantitative analysis of normal development and the effect of preventing neck-torso and torso-pelvis rotations.
31  aldosterone/renin
(3 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
ACTH (1 time)
BRIGHT (1 time)
CAH (1 time)
2007 Phenotypic consequences of variation across the aldosterone synthase and 11-beta hydroxylase locus in a hypertensive cohort: data from the MRC BRIGHT Study.
32  Alligator Rivers Region
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
ERISS (1 time)
LDA (1 time)
2002 Catchment-specific element signatures in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia.
33  antiresonant ring
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
OPO (2 times)
cw (1 time)
SRO (1 time)
2011 Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators.
34  Armillaria root rot
(3 times)
RCE (2 times)
AGRCE (1 time)
NPV (1 time)
2012 Aboveground Root Collar Excavation of Peach Trees for Armillaria Root Rot Management.
35  arrestins
(3 times)
Cell Biology
(2 times)
CL (1 time)
CP (1 time)
GFP (1 time)
2002 G protein-coupled receptor/arrestin3 modulation of the endocytic machinery.
36  authentic response regulator
(3 times)
Botany
(2 times)
AHKs (1 time)
wol (1 time)
2007 Type-B ARR transcription factors, ARR10 and ARR12, are implicated in cytokinin-mediated regulation of protoxylem differentiation in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.
37  average recall rate
(3 times)
X-Rays
(1 time)
APR (2 times)
CNN (2 times)
ASSD (1 time)
2017 Fusion of Deep Learning and Compressed Domain Features for Content-Based Image Retrieval.
38  axillary recurrence rate
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
SN (2 times)
ALND (1 time)
cALND (1 time)
2011 Safety of avoiding routine use of axillary dissection in early stage breast cancer: a systematic review.
39  absolute relapse rate
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
EDSS (2 times)
AQP4 (1 time)
CNS (1 time)
2015 Acute and Chronic Management of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.
40  absolute relative risk
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
DR (1 time)
ETDRS (1 time)
HbA1C (1 time)
2014 Diabetic retinopathy risk factors: plasma erythropoietin as a risk factor for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
41  acquired radioresistance
(2 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
IR (2 times)
5-FU (1 time)
BCa (1 time)
2017 Upregulating DAB2IP expression via EGR-1 inhibition, a new approach for overcoming fractionated-irradiation-induced cross-tolerance to ionizing radiation and mitomycin C in tumor cells.
42  acute reaction of rejection
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
RAT (2 times)
AOD (1 time)
POL (1 time)
2002 [Surgical strategies in spontaneous rupture of renal allograft].
43  adamantyl-substituted retinoid-related
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
AML (1 time)
PARP (1 time)
SHP (1 time)
2010 Adamantyl-substituted retinoid-related molecules induce apoptosis in human acute myelogenous leukemia cells.
44  adjusted incidence RR
(2 times)
Environmental Exposure
(1 time)
BC (1 time)
RR (1 time)
2012 The incidence of behaviours associated with body checking among youth ice hockey players.
45  admission for subsequent readmissions
(2 times)
Health Services Research
(2 times)
ARRs (2 times)
2018 How Measurement Variability Affects Reporting of a Single Readmission Metric.
46  airway rapid response
(2 times)
Quality of Health Care
(1 time)
--- 2015 Tracheostomy Complications as a Trigger for an Airway Rapid Response: Analysis and Quality Improvement Considerations.
47  airway retention ratio
(2 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
ACE (2 times)
ADR (2 times)
ALDR (2 times)
1985 Estimation of alveolar deposition ratio of inhaled radioaerosol.
48  aldosterone/renin concentration ratio
(2 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
AUC-ROC (1 time)
DBP (1 time)
PA (1 time)
2010 Aldosterone/renin ratio determines peripheral and central blood pressure values over a broad range.
49  allowing only one readmission in each 30-day period
(2 times)
Health Services Research
(2 times)
ARRs (2 times)
2018 How Measurement Variability Affects Reporting of a Single Readmission Metric.
50  amplitude recovery rate
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
LDR (2 times)
BPI (1 time)
CARR (1 time)
2014 Changes of the donor nerve in end-to-side neurorrhaphies with epineurial window and partial neurectomy: a long-term evaluation in the rat model.
51  Annual Research Review
(2 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
--- 2018 Reimagining the environment in developmental psychopathology: from molecules to effective interventions.
52  annual revision rate
(2 times)
Traumatology
(1 time)
IQR (1 time)
TKA (1 time)
UKA (1 time)
2017 Establishing Age-Specific Cost-Effective Annual Revision Rates for Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.
