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Abbreviation: CD
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Long forms: 1553

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Crohn's disease
(10158 times)
Gastroenterology
(5572 times)
UC (4123 times)
IBD (3307 times)
CI (542 times)
0 Quality of life after bowel resection for Crohns disease - first results.
circular dichroism
(7327 times)
Biochemistry
(3384 times)
FTIR (374 times)
HSA (298 times)
BSA (297 times)
1969 The circular dichroism of suspensions of frog rod outer segments.
celiac disease
(3513 times)
Gastroenterology
(1177 times)
GFD (472 times)
tTG (244 times)
EMA (170 times)
1975 A family study of coeliac disease.
cluster of differentiation
(1080 times)
Neoplasms
(271 times)
IL (134 times)
IFN (41 times)
NK (41 times)
1984 Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations. IUIS-WHO Nomenclature Subcommittee.
conduct disorder
(948 times)
Psychiatry
(503 times)
ADHD (353 times)
ODD (282 times)
CU (51 times)
1985 Electrodermal activity of undersocialized aggressive children: a pilot study.
cyclodextrin
(583 times)
Chemistry
(144 times)
CE (40 times)
beta-CD (22 times)
HP-beta-CD (18 times)
1984 Cyclodextrin polymer, a new tablet disintegrating agent.
Cushing's disease
(516 times)
Endocrinology
(365 times)
CS (71 times)
ACTH (68 times)
TSS (67 times)
1979 Plasma cortisol profiles in Cushing's syndrome.
cesarean delivery
(396 times)
Obstetrics
(158 times)
CI (59 times)
VD (38 times)
OR (36 times)
1993 [Perinatal infant mortality and cesarean section].
Castleman's disease
(349 times)
Hematology
(56 times)
MCD (39 times)
IL-6 (32 times)
HHV-8 (30 times)
0 Castlemans disease - surgical treatment, case reports.
10  conjugated dienes
(343 times)
Biochemistry
(65 times)
TBARS (115 times)
MDA (94 times)
SOD (80 times)
1986 Plasma fatty acid pattern including diene-conjugated linoleic acid in ethanol users and patients with ethanol-related liver disease.
11  cytosine deaminase
(329 times)
Neoplasms
(139 times)
5-FC (195 times)
5-FU (82 times)
GCV (30 times)
1986 Sensitization to X ray by 5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine co-administered with tetrahydrouridine in several mammalian cell lines and studies of 2'-chloro derivatives.
12  cervical dystonia
(317 times)
Neurology
(218 times)
TWSTRS (52 times)
BoNT (32 times)
BoNT-A (18 times)
1991 Cervical dystonia: clinical findings and associated movement disorders.
13  control diet
(283 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(58 times)
HFD (93 times)
WD (18 times)
ED (14 times)
1978 The effect of protein-free diet on blood pressure in the Wistar rat.
14  collecting duct
(265 times)
Nephrology
(127 times)
ENaC (33 times)
AQP2 (32 times)
CNT (28 times)
1973 Concentrating engines and the kidney. I. Central core model of the renal medulla.
15  cytochalasin D
(225 times)
Cell Biology
(83 times)
CB (22 times)
NRK (7 times)
PKC (6 times)
1974 Action of cytochalasin D on cells of established lines. I. Early events.
16  Chagas disease
(203 times)
Tropical Medicine
(48 times)
Bz (9 times)
CCC (9 times)
DCM (6 times)
1985 Chagas' disease: serodiagnosis with purified Gp25 antigen.
17  beta-cyclodextrin
(202 times)
Chemistry
(70 times)
AD (8 times)
CE (7 times)
DSC (5 times)
1985 Nutritional significance of cyclodextrins: indigestibility and hypolipemic effect of alpha-cyclodextrin.
18  circular dichroism spectroscopy
(159 times)
Biochemistry
(73 times)
DSC (16 times)
TEM (10 times)
DLS (9 times)
1981 Antifreeze glycoprotein. Conformational model based on vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism data.
19  cathepsin D
(155 times)
Neoplasms
(45 times)
ER (14 times)
CB (12 times)
EGFR (8 times)
1981 Immunocytochemical localization of cathepsin D in rat neural tissue.
20  cortical dysplasia
(126 times)
Neurology
(89 times)
MRI (12 times)
BBB (7 times)
EEG (7 times)
1997 [Cerebral cortical dysplasia associated with epilepsy: MRI and clinical aspects].
