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Abbreviation: CA
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
carbonic anhydrase
(1890 times)
Biochemistry
(365 times)
AZ (29 times)
CAT (29 times)
IOP (29 times)
1975 Electron microscopic localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in rabbit cornea.
catecholamine
(1122 times)
Neurology
(232 times)
DA (223 times)
NE (222 times)
NA (146 times)
1968 [Histochemical studies of extraocular muscles. I. Histochemistry of catecholamine (CA) in rabbit and human extraocular muscles].
cardiac arrest
(1084 times)
Emergency Medicine
(340 times)
CPR (271 times)
ROSC (220 times)
VF (80 times)
1981 Myocardial flow distribution. II : Empty beating heart, ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest.
chromosomal aberrations
(805 times)
Genetics
(253 times)
MN (283 times)
SCE (273 times)
MI (122 times)
1981 Hormone dependency of chromosome aberrations induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rat bone marrow cells: site-specific increase by erythropoietin.
coronary angiography
(765 times)
Cardiology
(299 times)
CAD (119 times)
PCI (77 times)
KD (44 times)
1977 [Effect of mezaton on experimental myocardial infarct with arrhythmias in rabbits].
citric acid
(566 times)
Environmental Health
(118 times)
EDTA (42 times)
AA (31 times)
SEM (26 times)
1975 Influence of mixtures of taurocholate, fatty acids, and monolein on the toxic effects of deoxycholate in rat jejunum in vivo.
chronological age
(487 times)
Pediatrics
(129 times)
BA (150 times)
DA (57 times)
SA (41 times)
1976 Relationships between skeletal maturity and submaximal working capacity in boys 8 to 18 years.
cellulose acetate
(432 times)
Polysaccharides
(57 times)
SEM (29 times)
FTIR (22 times)
PES (16 times)
1982 Influence of silica and carrageenan on spleen colonies and colonies in murine peritoneal cell-coated cellulose acetate membranes.
cholic acid
(408 times)
Biochemistry
(89 times)
CDCA (131 times)
DCA (108 times)
UDCA (53 times)
1975 Proceedings: The influence of cholic acid (CA) and dehydrocholic acid (DCA) on the biliary excretion of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and of BSP-GSH in rats.
10  carbohydrate antigen
(405 times)
Neoplasms
(135 times)
CEA (179 times)
CT (36 times)
OS (18 times)
1985 Establishment and characterization of the human cholangiocarcinoma cell line HChol-Y1 in a serum-free, chemically defined medium.
11  cluster analysis
(382 times)
Environmental Health
(181 times)
PCA (253 times)
DA (42 times)
FA (29 times)
1989 Pattern recognition study of QSAR substituent descriptors.
12  contact angle
(371 times)
Chemistry
(130 times)
SEM (66 times)
AFM (56 times)
XPS (41 times)
1987 Does aspirin damage canine gastric mucosa by reducing its surface hydrophobicity?
13  catheter ablation
(367 times)
Cardiology
(255 times)
AF (244 times)
VT (44 times)
LA (41 times)
1990 The effects of percutaneous catheter ablation on preexisting permanent pacemakers.
14  caffeic acid
(364 times)
Biochemistry
(85 times)
FA (57 times)
CGA (32 times)
RA (27 times)
1983 [Biliary excretion of choleretically active cinnamic acid derivatives in the rat].
15  capsid
(330 times)
Virology
(178 times)
HIV-1 (80 times)
NC (73 times)
MA (50 times)
1991 Amino acids encoded downstream of gag are not required by Rous sarcoma virus protease during gag-mediated assembly.
16  cornu ammonis
(284 times)
Neurology
(110 times)
DG (77 times)
AD (32 times)
MRI (14 times)
1988 Changes in septo-hippocampal projections after lateral entorhinal or combined entorhinal-raphe lesions as studied by anterograde tracing methods.
17  carotid artery
(278 times)
Neurosurgery
(57 times)
IJV (27 times)
IMT (19 times)
CEA (15 times)
1975 Pressure-flow relations in the vessels of the canine aortic arch.
18  contrast agent
(271 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(112 times)
MRI (59 times)
DCE-MRI (17 times)
CT (16 times)
1997 [Conventional magnetic resonance angiography and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of extracranial blood vessel segments].
19  cancer antigen
(252 times)
Neoplasms
(98 times)
CEA (60 times)
OS (13 times)
CT (11 times)
1986 [Monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian cancer. CA 125 as a tumor marker. A cooperative study of the Gynecologic Tumor Marker Group (GTMG)].
