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Abbreviation: CHO
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Long forms: 263

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Chinese hamster ovary
(7576 times)
Biochemistry
(1730 times)
DHFR (130 times)
SCE (114 times)
mAb (107 times)
1971 Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in ultraviolet-light-irradiated Chinese hamster cells.
carbohydrate
(1187 times)
Physiology
(335 times)
PLA (60 times)
GI (39 times)
PRO (38 times)
1976 Studies of glycemia and glucosuria in diabetics after breakfast meals of different composition.
cholesterol
(196 times)
Biochemistry
(27 times)
TG (77 times)
HDL (24 times)
LDL (22 times)
1982 Alterations of lipids of the erythrocyte membranes in workers exposed to lead.
channelized Hotelling observer
(72 times)
Biophysics
(33 times)
FBP (11 times)
AUC (10 times)
ROC (9 times)
2000 Channelized hotelling and human observer correlation for lesion detection in hepatic SPECT imaging.
cyclohexene oxide
(45 times)
Chemistry
(28 times)
PO (7 times)
DM (3 times)
FETAX (3 times)
1977 Enhancement of 1,1-dichloroethylene toxicity by pretreatment of fasted male rats with 2,3-epoxypropan-1-ol.
high-carbohydrate
(31 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(12 times)
MUFA (5 times)
FAT (3 times)
PRO (3 times)
1981 Adipose cellularity, serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol in polygenic obese mice fed high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets.
carbohydrate solution
(18 times)
Sports Medicine
(7 times)
PLA (3 times)
ACTH (1 time)
AHI (1 time)
1993 Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: effects on muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.
contribution of carbohydrate
(16 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BM (1 time)
1987 Diet and diabetes, a brief overview: personal perspective.
low-carbohydrate
(16 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
COPD (1 time)
CPT-1 (1 time)
CrM (1 time)
1991 Diet-induced changes in glucose and triglycerides are associated with changes in plasminogen activator inhibitor levels.
10  carbohydrate drink
(15 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
BAN (1 time)
BC (1 time)
BMG (1 time)
1988 Adhesive properties of the carbohydrate-modified von Willebrand factor (CHO-vWF).
11  carbohydrate-electrolyte
(9 times)
Sports Medicine
(7 times)
Cr (1 time)
FFST (1 time)
HALF (1 time)
1998 Effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on endurance capacity during prolonged intermittent high intensity running.
12  carbohydrate-only
(9 times)
Sports Medicine
(5 times)
aa (1 time)
CHOPA (1 time)
CK (1 time)
2003 Amino acid ingestion strongly enhances insulin secretion in patients with long-term type 2 diabetes.
13  carbohydrate-rich diet
(9 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
BMI (1 time)
CON (1 time)
EI (1 time)
1982 Dietary effects on glycogen and lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle in man.
14  carbohydrate-electrolyte solution
(7 times)
Sports Medicine
(4 times)
PLA (3 times)
CHOc (1 time)
CON (1 time)
1995 Influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance capacity during intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running.
15  carbohydrate overload
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
BWE (3 times)
BM (1 time)
CON (1 time)
2006 Effects of an endothelin receptor antagonist and nitroglycerin on digital vascular function in horses during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis.
16  carbohydrate beverage
(5 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CK (1 time)
DBB (1 time)
EX (1 time)
2007 Consumption of an oral carbohydrate-protein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents postexercise muscle damage.
17  carbohydrate supplementation
(5 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
PLC (2 times)
POST (2 times)
CON (1 time)
2001 Minimal influence of carbohydrate ingestion on the immune response following acute resistance exercise.
18  carbohydrate-rich
(5 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
Mono (2 times)
SAT (2 times)
GI (1 time)
1993 Gastrointestinal problems as a function of carbohydrate supplements and mode of exercise.
19  carbohydrate intake
(4 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
AWGP (1 time)
CEF6 (1 time)
CRP (1 time)
1990 Dissociation of antibody responses during human schistosomiasis and evidence for enhancement of granuloma size by anti-carbohydrate IgM.
20  Cholesterol oxidase
(4 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
CHO-A (1 time)
HLB (1 time)
TEM (1 time)
2003 Purification and some properties of cholesterol oxidase stable in detergents from gamma-proteobacterium Y-134.
21  cholestyramine
(4 times)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
BA (1 time)
BSEP (1 time)
CYP7A1 (1 time)
1990 Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.
