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Abbreviation: CHO
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Chinese hamster ovary
(7922 times)
Biochemistry
(1759 times)
DHFR (131 times)
mAb (124 times)
SCE (116 times)
1971 Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in ultraviolet-light-irradiated Chinese hamster cells.
carbohydrate
(1286 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(350 times)
PLA (67 times)
GI (41 times)
RPE (40 times)
1976 Studies of glycemia and glucosuria in diabetics after breakfast meals of different composition.
cholesterol
(232 times)
Biochemistry
(27 times)
TG (89 times)
HDL (28 times)
LDL (27 times)
1982 Alterations of lipids of the erythrocyte membranes in workers exposed to lead.
channelized Hotelling observer
(87 times)
Biophysics
(40 times)
FBP (13 times)
AUC (12 times)
CT (10 times)
2000 Channelized hotelling and human observer correlation for lesion detection in hepatic SPECT imaging.
cyclohexene oxide
(51 times)
Chemistry
(31 times)
PO (7 times)
PA (5 times)
ROCOP (4 times)
1977 Enhancement of 1,1-dichloroethylene toxicity by pretreatment of fasted male rats with 2,3-epoxypropan-1-ol.
high-carbohydrate
(36 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(15 times)
MUFA (5 times)
PRO (4 times)
FAT (3 times)
1981 Adipose cellularity, serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol in polygenic obese mice fed high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets.
low-carbohydrate
(22 times)
Physiology
(10 times)
COPD (1 time)
CPT-1 (1 time)
CrM (1 time)
1991 Diet-induced changes in glucose and triglycerides are associated with changes in plasminogen activator inhibitor levels.
carbohydrate solution
(19 times)
Sports Medicine
(7 times)
PLA (3 times)
FAO (2 times)
NMES (2 times)
1993 Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: effects on muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.
contribution of carbohydrate
(16 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BM (1 time)
1987 Diet and diabetes, a brief overview: personal perspective.
10  carbohydrate drink
(15 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
BAN (1 time)
BC (1 time)
BMG (1 time)
1988 Adhesive properties of the carbohydrate-modified von Willebrand factor (CHO-vWF).
11  carbohydrate-only
(11 times)
Sports Medicine
(5 times)
CK (2 times)
aa (1 time)
ADORA2A (1 time)
2003 Amino acid ingestion strongly enhances insulin secretion in patients with long-term type 2 diabetes.
12  carbohydrate-electrolyte
(9 times)
Sports Medicine
(7 times)
Cr (1 time)
FFST (1 time)
HALF (1 time)
1998 Effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on endurance capacity during prolonged intermittent high intensity running.
13  carbohydrate-rich diet
(9 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
BMI (1 time)
CON (1 time)
EI (1 time)
1982 Dietary effects on glycogen and lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle in man.
14  carbohydrate-electrolyte solution
(8 times)
Sports Medicine
(5 times)
PLA (3 times)
CHO-ALG (1 time)
CHOc (1 time)
1995 Influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance capacity during intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running.
15  carbohydrate overload
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
BWE (3 times)
BM (1 time)
CON (1 time)
2006 Effects of an endothelin receptor antagonist and nitroglycerin on digital vascular function in horses during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis.
16  carbohydrate supplementation
(6 times)
Sports Medicine
(4 times)
PLC (2 times)
POST (2 times)
beta-HB (1 time)
2001 Minimal influence of carbohydrate ingestion on the immune response following acute resistance exercise.
17  cholesterol oxidase
(6 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
CHO-A (1 time)
HLB (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2003 Purification and some properties of cholesterol oxidase stable in detergents from gamma-proteobacterium Y-134.
18  Community Health Officers
(6 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
ANC (1 time)
CHMCs (1 time)
CHPS (1 time)
1995 Perception of sickle cell haemoglobinopathy among 'would-be' counsellors.
19  carbohydrate beverage
(5 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CK (1 time)
DBB (1 time)
EX (1 time)
2007 Consumption of an oral carbohydrate-protein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents postexercise muscle damage.
20  carbohydrate intakes
(5 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
AWGP (1 time)
CEF6 (1 time)
CGM (1 time)
1990 Dissociation of antibody responses during human schistosomiasis and evidence for enhancement of granuloma size by anti-carbohydrate IgM.