20  concentration addition
(244 times)
Environmental Health
(173 times)
IA (164 times)
CI (15 times)
MDR (15 times)
2003 Water quality objectives for mixtures of toxic chemicals: problems and perspectives.
21  constitutively active
(232 times)
Cell Biology
(51 times)
DN (78 times)
WT (26 times)
PI3K (13 times)
1994 Construction of a synthetic gene for the metalloregulatory protein MerR and analysis of regionally mutated proteins for transcriptional regulation.
22  cerebral autoregulation
(220 times)
Physiology
(64 times)
BP (56 times)
CBFV (53 times)
CBF (49 times)
1981 Effect of two levels of induced hypocapnia on cerebral autoregulation in the acute phase of head injury coma.
23  community-acquired
(217 times)
Communicable Diseases
(87 times)
HA (100 times)
MRSA (86 times)
HCA (34 times)
1978 Changing ecology of acute bacterial empyema: occurrence and mortality at Boston City Hospital during 12 selected years from 1935 to 1972.
24  corrected age
(216 times)
Pediatrics
(118 times)
VLBW (30 times)
GA (28 times)
NICU (16 times)
1996 Neurodevelopmental outcome at 36 months' corrected age of preterm infants in the Multicenter Indomethacin Intraventricular Hemorrhage Prevention Trial.
25  carnosic acid
(196 times)
Biochemistry
(34 times)
Nrf2 (17 times)
CS (16 times)
RA (16 times)
2003 Carnosic acid potentiates the antioxidant and prodifferentiation effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in leukemia cells but does not promote elevation of basal levels of intracellular calcium.
26  cellular automata
(196 times)
Biology
(50 times)
GA (8 times)
PDE (4 times)
ABM (3 times)
1993 Cellular automata approaches to biological modeling.
27  corpora allata
(188 times)
Zoology
(86 times)
JH (125 times)
CC (21 times)
MF (11 times)
1974 Extracerebral caphalic neuroendocine complex of the blattids, Periplaneta americana (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll): An in situ study.
28  condyloma acuminatum
(171 times)
Dermatology
(38 times)
HPV (72 times)
PDT (14 times)
ALA (11 times)
1983 Immunohistochemical demonstration of human papilloma virus (HPV) antigens in oral squamous cell lesions.
29  community-associated
(162 times)
Communicable Diseases
(65 times)
MRSA (105 times)
HA (82 times)
PVL (33 times)
2005 Molecular epidemiology of community- and health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Manitoba, Canada.
30  cardiac amyloidosis
(160 times)
Cardiology
(89 times)
LV (32 times)
CMR (31 times)
LGE (22 times)
1985 Cardiac amyloidosis: combined use of two-dimensional echocardiography and electrocardiography in noninvasive screening before biopsy.
31  Candida albicans
(146 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(33 times)
SA (15 times)
EC (12 times)
CT (10 times)
1975 Mast cell sensitizing antibody (MCSAb) response in experimental candidiasis: chromatographic studies.
32  capsid protein
(143 times)
Virology
(55 times)
HIV-1 (37 times)
CypA (19 times)
CTD (17 times)
1992 Evidence for retroviral capsid and nucleocapsid antigens in ovine pulmonary carcinoma.
33  celiac artery
(132 times)
Vascular Diseases
(57 times)
SMA (88 times)
IMA (14 times)
CT (12 times)
1987 The blood flow to the islets of Langerhans in different regions of the rat pancreas.
34  cyproterone acetate
(128 times)
Endocrinology
(33 times)
EE (9 times)
TP (8 times)
DHT (7 times)
1975 Cyproterone acetate diminishes sexual activity in male rabbits.
35  Caucasian American
(127 times)
Neoplasms
(23 times)
AA (119 times)
PCa (11 times)
HCV (10 times)
1989 Serum fatty acids and fish intake in rural Japanese, urban Japanese, Japanese American and Caucasian American men.
36  chlorogenic acid
(123 times)
Chemistry
(24 times)
DBPs (6 times)
GA (6 times)
NCA (6 times)
1990 Inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid, reserpine, polyprenoic acid (E-5166), or coffee on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and hamsters.
37  chronoamperometry
(122 times)
Chemistry
(33 times)
CV (83 times)
XRD (32 times)
EIS (31 times)
2000 Ferricyanide reduction by Escherichia coli: kinetics, mechanism, and application to the optimization of recombinant fermentations.