21  Clostridium difficile
(112 times)
Communicable Diseases
(29 times)
CDI (13 times)
CDAD (6 times)
CI (5 times)
1991 Tube feeding-related diarrhea in acutely Ill patients.
22  color Doppler
(99 times)
Radiology
(17 times)
US (42 times)
PD (20 times)
RI (6 times)
1990 [On the mechanisms of mitral regurgitation in rheumatic mitral valve disease: with special reference to the role of mitral valve prolapse].
23  choline-deficient
(96 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
CS (36 times)
GGT (8 times)
PC (8 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
24  compact disc
(90 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(19 times)
CT (3 times)
PACS (3 times)
BSA (2 times)
1988 Materials developments for write-once and erasable phase-change optical recording.
25  catalytic domain
(85 times)
Biochemistry
(21 times)
CBM (11 times)
CBD (8 times)
CMC (4 times)
1993 Expression of protein kinase C isozymes in rat glial cell line.
26  capillary density
(83 times)
Physiology
(23 times)
VEGF (10 times)
FCSA (8 times)
EDL (7 times)
1979 Changes in the capillarity of skeletal muscle in the growing rat.
27  contact dermatitis
(79 times)
Dermatology
(43 times)
AD (11 times)
DNFB (9 times)
ACD (6 times)
1985 Heterogeneity of dermal OKT6+ cells in inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases.
28  cocaine dependence
(75 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(24 times)
HC (10 times)
MRI (7 times)
AD (6 times)
1993 Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with cocaine dependence.
29  gamma-cyclodextrin
(71 times)
Chemistry
(22 times)
SDS (5 times)
HP-beta-CD (3 times)
CGTase (2 times)
1985 Effect of cyclodextrin cavity size on sensitization of room-temperature phosphorescence of biacetyl.
30  Canavan disease
(69 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
NAA (40 times)
ASPA (36 times)
CNS (9 times)
1992 Biochemical diagnosis of Canavan disease.
31  chlordecone
(69 times)
Toxicology
(55 times)
PB (13 times)
3H-T (4 times)
ND (4 times)
1982 Preferential binding of chlordecone to the protein and high density lipoprotein fractions of plasma from humans and other species.
32  cardiac death
(65 times)
Cardiology
(38 times)
MI (23 times)
CI (10 times)
MPS (9 times)
1986 The orthogonal electrocardiogram as risk indicator for the prediction of myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death.
33  complete denture
(63 times)
Dentistry
(55 times)
RPD (9 times)
IOD (8 times)
OHRQoL (5 times)
1991 Oral sugar clearance in elderly people with prosthodontic reconstructions.
34  Cotrel-Dubousset
(63 times)
Orthopedics
(50 times)
AIS (5 times)
H-L (2 times)
ODI (2 times)
1987 A comparative biomechanical study of spinal fixation using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation.
35  chromatic dispersion
(61 times)
Optics and Photonics
(60 times)
PMD (16 times)
OSNR (12 times)
BER (5 times)
2003 Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres.
36  conversion disorder
(55 times)
Neurology
(20 times)
DES (4 times)
BDNF (2 times)
CTQ (2 times)
2002 Conversion motor paralysis disorder: overview and rehabilitation model.
37  campomelic dysplasia
(53 times)
Genetics, Medical
(27 times)
HMG (6 times)
ACD (5 times)
PRS (5 times)
1993 Campomelic dysplasia--an underdiagnosed condition?
38  correlation dimension
(53 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
HRV (11 times)
ApEn (10 times)
LLE (10 times)
1994 A nonlinear dynamical (chaos) approach to the analysis of broiler growth.
39  cardiovascular disease
(52 times)
Medicine
(8 times)
IHD (6 times)
CRP (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1988 Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland.