21  carbohydrate loading
(5 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
IL-6 (2 times)
1RM (1 time)
CON (1 time)
2008 Pre-operative carbohydrate loading may be used in type 2 diabetes patients.
22  carbohydrate-rich
(5 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
Mono (2 times)
SAT (2 times)
GI (1 time)
1993 Gastrointestinal problems as a function of carbohydrate supplements and mode of exercise.
23  carbohydrate alone
(4 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
PLA (2 times)
Arg (1 time)
BFlh (1 time)
2005 Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture with carbohydrate improves plasma glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes.
24  carbohydrate-to-lipid
(4 times)
Zoology
(3 times)
PER (2 times)
SGR (2 times)
ACP (1 time)
2012 Dietary carbohydrate/lipid ratios affect stress, oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of fingerling blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.
25  cholestyramine
(4 times)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
BA (1 time)
BSEP (1 time)
CYP7A1 (1 time)
1990 Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.
26  high-carbohydrate diet
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
FAT (3 times)
BP (2 times)
AUC (1 time)
2002 Direct measurement of renal sympathetic nervous activity in high-fat diet-related hypertensive rats.
27  2-cyclohexen-1-one
(3 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
2,3-DHBA (1 time)
3MCHO (1 time)
DA (1 time)
2008 In vivo depletion of endogenous glutathione facilitates trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in the dentate gyrus of mice by enhancing oxidative stress.
28  carbohydrate product
(3 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
DWP (1 time)
ORS (1 time)
2009 Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery.
29  chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis
(3 times)
Radiotherapy
(2 times)
AHO (2 times)
CT (2 times)
1983 Chronic haematogenous osteomyelitis; studies on an experimental model.
30  conventional heating oxidation
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
MOP (3 times)
TOC (1 time)
2013 A study on microwave oxidation of landfill leachate--contributions of microwave-specific effects.
31  homopiperidinyl-CO-Leu-D-Trp
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
L-NMMA (1 time)
NO (1 time)
1994 Endothelin ETA and ETB receptors in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm.
32  2017-Carbohydrate
(2 times)
Physical Fitness
(2 times)
FA (1 time)
HR (1 time)
MVCs (1 time)
2017 The Effect of a Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Upper-Body Muscular Strength and Endurance.
33  C-choline
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
FDG (2 times)
Met (2 times)
PET (2 times)
2008 Metabolic assessment of gliomas using 11C-methionine, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose, and 11C-choline positron-emission tomography.
34  carbapenem hydrolyzing oxacillinase
(2 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(1 time)
ADC (1 time)
ERIC (1 time)
ISs (1 time)
2013 Epidemiology of the Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase, carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinase and metallo-beta-lactamase genes, and of common insertion sequences, in epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii from Spain.
35  carbohydrate-only sports drink
(2 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
BCAACHO (1 time)
BLa (1 time)
EMG (1 time)
2010 Acute carbohydrate ingestion affects lactate response in highly trained swimmers.
36  Chinese hamster ovary cells - rhLF
(2 times)
Biology
(1 time)
bLF (1 time)
HEK (1 time)
2018 Lactoferrin Prevents Susceptibility of WEHI 231 Cells to Anti-Ig-Induced Cell Death Promoting Cell Differentiation.
37  Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
ERK1 (1 time)
FRS2 (1 time)
IGF-I (1 time)
1995 Transient adaptation of oxidative stress in mammalian cells.
38  Chinese ovary
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
HPRT (1 time)
NF-kappaB (1 time)
PMA (1 time)
1979 Transformation of the gene for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase.
39  Chinese ovary cells
(2 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
hTRPV1 (1 time)
TRPV1 (1 time)
1991 Prevalence of virulence markers of enteric Campylobacter in France and Tunisia.
40  Chinese ovary hamster
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2013 Synthesis and anti-Plasmodium activity of benzimidazole analogues structurally related to astemizole.
41  chitosan
(2 times)
Carbohydrates
(1 time)
AFM (1 time)
ECH (1 time)
QH (1 time)
2016 Facile approach to prepare drug-loading film from hemicelluloses and chitosan.
42  chloramphenicol
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AMP (2 times)
CIP (2 times)
SXT (2 times)
2010 Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and pond environment in northeastern Brazil.
43  cholesteatoma
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
CHO-AFs (1 time)
2012 Characterization of primary cultures of cholesteatoma-associated fibroblasts.
44  choriogenin
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
EDC (1 time)
VTG (1 time)
2007 Specific immunoassays for endocrine disruptor monitoring using recombinant antigens cloned by degenerated primer PCR.
45  City Health Outlook
(2 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
PM (1 time)
2019 Assessment of personal exposure to particulate air pollution: the first result of City Health Outlook (CHO) project.
46  concentration of digestible carbohydrates
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
--- 2010 Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) in the intestine of piglets weaned to different concentrations of dietary carbohydrate.