38  conversation analysis
(121 times)
Speech-Language Pathology
(25 times)
PCA (15 times)
ASD (5 times)
EF (3 times)
1992 Repair strategies in aphasic discourse; towards a collaborative model.
39  cold-acclimated
(119 times)
Physiology
(39 times)
NA (25 times)
WA (12 times)
BAT (10 times)
1976 Circulatory changes in cold-acclimation and cold stress.
40  carcinoma
(114 times)
Neoplasms
(31 times)
HGD (7 times)
BPH (6 times)
CT (6 times)
1978 Serum steroids in normal males and patients with prostatic diseases.
41  cinnamaldehyde
(114 times)
Biochemistry
(18 times)
TRPA1 (11 times)
AITC (9 times)
ROS (6 times)
1983 Cytotoxicity of cinnamic aldehyde on leukemia L1210 cells.
42  catecholaminergic
(109 times)
Neurology
(44 times)
TH (31 times)
DA (11 times)
NTS (8 times)
1976 Parkinsonian akinesia, rigidity and tremor in the monkey. Histopathological and neuropharmacological study.
43  California
(101 times)
Environmental Health
(23 times)
NY (10 times)
AZ (8 times)
FL (7 times)
1987 Temperature and water quality effects in simulated woodland pools on the infection of Culex mosquito larvae by Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in North Carolina.
44  cancer
(94 times)
Neoplasms
(22 times)
BPH (4 times)
CD (4 times)
PSA (4 times)
1981 [Results of needle-biopsy of the pleura (author's transl)].
45  clavulanic acid
(92 times)
Microbiology
(26 times)
CTX (6 times)
AMX (4 times)
CAZ (4 times)
1984 In vitro activity of ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid against 632 clinical isolates.
46  correspondence analysis
(85 times)
Environmental Health
(15 times)
PCA (10 times)
RSCU (7 times)
CCA (6 times)
1988 Computerized classification of two-dimensional gel electrophoretograms by correspondence analysis and ascendant hierarchical clustering.
47  Caucasian
(83 times)
Neoplasms
(13 times)
AA (72 times)
MS (6 times)
BMI (4 times)
1998 Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavior rating scales.
48  congenital anomalies
(81 times)
Medicine
(11 times)
OR (8 times)
CI (6 times)
CNVs (5 times)
1985 Congenital anomalies in the Hutterite population: a preliminary survey and hypothesis.
49  cold agglutinin
(76 times)
Hematology
(36 times)
CAD (6 times)
RF (4 times)
CCAD (2 times)
1975 [High titer cold agglutinins with anti-pr specificity after rubella infection (author's transl)].
50  carotid atherosclerosis
(74 times)
Vascular Diseases
(20 times)
IMT (11 times)
CAD (7 times)
CI (6 times)
1988 Systemic arterial hypertension and coronary atherosclerosis. Observations in survivors of a first myocardial infarction.
51  controlled atmosphere
(74 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(31 times)
1-MCP (12 times)
MAP (4 times)
LT (3 times)
1971 Effect of controlled atmosphere on growth of mold on synthetic media and fruit.
52  categorical agreement
(72 times)
Microbiology
(55 times)
EA (31 times)
mE (31 times)
VME (23 times)
2004 Multicenter evaluation of use of penicillin and ampicillin as surrogates for in vitro testing of susceptibility of enterococci to imipenem.
53  cinnamic acid
(72 times)
Chemistry
(15 times)
SA (12 times)
BA (5 times)
CAL (4 times)
1984 An animal model for nonimmunologic contact urticaria.
54  cryoablation
(65 times)
Urology
(27 times)
RFA (29 times)
MWA (6 times)
RCC (6 times)
2001 Value of three-dimensional US for optimizing guidance for ablating focal liver tumors.
55  control area
(64 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
OA (11 times)
HBRA (8 times)
CI (6 times)
1980 Efficiency of cardioplegia in the presence of coronary occlusion.
56  corpus allatum
(63 times)
Zoology
(34 times)
JH (34 times)
CC (10 times)
PI (6 times)
1977 Ultrastructural localization of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by insect corpora allata.
57  calcium alginate
(59 times)
Environmental Health
(18 times)
SA (7 times)
ACF (2 times)
BC (2 times)
1988 Toxic effect of calcium alginate swabs on Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
58  clofibric acid
(58 times)
Environmental Health
(28 times)
DCF (10 times)
CBZ (5 times)
DFC (4 times)
1987 Serum levels of free non-protein bound clofibrinic acid after single dosing to patients with impaired renal function of various degrees--a multicenter study.
59  conceptional age
(57 times)
Neurology
(29 times)
EEG (11 times)
GA (7 times)
QS (5 times)
1981 [Seizures in premature neonates and in full-term neonates (author's transl)].
60  cortisone acetate
(57 times)
Physiology
(10 times)
HC (6 times)
CY (4 times)
PA (4 times)
1976 Further observations on the inhibition of tumor growth by Corynebacterium parvum with cyclophosphamide. II. Effect of cortisone acetate.