40  conventional diet
(52 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
HD (10 times)
UAD (4 times)
BD (2 times)
1977 A double-blind trial of high versus conventional dosages of gold salts for rheumatoid arthritis.
41  corneal diameter
(49 times)
Ophthalmology
(14 times)
ACD (10 times)
AL (10 times)
ND (9 times)
1985 Anterior segment and intraocular pressure measurements of the unanesthetized premature infant.
42  cluster designation
(48 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
NK (6 times)
IL-2 (3 times)
Ab (2 times)
1987 Generation of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity from human thymocytes.
43  contrast-detail
(48 times)
Biophysics
(25 times)
CR (7 times)
MTF (7 times)
DQE (6 times)
1984 Analysis of variations in contrast-detail experiments.
44  canine distemper
(47 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(26 times)
CDV (20 times)
MS (3 times)
RT-PCR (3 times)
1958 A bivalent live virus vaccine against canine distemper (CD) and infectious canine hepatitis (ICH).
45  cell density
(47 times)
Ophthalmology
(21 times)
CV (9 times)
CCT (8 times)
Hex (8 times)
1984 Cell proliferation in carcinoma in bilharzial bladder: influence of pre-operative irradiation and clinical implications.
46  cadaveric donor
(46 times)
Transplantation
(28 times)
LD (19 times)
LRD (12 times)
NAPRTCS (8 times)
1981 Diagnostic and prognostic significance of an increase in fractional protein clearance ratio before and during rejection of renal transplant.
47  Clavien-Dindo
(45 times)
General Surgery
(12 times)
HR (4 times)
CRP (3 times)
LOS (3 times)
2012 Risk assessment using a novel score to predict anastomotic leak and major complications after oesophageal resection.
48  cone dystrophy
(44 times)
Ophthalmology
(28 times)
ERG (6 times)
RP (6 times)
CRD (5 times)
1997 Cone and rod function in cone degenerations.
49  cytoplasmic domain
(42 times)
Virology
(8 times)
ED (4 times)
HIV-1 (4 times)
RV (4 times)
1991 Structure-function relationships in the mast cell high affinity receptor for IgE. Role of the cytoplasmic domains and of the beta subunit.
50  chow diet
(41 times)
Endocrinology
(11 times)
HFD (26 times)
HCD (3 times)
HF (3 times)
1996 Effect of aging on cortical spreading depression.
51  common deletion
(39 times)
Molecular Biology
(5 times)
mtDNA (24 times)
D-gal (5 times)
NOX (4 times)
1993 Respiratory chain and mitochondrial DNA in muscle and brain in Parkinson's disease patients.
52  cumulative dose
(39 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
DAP (10 times)
FT (8 times)
KAP (5 times)
1988 Cumulative dose-response with infusion: a technique to determine neuromuscular blocking potency of atracurium and vecuronium.
53  crypt depth
(37 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(12 times)
VH (33 times)
Arg (4 times)
VSA (4 times)
2004 Effects of early nutrition intervention on IGF1, IGFBP3, intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation rats.
54  alpha-cyclodextrin
(36 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
PEO (3 times)
CGTase (2 times)
PAEs (2 times)
1990 Cytotoxic activity of polyacetylene compounds in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.
55  carbidopa
(36 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
LD (24 times)
PD (8 times)
EN (5 times)
1983 [Various aspects of dopaminergic function in patients with prolactin-secreting hypophyseal adenoma].
56  cystic duct
(34 times)
General Surgery
(18 times)
CBD (15 times)
LC (10 times)
ICG (5 times)
1989 Choledochoscopy via the cystic duct: evaluation of a new ultrathin disposable choledochoscope.
57  cow dung
(33 times)
Environmental Health
(18 times)
PM (4 times)
PD (3 times)
PW (3 times)
2001 Assessment of sustainable vermiconversion of water hyacinth at different reactor efficiencies employing Eudrilus eugeniae kinberg.
58  cognitive dysfunction
(32 times)
Rheumatology
(6 times)
SLE (5 times)
ANAM (4 times)
APOE (3 times)
1985 Cognitive dysfunction and mild closed head injury in traumatic spinal cord injury.
59  core decompression
(32 times)
Orthopedics
(17 times)
ONFH (14 times)
THA (8 times)
HHS (5 times)
2004 Magnetic resonance imaging criteria of successful core decompression in avascular necrosis of the hip.
60  communication deviance
(30 times)
Psychiatry
(21 times)
EE (8 times)
AS (4 times)
TAT (3 times)
1984 Parental communication deviance and forms of thinking in male schizophrenic offspring.
61  cognitive decline
(29 times)
Geriatrics
(16 times)
MMSE (6 times)
AD (3 times)
OR (3 times)
1999 Impaired olfaction as a marker for cognitive decline: interaction with apolipoprotein E epsilon4 status.
62  critical difference
(28 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(6 times)
CV (3 times)
ALA (2 times)
ANOVA (2 times)
1984 A comparative study of the traditional long case with the objective structured clinical examination in Lagos, Nigeria.
