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Abbreviation: CI
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
confidence interval
(188757 times)
Neoplasms
(21923 times)
OR (58216 times)
HR (22321 times)
RR (16090 times)
0 Povrch tla a tlesna hmotnost dosple eske onkologicke populace.
cardiac index
(2615 times)
Cardiology
(652 times)
HR (542 times)
MAP (524 times)
SVR (273 times)
1970 Hemodynamics, coronary blood flow, and myocardial metabolism in coronary shock; response of 1-norepinephrine and isoproterenol.
cochlear implant
(2182 times)
Audiology
(829 times)
NH (259 times)
HA (128 times)
SSD (50 times)
1982 Comparison of promontory and cochlear implants within a single subject.
combination index
(894 times)
Neoplasms
(211 times)
NSCLC (26 times)
DOX (25 times)
ROS (25 times)
1981 [Effect of lindane on protein nutritive utilization in trout (Salmo gairdneri) (author's transl)].
cochlear implantation
(570 times)
Otolaryngology
(360 times)
CAP (44 times)
SNHL (32 times)
SIR (23 times)
1997 Cost-effectiveness considerations in pediatric cochlear implantation.
cognitive impairment
(564 times)
Neurology
(194 times)
MS (89 times)
MMSE (53 times)
MoCA (33 times)
1993 Subtle extrapyramidal signs can predict the development of dementia in elderly individuals.
conformity index
(531 times)
Neoplasms
(191 times)
HI (207 times)
IMRT (137 times)
PTV (136 times)
1986 Correlation of renal histology with outcome in children with lupus nephritis.
cerebral infarction
(406 times)
Neurology
(101 times)
ICH (43 times)
CH (40 times)
SAH (36 times)
1979 Spontaneous platelet aggregation in cerebrovascular disease II. Further characterisation of the platelet defect.
continuous infusion
(289 times)
Neoplasms
(102 times)
5-FU (46 times)
CR (19 times)
LV (17 times)
1985 A comparative randomized trial of vinca alkaloids in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma.
10  cytoplasmic incompatibility
(289 times)
Biology
(78 times)
ANK (6 times)
MK (6 times)
PCR (5 times)
1990 Bidirectional incompatibility between conspecific populations of Drosophila simulans.
11  credible interval
(231 times)
Epidemiology
(27 times)
OR (27 times)
RR (21 times)
QALYs (11 times)
1998 Bayesian estimation of asthma prevalence, and comparison of exercise and questionnaire diagnostics in the absence of a gold standard.
12  chemical ionization
(204 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(133 times)
EI (117 times)
GC/MS (29 times)
CID (20 times)
1975 Chemical-ionization mass spectrometry of beta-lactam antibiotics.
13  complex I
(189 times)
Biochemistry
(40 times)
ROS (24 times)
OXPHOS (22 times)
mtDNA (19 times)
1997 Platelet mitochondrial respiratory chain function in Parkinson's disease.
14  cumulative incidence
(161 times)
Transplantation
(60 times)
OS (33 times)
GVHD (30 times)
UCBT (16 times)
1987 The incidence of AIDS among blacks and Hispanics.
15  configuration interaction
(151 times)
Chemistry
(124 times)
DFT (13 times)
CC (8 times)
HF (5 times)
1993 A quantum mechanical study of the active site of aspartic proteinases.
16  calving interval
(118 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(53 times)
AFC (20 times)
PI (8 times)
BCS (7 times)
1979 The relation of heart rhythm to postextrasystolic potentiation.
17  conical intersection
(106 times)
Chemistry
(100 times)
PES (9 times)
TDDFT (8 times)
PESs (7 times)
2003 Femtochemistry of trans-azomethane: a combined experimental and theoretical study.
18  cell index
(88 times)
Dentistry
(10 times)
RTCA (16 times)
RT-CES (6 times)
DMFT (4 times)
1987 The colour index (CI) and histological stains.
19  chilling injury
(87 times)
Chemistry
(31 times)
CAT (8 times)
MDA (7 times)
POD (7 times)
1990 Squalene in grapefruit wax as a possible natural protectant against chilling injury.
20  convergence insufficiency
(84 times)
Optometry
(36 times)
CISS (21 times)
NPC (19 times)
PFV (9 times)
1986 Convergence insufficiency, fixation disparity, and control systems analysis.
21  cerebral ischemia
(73 times)
Complementary Therapies
(35 times)
EA (23 times)
MCAO (12 times)
sham (9 times)
1982 Protective actions of dexamethasone in acute cerebral ischemia.
22  cephalic index
(68 times)
General Surgery
(29 times)
CC (3 times)
CT (3 times)
ESC (3 times)
1976 Neonatal and maternal cranial form.
23  conventional imaging
(68 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(24 times)
FDG (13 times)
PET/CT (11 times)
PET (10 times)
1995 [Breast cancer: role of MRI in follow-up of cases treated].