22  high-carbohydrate diet
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
FAT (3 times)
BP (2 times)
AUC (1 time)
2002 Direct measurement of renal sympathetic nervous activity in high-fat diet-related hypertensive rats.
23  2-cyclohexen-1-one
(3 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
2,3-DHBA (1 time)
3MCHO (1 time)
DA (1 time)
2008 In vivo depletion of endogenous glutathione facilitates trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in the dentate gyrus of mice by enhancing oxidative stress.
24  carbohydrate alone
(3 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
PLA (2 times)
Arg (1 time)
NOS (1 time)
2005 Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture with carbohydrate improves plasma glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes.
25  carbohydrate loading
(3 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
1RM (1 time)
CON (1 time)
IGR (1 time)
2008 Pre-operative carbohydrate loading may be used in type 2 diabetes patients.
26  carbohydrate-group
(3 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
DWP (1 time)
ORS (1 time)
2009 Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery.
27  chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis
(3 times)
Radiotherapy
(2 times)
AHO (2 times)
CT (2 times)
1983 Chronic haematogenous osteomyelitis; studies on an experimental model.
28  community health officer
(3 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
ANC (1 time)
TOT (1 time)
1995 Perception of sickle cell haemoglobinopathy among 'would-be' counsellors.
29  conventional heating oxidation
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
MOP (3 times)
TOC (1 time)
2013 A study on microwave oxidation of landfill leachate--contributions of microwave-specific effects.
30  homopiperidinyl-CO-Leu-D-Trp
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
L-NMMA (1 time)
NO (1 time)
1994 Endothelin ETA and ETB receptors in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm.
31  2018-Carbohydrate
(2 times)
Physical Fitness
(2 times)
FA (1 time)
HR (1 time)
MVCs (1 time)
2017 The Effect of a Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Upper-Body Muscular Strength and Endurance.
32  C-choline
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
FDG (2 times)
Met (2 times)
PET (2 times)
2008 Metabolic assessment of gliomas using 11C-methionine, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose, and 11C-choline positron-emission tomography.
33  carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinase
(2 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(1 time)
ADC (1 time)
ERIC (1 time)
ISs (1 time)
2013 Epidemiology of the Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase, carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinase and metallo-beta-lactamase genes, and of common insertion sequences, in epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii from Spain.
34  carbohydrate-only sports drink
(2 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
BCAACHO (1 time)
BLa (1 time)
EMG (1 time)
2010 Acute carbohydrate ingestion affects lactate response in highly trained swimmers.
35  Chinese hamster ovary cells - rmLF
(2 times)
Biology
(1 time)
bLF (1 time)
HEK (1 time)
2018 Lactoferrin Prevents Susceptibility of WEHI 231 Cells to Anti-Ig-Induced Cell Death Promoting Cell Differentiation.
36  Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
ERK1 (1 time)
FRS2 (1 time)
IGF-I (1 time)
1995 Transient adaptation of oxidative stress in mammalian cells.
37  Chinese ovary
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
HPRT (1 time)
NF-kappaB (1 time)
PMA (1 time)
1979 Transformation of the gene for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase.
38  Chinese ovary cells
(2 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
hTRPV1 (1 time)
TRPV1 (1 time)
1991 Prevalence of virulence markers of enteric Campylobacter in France and Tunisia.
39  cholesterol-rich diet
(2 times)
Biology
(1 time)
CW (1 time)
1999 Numerical density of cardiac myocytes in aged rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and a canola oil diet (n-3 fatty acid rich).
40  choriogenin
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
EDC (1 time)
VTG (1 time)
2007 Specific immunoassays for endocrine disruptor monitoring using recombinant antigens cloned by degenerated primer PCR.
41  contributions of lipids and carbohydrates
(2 times)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
PLA (1 time)
PRED (1 time)
2007 Fueling shivering thermogenesis during passive hypothermic recovery.
42  corn starch
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
aa (1 time)
CCK (1 time)
1991 Effect of floor type and energy source on growth and productivity of broiler breeders.
43  counterbalanced order: carbohydrate
(2 times)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
NKCA (2 times)
PLA (2 times)
NK (1 time)
2004 Carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise increases natural killer cell responsiveness to IL-2.
44  cyclohexanone
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CPO (2 times)
CHPO (1 time)
COO (1 time)
2007 Effect of cation absorption on ionization/dissociation of cycloketone molecules in a femtosecond laser field.
45  protein-carbohydrate
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CK (1 time)
DOMS (1 time)
EIMD (1 time)
2009 Impact of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on plasma volume expansion and thermoregulatory adaptation by aerobic training in older men.