61  conventional angiography
(53 times)
Radiology
(20 times)
MRA (16 times)
CTA (7 times)
CT (6 times)
1983 Digital subtraction angiography for evaluation of extracranial carotid occlusive disease: comparison with conventional arteriography.
62  caffeine
(52 times)
Pharmacology
(19 times)
TB (16 times)
PX (14 times)
TP (14 times)
1978 Evidence for repair of ultraviolet-induced damage in Cystobacter species (Myxobacterales).
63  cerebellar ataxia
(52 times)
Neurology
(20 times)
SARA (6 times)
PD (4 times)
3-AP (3 times)
1992 Exclusion of stromelysin-1, stromelysin-2, interstitial collagenase and fibronectin genes as the mutant loci in a family with recessive epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica and a form of cerebellar ataxia.
64  chorioamnionitis
(51 times)
Perinatology
(16 times)
BPD (8 times)
GA (7 times)
PPROM (6 times)
1985 A possible "communication line" between the conceptus and the uterus.
65  corpora amylacea
(50 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
AD (8 times)
PAS (3 times)
PD (3 times)
1978 Corpora amylacea of the lumbar spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.
66  childhood adversity
(49 times)
Psychiatry
(15 times)
CI (6 times)
HPA (5 times)
FA (3 times)
2010 Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults.
67  cyanuric acid
(48 times)
Chemistry
(19 times)
HPLC (5 times)
MEL (4 times)
MM (3 times)
1981 High performance liquid chromatographic determination of cyanuric acid in human urine and pool water.
68  cytosine-adenine
(47 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
IGF-1 (8 times)
IGF-I (7 times)
AM (4 times)
1995 Genetic diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in-situ hybridization analysis of biopsied cells from both the cleavage and blastocyst stages of individual cultured human preimplantation embryos.
69  calcium antagonists
(46 times)
Cardiology
(13 times)
ACEI (8 times)
BB (4 times)
BP (4 times)
1982 [Interaction between calcium antagonists and vascular postsynaptic alpha-receptors].
70  celiac axis
(46 times)
General Surgery
(21 times)
SMA (20 times)
CHA (8 times)
PD (6 times)
1991 Evidence that combined procurement of pancreas and liver grafts does not affect transplant outcome.
71  conjoint analysis
(43 times)
Health Services
(9 times)
AHP (4 times)
WTP (4 times)
SCI (2 times)
1998 Methodological issues in the application of conjoint analysis in health care.
72  contact area
(43 times)
General Surgery
(15 times)
PP (14 times)
PCP (10 times)
MCP (8 times)
2000 Dynamic pedobarography (DPB) in operative management of cavovarus foot deformity.
73  Centella asiatica
(42 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
AD (6 times)
DN (3 times)
NO (3 times)
1994 In vitro experiments with Centella asiatica: investigation to elucidate the effect of an indigenously prepared powder of this plant on the acid-fastness and viability of M. tuberculosis.
74  cerebral aneurysm
(42 times)
Neurology
(16 times)
MCP-1 (5 times)
eNOS (4 times)
NF-kappaB (4 times)
2002 Mouse model of cerebral aneurysm: experimental induction by renal hypertension and local hemodynamic changes.
75  contrast arteriography
(42 times)
Vascular Diseases
(25 times)
MRA (15 times)
DA (5 times)
DUAM (5 times)
1986 A comparison of two radionuclide ejection-fraction techniques with contrast angiography in ischemic heart disease and valvular heart disease.
76  Cobb angle
(40 times)
Orthopedics
(17 times)
ODI (7 times)
AIS (5 times)
VAS (5 times)
1999 [Effect of Harrington instrumentation spondylodesis on scoliotic thoracic deformity. A retrospective 5-year analysis].
77  cyanoacrylate
(40 times)
Gastroenterology
(8 times)
GV (4 times)
BRTO (3 times)
AL (2 times)
1999 Cytotoxicity of polymerized commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive on cultured human oral fibroblasts.
78  choanal atresia
(39 times)
Otolaryngology
(19 times)
CT (3 times)
BCA (2 times)
CS (1 time)
1991 Esophageal atresia, choanal atresia, and dysautonomia.
79  chromosomal abnormalities
(38 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
SCE (6 times)
DS (5 times)
MM (5 times)
1987 Chromosomal abnormalities and sister-chromatid exchange in bone marrow cells of mice and Chinese hamsters after inhalation and intraperitoneal administration: I. Diepoxybutane.