53  annualized reduction rate
(2 times)
World Health
(1 time)
MDG (1 time)
PDHS (1 time)
2017 Maternal mortality as a Millennium Development Goal of the United Nations: a systematic assessment and analysis of available data in threshold countries using Indonesia as example.
54  anorectal ring
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
AV (2 times)
MRI (2 times)
BE (1 time)
2014 MRI-defined height of rectal tumours.
55  antibody response ratio
(2 times)
Rheumatology
(2 times)
MTX (2 times)
RA (2 times)
NSAIDs (1 time)
2011 Antibody response is reduced following vaccination with 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in adult methotrexate-treated patients with established arthritis, but not those treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.
56  anticipated reportable range
(2 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
LOD (2 times)
LAMP (1 time)
PCR (1 time)
2017 Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia.
57  antigen retaining reticulum
(2 times)
Anatomy
(2 times)
FDC (1 time)
FDCs (1 time)
HRP (1 time)
1990 Kinetics of germinal center development in lymph nodes of young and aging immune mice.
58  aortic root reconstruction
(2 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
AVR (1 time)
IE (1 time)
PA (1 time)
2013 Recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis with aortic-ventricular disruption: a surgical challenge.
59  arginine-rich region
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
Atx7 (1 time)
CEMSA (1 time)
HIV-1 (1 time)
2002 Structural requirements for conserved Arg52 residue for interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activation responsive element with trans-activator of transcription protein (49-57). Capillary electrophoresis mobility shift assay.
60  arrest for track-marks
(2 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(1 time)
aRR (1 time)
NEP (1 time)
PWID (1 time)
2016 Predictors of needle exchange program utilization during its implementation and expansion in Tijuana, Mexico.
61  artificial road runoff
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
AIFs (2 times)
2013 Potential mobility of heavy metals through coupled application of sequential extraction and isotopic exchange: comparison of leaching tests applied to soil and soakaway sediment.
62  artificial RR
(2 times)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
HRV (2 times)
2016 A preprocessing tool for removing artifact from cardiac RR interval recordings using three-dimensional spatial distribution mapping.
63  Asari Radix et Rhizoma
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
2,3,5-TMT (1 time)
3,4,5-TMT (1 time)
3,5-DMT (1 time)
2015 [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in Asari Radix et Rhizoma].
64  average reimbursement rate
(2 times)
Health Services Research
(2 times)
PHC (1 time)
PHCs (1 time)
RRR (1 time)
2019 The interaction effect of health insurance reimbursement and health workforce on health care-seeking behaviour in China.
65  average relative risk
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CRI (1 time)
FTE (1 time)
JARR (1 time)
1997 Methods of prioritizing and measuring occupational health risks utilizing hospital back injury data. Development of composite comparative statistics.
66  A136-R154-R171 variant
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
VRQ (1 time)
2002 Amyloidogenic unfolding intermediates differentiate sheep prion protein variants.
67  abnormal red reflex
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
--- 2020 Abnormal Red Reflex: Etiologies in a Pediatric Ophthalmology Population.
68  absent, whereas that associated with the resistance
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
PrP (1 time)
2011 Polymorphism of prion protein gene in sheep of Inner Mongolian, China.
69  absolute incidence rate reduction
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
EHL-mAbs (1 time)
LRI (1 time)
NNI (1 time)
2020 Number needed to immunize to prevent RSV with extended half-life monoclonal antibody.
70  absolute major cardiovascular events risk reduction
(1 time)
Heart Diseases
(1 time)
LLT (1 time)
non (1 time)
QALYs (1 time)
2017 Cost-Effectiveness of Intensifying Lipid-Lowering Therapy With Statins Based on Individual Absolute Benefit in Coronary Artery Disease Patients.
71  absolute one-year risk of fall-related injuries
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2018 Risk of post-discharge fall-related injuries among adult patients with syncope: A nationwide cohort study.
72  absolute risk against heart failure
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2016 Effect of RAAS blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high CVD risk subjects with atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
73  absolute risk difference
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
FBRS (1 time)
FLACC (1 time)
2020 Articaine efficacy and safety in young children below the age of four years: An equivalent parallel randomized control trial.
74  absolute risk reducing rate
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
NNT (1 time)
RR (1 time)
RRR (1 time)
2005 [How to analyze and interpret the effective values in clinical trials].