46  soluble-carbohydrate
(2 times)
Occupational Medicine
(1 time)
FFA (1 time)
HC (1 time)
LC (1 time)
1988 Simple and complex carbohydrate-rich diets and muscle glycogen content of marathon runners.
47  total-cholesterol
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
QTL (2 times)
TG (2 times)
Chrs (1 time)
2012 Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.
48  adenosine(5')diphospho(5)-beta-D-ribose-NH-CH = C
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1980 The peroxidatic reaction catalyed by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of NADX.
49  C (and aminopeptidase) produced the glycopeptide Asn
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1978 The carbohydrate linkage site of cow colostrum trypsin inhibitor.
50  C6H4(N(H)COCH2N(H)CO2Bz), 1, with 2-Ph2PC6H4
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2007 Coordination studies of a new unsymmetrical kappa4-PNN'N"-tetradentate ligand: stepwise formation and structural characterization.
51  caffeine on exogenous carbohydrate
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
GLU (1 time)
PLA (1 time)
Ra (1 time)
2008 Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake.
52  Calculations of carbohydrate
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1978 Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.
53  calculations, but other solvent shifts such as Deltadelta
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2014 1H NMR spectra part 31: 1H chemical shifts of amides in DMSO solvent.
54  camp health officer
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2004 Camp health services in the state of Michigan.
55  can increase the anti-polysaccharide
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
Hib (1 time)
ISS (1 time)
TT (1 time)
2001 The adjuvant effect of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing CpG motif converts the anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b glycoconjugates into efficient anti-polysaccharide and anti-carrier polyvalent vaccines.
56  Canadian health organizations
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
RBDM (1 time)
2007 Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.
57  cancer were treated with escalating doses of s
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
IL (1 time)
1998 A two-part phase I trial of high-dose interleukin 2 in combination with soluble (Chinese hamster ovary) interleukin 1 receptor.
58  capabilities, nontraditional hydrogen-bonding interactions, oxygen-hydrogen
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
NCI (1 time)
2013 Controlling conformations of conjugated polymers and small molecules: the role of nonbonding interactions.
59  capacities of carbohydrates
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
POMC (1 time)
2010 The different satiating capacity of CHO and fats can be mediated by different effects on leptin and ghrelin systems.
60  capacity observed when training with reduced carbohydrate
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
LOW (1 time)
2013 Reduced carbohydrate availability enhances exercise-induced p53 signaling in human skeletal muscle: implications for mitochondrial biogenesis.
61  capacity of both high fat and high carbohydrate
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
--- 1993 Dietary fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiation and satiety.
62  capacity of serotoninergic drugs to selectively suppress carbohydrate
(1 time)
Psychopharmacology
(1 time)
--- 1988 Do serotoninergic drugs decrease energy intake by reducing fat or carbohydrate intake? Effect of d-fenfluramine with supplemented weight-increasing diets.
63  capacity of the human body to store carbohydrate
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
FA (1 time)
MCT (1 time)
1998 Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exercise.
64  capsular polysaccharide
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
GBS (1 time)
2000 Prevalence, capsular type distribution, anthropometric and obstetric factors of group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) colonization in pregnancy.
65  capsular polysaccharide antigen
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
c alpha (1 time)
GBS (1 time)
1995 Distribution of serovariants of group B streptococci in isolates from England and Norway.
66  capsules of insoluble EPS, mostly carbohydrates
(1 time)
EPS (1 time)
2015 Biofilm and capsule formation of the diatom Achnanthidium minutissimum are affected by a bacterium.
67  carbohydrate after exercise
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
PRO (1 time)
2010 Nitrogen balance in older individuals in energy balance depends on timing of protein intake.
68  carbohydrate and electrolytes
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
PLA (1 time)
2008 Core temperature and metabolic responses after carbohydrate intake during exercise at 30 degrees C.
69  carbohydrate attachment sites
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 1980 The partial primary structure of bovine rhodopsin and its topography in the retinal rod cell disc membrane.
70  carbohydrate ingestion only
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2014 Protein co-ingestion strongly increases postprandial insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes patients.
71  carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
ACTIVE (1 time)
BIC (1 time)
BLa (1 time)
2014 Repeated high intensity bouts with long recovery: are bicarbonate or carbohydrate supplements an option?
72  carbohydrate intake of the subjects was increased
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
I-HI (1 time)
1997 Carbohydrate intake and recovery of intermittent running capacity.
73  carbohydrate oxidation, muscle glycogen use, or time to exhaustion
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 2000 Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on glucose kinetics and muscle metabolism during intense endurance exercise.