47  contribution of fat and carbohydrate
(2 times)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
PLA (1 time)
PRED (1 time)
2007 Fueling shivering thermogenesis during passive hypothermic recovery.
48  corn starch
(2 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
aa (1 time)
CCK (1 time)
1991 Effect of floor type and energy source on growth and productivity of broiler breeders.
49  counterbalanced order: carbohydrate
(2 times)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
NKCA (2 times)
PLA (2 times)
NK (1 time)
2004 Carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise increases natural killer cell responsiveness to IL-2.
50  cyclohexanone
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CPO (2 times)
CHPO (1 time)
COO (1 time)
2007 Effect of cation absorption on ionization/dissociation of cycloketone molecules in a femtosecond laser field.
51  protein-carbohydrate
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CK (1 time)
DOMS (1 time)
EIMD (1 time)
2009 Impact of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on plasma volume expansion and thermoregulatory adaptation by aerobic training in older men.
52  simple-carbohydrate
(2 times)
Occupational Medicine
(1 time)
FFA (1 time)
HC (1 time)
LC (1 time)
1988 Simple and complex carbohydrate-rich diets and muscle glycogen content of marathon runners.
53  total-cholesterol
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
QTL (2 times)
TG (2 times)
Chrs (1 time)
2012 Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.
54  11C-choline
(1 time)
Neurosurgery
(1 time)
AAs (1 time)
AOs (1 time)
DAs (1 time)
2019 Usefulness of positron emission tomography for differentiating gliomas according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system.
55  5-channel Laguerre-Gauss Hotelling Observer
(1 time)
CO (1 time)
CT (1 time)
DV (1 time)
2014 Comparison of computational to human observer detection for evaluation of CT low dose iterative reconstruction.
56  adenosine(5')diphospho(5)-beta-D-ribose-NH-CH = C
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1980 The peroxidatic reaction catalyed by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of NADX.
57  C (and aminopeptidase) produced the glycopeptide Asn
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1978 The carbohydrate linkage site of cow colostrum trypsin inhibitor.
58  C, H, and O
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
APPI (1 time)
CHN (1 time)
CHON (1 time)
2020 Assessment of PM2.5-bound nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) during winter at urban sites in China and Korea.
59  C6H4(N(H)COCH2N(H)CO2Bz), 1, with 2-Ph2PC6H4
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2007 Coordination studies of a new unsymmetrical kappa4-PNN'N"-tetradentate ligand: stepwise formation and structural characterization.
60  caffeine on exogenous carbohydrate
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
GLU (1 time)
PLA (1 time)
Ra (1 time)
2008 Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake.
61  Calculations of carbohydrate
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1978 Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.
62  calculations, but other solvent shifts such as Deltadelta
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2014 1H NMR spectra part 31: 1H chemical shifts of amides in DMSO solvent.
63  camp health officer
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2004 Camp health services in the state of Michigan.
64  can increase the anti-polysaccharide
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
Hib (1 time)
ISS (1 time)
TT (1 time)
2001 The adjuvant effect of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing CpG motif converts the anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b glycoconjugates into efficient anti-polysaccharide and anti-carrier polyvalent vaccines.
65  Canadian health organizations
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
RBDM (1 time)
2007 Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.
66  cancer were treated with escalating doses of s
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
IL (1 time)
1998 A two-part phase I trial of high-dose interleukin 2 in combination with soluble (Chinese hamster ovary) interleukin 1 receptor.
67  capabilities, nontraditional hydrogen-bonding interactions, oxygen-hydrogen
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
NCI (1 time)
2013 Controlling conformations of conjugated polymers and small molecules: the role of nonbonding interactions.
68  capacities of carbohydrates
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
POMC (1 time)
2010 The different satiating capacity of CHO and fats can be mediated by different effects on leptin and ghrelin systems.
69  capacity observed when training with reduced carbohydrate
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
LOW (1 time)
2013 Reduced carbohydrate availability enhances exercise-induced p53 signaling in human skeletal muscle: implications for mitochondrial biogenesis.
70  capacity of both high fat and high carbohydrate
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
--- 1993 Dietary fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiation and satiety.
71  capacity of serotoninergic drugs to selectively suppress carbohydrate
(1 time)
Psychopharmacology
(1 time)
--- 1988 Do serotoninergic drugs decrease energy intake by reducing fat or carbohydrate intake? Effect of d-fenfluramine with supplemented weight-increasing diets.
72  capacity of the human body to store carbohydrate
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
FA (1 time)
MCT (1 time)
1998 Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exercise.