80  circulatory arrest
(38 times)
General Surgery
(22 times)
CPB (10 times)
EEG (3 times)
NIRS (3 times)
1984 Fourrier analysis demonstrate EEG slowing after circulatory arrest at 20 degrees C.
81  carbonate apatite
(37 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(12 times)
HA (8 times)
OCP (4 times)
ACP (3 times)
1998 Analysis of in vitro reaction layers formed on Bioglass using thin-film X-ray diffraction and ATR-FTIR microspectroscopy.
82  cortical area
(37 times)
Radiology
(6 times)
MA (8 times)
TA (6 times)
CCT (4 times)
1980 New standards of cortical mass in the humerus of neonates: a means of evaluating bone loss in the premature infant.
83  calyculin A
(35 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
OA (15 times)
PP1 (9 times)
PP (5 times)
1994 Calyculin A, a non-phorbol ester type tumor promotor, induced oxidative DNA damage in stimulated human neutrophil-like cells.
84  cavernous angioma
(35 times)
Neurosurgery
(14 times)
MRI (6 times)
AVM (1 time)
CASH (1 time)
1988 Familial cavernous angiomas of the brain in an Hispanic family.
85  p-coumaric acid
(34 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
FA (7 times)
MCT (3 times)
2,5-DHB (2 times)
1993 Kinetics of the oxidation of p-coumaric acid by prostaglandin H synthase and hydrogen peroxide.
86  carbon aerogel
(32 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
SEM (3 times)
EIS (2 times)
Mb (2 times)
2001 Adsorption of Supercritical N(2) and O(2) on Pore-Controlled Carbon Aerogels.
87  centrosome amplification
(32 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
CIN (7 times)
MM (3 times)
PLK4 (3 times)
2010 Centrosome amplification as a possible marker of mitotic disruptions and cellular carcinogenesis in multiple myeloma.
88  classification accuracy
(32 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(16 times)
EEG (11 times)
BCI (8 times)
LDA (7 times)
2004 Extracting features for a brain-computer interface by self-organising fuzzy neural network-based time series prediction.
89  cerebellar atrophy
(30 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
LFS (3 times)
OPCA (3 times)
SCID (3 times)
1985 [Cerebellar atrophy in epileptic patients: computer tomography study].
90  colon adenocarcinoma
(30 times)
Neoplasms
(11 times)
Ca (4 times)
CRC (3 times)
IHC (3 times)
1993 Immunolocalization of integrins in the normal and neoplastic colonic epithelium.
91  cochlear aqueduct
(29 times)
Otolaryngology
(21 times)
CSF (7 times)
CT (4 times)
ICV (4 times)
1982 Functional patency of the cochlear aqueduct.
92  catechol
(27 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(9 times)
DA (10 times)
HQ (5 times)
MA (5 times)
1981 In vivo electrochemical detection of catechols in several dopaminergic brain regions of anaesthetized rats.
93  catheter angiography
(27 times)
Radiology
(11 times)
CTA (5 times)
CT (4 times)
CAD (3 times)
1986 The role of intravenous digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of extracranial carotid artery disease. Can the decision for carotid artery surgery be made solely on the basis of its findings?
94  colanic acid
(27 times)
Microbiology
(8 times)
EPS (6 times)
LPS (4 times)
MGA (2 times)
1996 Organization of the Escherichia coli K-12 gene cluster responsible for production of the extracellular polysaccharide colanic acid.
95  complicated appendicitis
(27 times)
General Surgery
(20 times)
LA (11 times)
OA (8 times)
IAA (7 times)
1993 Acute appendicitis and the use of intraperitoneal cultures.
96  conservation agriculture
(27 times)
Environmental Health
(10 times)
CT (7 times)
IGP (4 times)
ZT (4 times)
2008 The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.
97  corneal astigmatism
(27 times)
Ophthalmology
(16 times)
CCT (10 times)
CC (6 times)
ACD (5 times)
2008 Dominant genetic effects on corneal astigmatism: the genes in myopia (GEM) twin study.
98  corosolic acid
(27 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
UA (4 times)
MA (3 times)
OA (3 times)
2004 Corosolic acid induces GLUT4 translocation in genetically type 2 diabetic mice.
99  cytosine arabinoside
(27 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
MMC (4 times)
5-FU (2 times)
ADM (2 times)
1964 CYTOSINE ARABINOSIDE (CA) AND OTHER NUCLEOSIDES IN HERPES VIRUS INFECTIONS.
100  comet assay
(26 times)
Environmental Health
(10 times)
MN (8 times)
MMS (3 times)
MNT (3 times)
2001 [DNA comet assay for evaluation of genotoxic effects in risk groups].