75  absolute risk reduction for stroke
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
ACAS (1 time)
BMT (1 time)
ICER (1 time)
2018 Clinical Effect and Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: A Markov Model.
76  abundance-range size relationship
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2020 Endemicity and land-use type influence the abundance-range size relationship of birds on a tropical island.
77  access rate ratio
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
COVID-19 (1 time)
2020 Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Cancer Patient Care and Treatment: Data from an Outpatient Oncology Clinic in Lombardy (Italy).
78  access-repair-restore
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 2015 Chromatin dynamics after DNA damage: The legacy of the access-repair-restore model.
79  acellular reaction rate
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
MAOA (1 time)
2016 Acellular reactivity of polymeric dendrimer nanoparticles as an indicator of oxidative stress in vitro.
80  acetabular revisions with the Mueller reinforcement ring
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
--- 2006 Mueller reinforcement rings in acetabular revision: outcome in 164 hips followed for 2-17 years.
81  acetabular roof ring
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
AAOS (1 time)
BSAPC (1 time)
HHS (1 time)
2015 The midterm and long-term effects of acetabular roof ring and Burch-Schneider anti-protusio cages in acetabular revisions for patients with acetabular bone deficiency.
82  achievable risk reduction
(1 time)
Health Services Research
(1 time)
HC (1 time)
HT (1 time)
ReqRR (1 time)
2002 Primary prevention drug therapy: can it meet patients' requirements for reduced risk?
83  acid redox ratio
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ELF (1 time)
GRR (1 time)
MDA (1 time)
2002 Antioxidant supplementation and pulmonary function at rest and exercise.
84  acid resistance ratio
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
EFU (1 time)
RER (1 time)
SMHR (1 time)
2018 Effects of a sodium fluoride- and phytate-containing dentifrice on remineralisation of enamel erosive lesions-an in situ randomised clinical study.
85  acrosome reaction rate
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
PCBs (1 time)
2004 Effects of acute postnatal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on sperm function and hormone levels in adult rats.
86  activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis recipe
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
COPD (1 time)
2005 [Clinical observation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of acute aggravating stage treated with activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis recipe].
87  activity (PRA) ratio
(1 time)
Chemistry, Clinical
(1 time)
ARC (1 time)
PA (1 time)
PAC (1 time)
2010 Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism: comparison of post-captopril active renin concentration and plasma renin activity.
88  actual risk reduction
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
--- 2015 Early cholecystectomy in children with gallstone pancreatitis reduces readmissions.
89  acute radio-reaction
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
NPC (1 time)
RT (1 time)
TCM (1 time)
2007 [Clinical observation on TCM treatment according to syndrome differentiation in relieving acute radio-reaction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients].
90  acute recurrent rhinosinusitis
(1 time)
Otolaryngology
(1 time)
FESS (1 time)
VAS (1 time)
2008 Long-term effects of postoperative measures after sinus surgery.
91  acute rejection rate
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
CMV (1 time)
OR (1 time)
2009 Efficacy and safety of induction therapy with alemtuzumab in kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.
92  acute rejection reaction
(1 time)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
(1 time)
bFGF (1 time)
VEGF (1 time)
2014 Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in acute rejection reaction following rat orthotopic liver transplantation.
93  acute renal rejection
(1 time)
Urology
(1 time)
CIs (1 time)
ORs (1 time)
2020 Association of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 rs1982073 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Acute Renal Rejection: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
94  acute reversible rejection
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
GS (1 time)
SRR (1 time)
1991 The association of HLA-DR antigens with acute steroid-resistant rejection and poor kidney graft survival.
95  adamantyl retinoid-related
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2013 Upregulation of miR-150* and miR-630 induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting IGF-1R.
96  adaptive restriction rules
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
ALN (1 time)
FES (1 time)
1999 Adaptive restriction rules provide functional and safe stimulation pattern for foot drop correction.
97  adaptive ridge regression
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
DLD (1 time)
MLEM (1 time)
PSF (1 time)
2006 MLEM deconvolution of protein X-ray diffraction images based on a multiple-PSF model.
98  Adaptive Risk Reduction
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
RCP (1 time)
2017 Vulnerability Reduction Needed to Maintain Current Burdens of Heat-Related Mortality in a Changing Climate-Magnitude and Determinants.
99  additional radical resection
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
IGBC (1 time)
2009 Lymphatic invasion: an important prognostic factor for stages T1b-T3 gallbladder cancer and an indication for additional radical resection of incidental gallbladder cancer.
100  adherence was positively associated with physician experience
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
aRR (1 time)
2003 Highly active antiretroviral therapy: physician experience and enhanced adherence to prescription refill.