73  capsular polysaccharide
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
GBS (1 time)
2000 Prevalence, capsular type distribution, anthropometric and obstetric factors of group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) colonization in pregnancy.
74  capsular polysaccharide antigen
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
c alpha (1 time)
GBS (1 time)
1995 Distribution of serovariants of group B streptococci in isolates from England and Norway.
75  capsules of insoluble EPS, mostly carbohydrates
(1 time)
EPS (1 time)
2015 Biofilm and capsule formation of the diatom Achnanthidium minutissimum are affected by a bacterium.
76  carbohydrate after exercise
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
PRO (1 time)
2010 Nitrogen balance in older individuals in energy balance depends on timing of protein intake.
77  carbohydrate and electrolytes
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
PLA (1 time)
2008 Core temperature and metabolic responses after carbohydrate intake during exercise at 30 degrees C.
78  carbohydrate attachment sites
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 1980 The partial primary structure of bovine rhodopsin and its topography in the retinal rod cell disc membrane.
79  carbohydrate ingestion only
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2014 Protein co-ingestion strongly increases postprandial insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes patients.
80  carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
ACTIVE (1 time)
BIC (1 time)
BLa (1 time)
2014 Repeated high intensity bouts with long recovery: are bicarbonate or carbohydrate supplements an option?
81  carbohydrate intake of the subjects was increased
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
I-HI (1 time)
1997 Carbohydrate intake and recovery of intermittent running capacity.
82  carbohydrate metabolism
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
GHRD (1 time)
IGFBP-1 (1 time)
LS (1 time)
2020 Growth hormone receptor deficiency in humans associates to obesity, increased body fat percentage, a healthy brain and a coordinated insulin sensitivity.
83  carbohydrate oral
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
GPS (1 time)
VAS (1 time)
2019 A randomised controlled study of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading versus fasting in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.
84  carbohydrate oxidation, muscle glycogen use, or time to exhaustion
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 2000 Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on glucose kinetics and muscle metabolism during intense endurance exercise.
85  carbohydrate placebo
(1 time)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
mTORC1 (1 time)
2017 Minimal dose of milk protein concentrate to enhance the anabolic signalling response to a single bout of resistance exercise; a randomised controlled trial.
86  carbohydrate supplement beverage
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
FO (1 time)
n-3 PUFA (1 time)
2018 Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.
87  carbohydrate without
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CK (1 time)
LV (1 time)
PRO (1 time)
2019 Effect of ingesting carbohydrate only or carbohydrate plus casein protein hydrolysate during a multiday cycling race on left ventricular function, plasma volume expansion and cardiac biomarkers.
88  carbohydrate x kg BM(-1) h(-1)
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
2007 The influence of carbohydrate and protein ingestion during recovery from prolonged exercise on subsequent endurance performance.
89  carbohydrate-based breakfast
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
EE (1 time)
NW (1 time)
OW (1 time)
2015 Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.
90  carbohydrate-based TPN
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
TPN (1 time)
1993 Liver dysfunction and energy source: results of a randomized clinical trial.
91  carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with electrolyte gels
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2014 Effects of carbohydrate-hydration strategies on glucose metabolism, sprint performance and hydration during a soccer match simulation in recreational players.
92  carbohydrate-fed state
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
EN (1 time)
IMCL (1 time)
2008 Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake.
93  carbohydrate-rich drink before surgery
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
--- 2015 Effects of preoperative carbohydrates drinks on immediate postoperative outcome after day care laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
94  carbohydrate/kg BM
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
FA (1 time)
NA (1 time)
2000 Effect of altering substrate availability on metabolism and performance during intense exercise.
95  carbohydratekg(-1)h(-1)
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
PLA (1 time)
2016 Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.
96  carbohydrates before and during the training sessions
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
2010 Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.
97  carbohydrates in ovalbumin were recovered in two glycopeptides, Glu-Glu-Lys-Tyr-Asn
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1981 Either high-mannose-type or hybrid-type oligosaccharide is linked to the same asparagine residue in ovalbumin.
98  carbohydrate∙kg-1∙h-1
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
TT (1 time)
2018 Protein intake in the early recovery period after exhaustive exercise improves performance the following day.
99  carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
(1 time)
CHONS (1 time)
GSH-IDY (1 time)
2019 Metabolic diversity conveyed by the process leading to glutathione accumulation in inactivated dry yeast: A synthetic media study.
100  care home operators
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
--- 2007 Filipinas as residential long-term care providers: influence of cultural values, structural inequity, and immigrant status on choosing this work.