63  chemical dependency
(27 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(16 times)
BI (2 times)
ED (2 times)
MH (2 times)
1989 Chemical dependence treatment review guidelines.
64  crural diaphragm
(26 times)
Gastroenterology
(17 times)
LES (15 times)
EGJ (13 times)
GERD (9 times)
2000 The effect of mechanoreceptor stimulation of the laryngopharynx on the oesophago-gastric junction.
65  current density
(26 times)
Environmental Health
(13 times)
EC (10 times)
BSPMs (2 times)
COD (2 times)
1995 Voltage-dependent calcium currents are enhanced in dorsal root ganglion neurones from the Bio Bred/Worchester diabetic rat.
66  chronic dialysis
(25 times)
Nephrology
(9 times)
ESRD (5 times)
GFR (4 times)
ICU (3 times)
1997 Psychosocial problem assessment and end-stage renal disease patient outcomes.
67  coefficient of determination
(25 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
AF (2 times)
CBTS (2 times)
ANs (1 time)
1977 A path analysis of the causal relationships between red cell glycolytic intermediates, ADP and ATP in sickle cell anemia.
68  choroidal detachment
(24 times)
Ophthalmology
(18 times)
RRD (10 times)
IOP (7 times)
UBM (3 times)
1978 Molecular sieving in suprachoroidal fluid formation in man.
69  methyl-beta-cyclodextrin
(23 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
CHO (2 times)
ABCA1 (1 time)
ADRP (1 time)
1998 Growth and survival of Helicobacter pylori in defined medium and susceptibility to Brij 78.
70  cafeteria diet
(21 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(9 times)
GSPE (3 times)
SD (3 times)
BAT (2 times)
1984 Pinealectomy has no effect on diet-induced thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue proliferation in rats.
71  carbon dot
(21 times)
Nanotechnology
(6 times)
FRET (3 times)
ACDs (1 time)
b-CDs (1 time)
2012 Synthesis of gold@carbon dots composite nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering.
72  charge distribution
(21 times)
Chemistry
(13 times)
MUSIC (5 times)
MO/DFT (4 times)
DFT (2 times)
1996 Multisite Adsorption of Cadmium on Goethite
73  critical dimension
(20 times)
Biophysics
(8 times)
EUV (3 times)
AFM (2 times)
FDTD (2 times)
2006 Effect of critical dimension variation on SAW correlator energy.
74  choline-devoid
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
CS (7 times)
GGT (6 times)
PhB (5 times)
1978 Enhancement of DL-ethionine-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats fed a choline-devoid diet.
75  colostrum-deprived
(18 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(15 times)
CF (10 times)
LPS (3 times)
PCV2 (3 times)
1975 Antibody responses to neonatal immunisation in calves.
76  chromodomain
(17 times)
Molecular Biology
(7 times)
HP1 (7 times)
CSD (6 times)
AR (1 time)
2000 Dimerisation of a chromo shadow domain and distinctions from the chromodomain as revealed by structural analysis.
77  cycle day
(17 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(12 times)
ICSI (2 times)
IVF (2 times)
CC (1 time)
1983 Anovulatory luteal cycles in primates.
78  clinically definite
(16 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
MS (11 times)
CIS (6 times)
MRI (3 times)
1989 Comparative impact of paraclinical studies in establishing the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.
79  commercial diet
(16 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
AAT (2 times)
HD (2 times)
OS (2 times)
1983 Modifying factors in pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster model. I. Effect of protein-free diet fed during the early stages of carcinogenesis.
80  common docking
(16 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
MAP (2 times)
MAPK (2 times)
MAPKs (2 times)
2001 Identification of a docking groove on ERK and p38 MAP kinases that regulates the specificity of docking interactions.