74  carbohydrate placebo
(1 time)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
mTORC1 (1 time)
2017 Minimal dose of milk protein concentrate to enhance the anabolic signalling response to a single bout of resistance exercise; a randomised controlled trial.
75  carbohydrate supplement beverage
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
FO (1 time)
n-3 PUFA (1 time)
2018 Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.
76  carbohydrate x kg BM(-1) h(-1)
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
2007 The influence of carbohydrate and protein ingestion during recovery from prolonged exercise on subsequent endurance performance.
77  carbohydrate-based breakfast
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
EE (1 time)
NW (1 time)
OW (1 time)
2015 Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.
78  carbohydrate-based TPN
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
TPN (1 time)
1993 Liver dysfunction and energy source: results of a randomized clinical trial.
79  carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with electrolyte gels
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2014 Effects of carbohydrate-hydration strategies on glucose metabolism, sprint performance and hydration during a soccer match simulation in recreational players.
80  carbohydrate-fed state
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
EN (1 time)
IMCL (1 time)
2008 Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake.
81  carbohydrate-rich drink before surgery
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
--- 2015 Effects of preoperative carbohydrates drinks on immediate postoperative outcome after day care laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
82  carbohydrate/kg BM
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
FA (1 time)
NA (1 time)
2000 Effect of altering substrate availability on metabolism and performance during intense exercise.
83  carbohydrate/lipid
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 2012 Dietary carbohydrate/lipid ratios affect stress, oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of fingerling blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.
84  carbohydratekg(-1)h(-1)
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
PLA (1 time)
2016 Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.
85  carbohydrates before and during the training sessions
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
2010 Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.
86  carbohydrates in ovalbumin were recovered in two glycopeptides, Glu-Glu-Lys-Tyr-Asn
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1981 Either high-mannose-type or hybrid-type oligosaccharide is linked to the same asparagine residue in ovalbumin.
87  carbohydrate∙kg-1∙h-1
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
TT (1 time)
2018 Protein intake in the early recovery period after exhaustive exercise improves performance the following day.
88  care home operators
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
--- 2007 Filipinas as residential long-term care providers: influence of cultural values, structural inequity, and immigrant status on choosing this work.
89  carpal height ratio
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
CH (1 time)
LRL (1 time)
PA (1 time)
2006 What is the implication of scaphoid ring sign in advanced Kienbock's disease? Is it a sign of advanced carpal collapse or rotary scaphoid subluxation?
90  carried out with normal cells
(1 time)
Biological Products
(1 time)
STL (1 time)
2016 Cytotoxic and Pro-apoptotic Activities of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Inula britannica.
91  categories of major carbohydrate
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DRT (1 time)
DT (1 time)
ST (1 time)
2015 Proteomic changes during tuber dormancy release process revealed by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics in potato.
92  categories of natural dietary supplements that influence carbohydrate
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
CBs (1 time)
Cr (1 time)
2013 Comparing effects of carbohydrate (CHO) blockers and trivalent chromium on CHO-induced insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure in rats.
93  Cavernous hemangioma of the orbit
(1 time)
Neurosurgery
(1 time)
--- 2018 Bilateral Orbital Cavernous Hemangioma.
94  cell encapsulation technology to introduce a genetically modified xenogeneic
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
HCC (1 time)
IL-6 (1 time)
2006 Microencapsulation of engineered cells to deliver sustained high circulating levels of interleukin-6 to study hepatocellular carcinoma progression.
95  cell host
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
--- 2018 Quality and cost assessment of a recombinant antibody fragment produced from mammalian, yeast and prokaryotic host cells: A case study prior to pharmaceutical development.
96  cell lines.Chinese Hamster Ovary
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
LTR (1 time)
2007 Detection and cloning of LINE-1 elements in CHO cells.
97  cellgrowth and productivity of recombinant protein inChinese hamster ovary
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
--- 2000 The effects of cell adhesion on the growth and protein productivity of animal cells.
98  cells of hamster ovary
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
SDM (1 time)
2015 Predicting a double mutant in the twilight zone of low homology modeling for the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel subunit beta-1 (Nav1.4 beta1).
99  cells without EGF-receptors
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
CHO-EGFR (1 time)
EGF (1 time)
1998 Uptake of a boronated epidermal growth factor-dextran conjugate in CHO xenografts with and without human EGF-receptor expression.
100  cells, and was absent in nonhematopoietic
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1992 Signal transduction by Fc gamma RIII (CD16) is mediated through the gamma chain.