81  corollary discharge
(16 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
CRF (1 time)
CW (1 time)
ELL (1 time)
2008 Brain circuits for the internal monitoring of movements.
82  coronary disease
(16 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
LAD (3 times)
DF (2 times)
EDV/S (2 times)
1983 [Treatment of pain in patients with ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis of the cervicothoracic vertebrae].
83  chemically defined
(15 times)
Biotechnology
(5 times)
CHO (3 times)
GFAP (3 times)
ADCF (1 time)
1983 Differentiation of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium.
84  chenodeoxycholic acid
(15 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
DC (2 times)
GCD (2 times)
MAP (2 times)
1974 Bile acid kinetics in relation to sex, serum lipids, body weights, and gallbladder disease in patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinemia;.
85  colorectal distension
(15 times)
Anesthesiology
(13 times)
TF (13 times)
AD (1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
1994 [Evaluation of analgesic effects of morphine, buprenorphine and pentazocine in rats receiving somatic and visceral stimulation].
86  calving difficulty
(14 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(8 times)
GL (5 times)
BW (3 times)
BWT (3 times)
1979 Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analyses of factors causing calving difficulty.
87  chlorine dioxide
(14 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
RH (3 times)
VAS (3 times)
SH (2 times)
1990 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization under Square-Wave Conditions.
88  conduction disturbances
(14 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
VTSABD (3 times)
ECG (2 times)
AMI (1 time)
1979 Conduction disturbances in patients with calcified mitral annulus diagnosed by echocardiography.
89  hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
(14 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
CCs (2 times)
AAR (1 time)
ALI (1 time)
1993 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances phorbol ester effects on glucose transport and/or protein kinase C-beta translocation to the plasma membrane in rat adipocytes and soleus muscles.
90  Caton-Deschamps
(13 times)
Orthopedics
(10 times)
BP (13 times)
IS (12 times)
MIS (6 times)
2000 Reliability and interobserver variability in radiological patellar height ratios.
91  cell death
(13 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
HI (2 times)
PCD (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1992 Blocking the Ca(2+)-activated cytotoxic mechanisms of cholinergic neuronal death: a novel treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease.
92  cerebellar degeneration
(13 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
PD (3 times)
AD (1 time)
aMCI (1 time)
1980 Dependence of reaction times on movement patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease and those with cerebellar degeneration.
93  cervical deformity
(13 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
ASD (6 times)
HRQoL (4 times)
cSVA (3 times)
2015 Magnitude of preoperative cervical lordotic compensation and C2-T3 angle are correlated to increased risk of postoperative sagittal spinal pelvic malalignment in adult thoracolumbar deformity patients at 2-year follow-up.
94  choledochoduodenostomy
(13 times)
General Surgery
(7 times)
CJ (5 times)
DGR (2 times)
ERCP (2 times)
1986 [The influence of biliary diversion on canine gastric acid secretion and gut hormones].
95  Cholesky decomposition
(13 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
DF (3 times)
RI (3 times)
aCD (2 times)
2007 Unbiased auxiliary basis sets for accurate two-electron integral approximations.
96  cinchonidine
(13 times)
Chemistry
(11 times)
ATR-IR (2 times)
CN (2 times)
DFT (2 times)
2003 Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for cinchona alkaloids in hydro-organic mobile phases.
97  codon
(13 times)
Hematology
(9 times)
HPFH (2 times)
ACRS (1 time)
ARMS (1 time)
T) promoter mutation is responsible for the increased transcription of the 3' gamma gene in the Atlanta type of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. -->1994 The -158 (C-->T) promoter mutation is responsible for the increased transcription of the 3' gamma gene in the Atlanta type of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.
98  communicable diseases
(13 times)
Public Health
(5 times)
NCD (5 times)
AMR (1 time)
ART (1 time)
1993 International migration and control of communicable diseases.
99  cytoplasmic droplet
(13 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(8 times)
15-LOX (2 times)
AI (2 times)
DIC (2 times)
2003 Spermatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B(1) in the albino mouse.
100  drag coefficient
(13 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
CFD (3 times)
AD (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1980 Effect of air resistance on the metabolic cost and performance of cycling.