24  concordance index
(63 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
CT (15 times)
GTV (7 times)
NSCLC (7 times)
1989 Consensus among bone marrow transplanters for diagnosis, grading and treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Committee of the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry.
25  chronotropic incompetence
(60 times)
Cardiology
(35 times)
HR (24 times)
CHF (7 times)
HF (5 times)
1996 A prospective multicenter study demonstrating clinical benefit with a new accelerometer-based DDDR pacemaker. Dromos Dr Investigators Group.
26  confidence
(59 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
OR (14 times)
RR (8 times)
HR (4 times)
2000 Biphasic anaphylactic reactions in pediatrics.
27  confidence limits
(59 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
OR (14 times)
SIR (5 times)
HR (4 times)
1989 The resting electrocardiogram as a screening test. A clinical analysis.
28  calcineurin inhibitor
(55 times)
Transplantation
(39 times)
MMF (14 times)
SRL (12 times)
LT (5 times)
2000 Experience with daclizumab in liver transplantation: renal transplant dosing without calcineurin inhibitors is insufficient to prevent acute rejection in liver transplantation.
29  calculus index
(55 times)
Dentistry
(37 times)
GI (29 times)
PI (25 times)
PD (14 times)
1977 [Calculus index (OHI-S) and periodontal condition in diabetes mellitus].
30  cold ischemia
(54 times)
Transplantation
(28 times)
WI (16 times)
UW (6 times)
Cr (3 times)
1989 The importance of iron, calcium and free radicals in reperfusion injury: an overview of studies in ischaemic rabbit kidneys.
31  chemotactic index
(43 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(10 times)
PBMC (3 times)
RT-PCR (3 times)
CD (2 times)
1976 Leukocyte chemotaxis in diabetic patients and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives.
32  complexity index
(38 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
MSE (7 times)
SE (5 times)
COP (4 times)
1994 Quantification of tight junction complexity by means of fractal analysis.
33  chronic inflammation
(36 times)
Communicable Diseases
(6 times)
AI (9 times)
SCC (6 times)
CIN I (3 times)
1980 [Comparative study of the persistence of 3 RNA-containing viruses in a continuous cell culture of human origin].
34  consumption index
(36 times)
Biology
(6 times)
ECI (7 times)
AD (6 times)
ECD (5 times)
1988 Nutritional physiology of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, infected with Nosema fumiferanae, and interactions with dietary nitrogen.
35  container index
(35 times)
Tropical Medicine
(14 times)
BI (23 times)
HI (19 times)
DHF (4 times)
1999 Breeding habitats & seasonal variation in the larval density of Aedes aegypti (L) & Ae. albopictus (Skuse) in an urban garden in Calcutta city.
36  contextual interference
(35 times)
Sports Medicine
(8 times)
KR (3 times)
DL (2 times)
fMRI (2 times)
1994 The contextual interference effect for skill variations from the same and different generalized motor programs.
37  calcium ionophore
(34 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
DC (9 times)
DCs (5 times)
AML (3 times)
1983 Monocyte dependent excited oxygen radical generation in rheumatoid arthritis: inhibition by gold sodium thiomalate.
38  cranial index
(34 times)
Pediatrics
(13 times)
CVAI (7 times)
CT (4 times)
ICP (3 times)
1990 Search for secular trends in calvarial diameters, cranial base height, indices, and capacity in South African Negro crania.
39  cylindrical inclusion
(34 times)
Virology
(14 times)
CP (6 times)
TuMV (4 times)
ORF (3 times)
1988 In vitro analysis of tobacco vein mottling virus NIa cistron: evidence for a virus-encoded protease.
40  cognitive interview
(33 times)
Psychology
(14 times)
SI (7 times)
CE (3 times)
IRT (2 times)
1995 Facilitating children's eyewitness recall with the revised cognitive interview.
41  confidence index
(33 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
OR (10 times)
HR (5 times)
JSW (2 times)
1994 Optimal blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients. Report from the Department of Health Hypertension Care Computing Project (DHCCP).
42  carbonyl iron
(32 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
MR (12 times)
MRF (5 times)
BAL (3 times)
1990 Species comparisons of proximal alveolar deposition patterns of inhaled particulates.
43  collagen type I
(32 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
FN (13 times)
ECM (8 times)
CIII (4 times)
1986 Characteristics of cellular immune responses to collagen type I or collagen type II.
44  confidence level
(29 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
OR (10 times)
HR (3 times)
RR (3 times)
1993 Peripheral blood leukocyte count and respiratory symptoms.
45  crystallinity index
(29 times)
Biotechnology
(4 times)
XRD (11 times)
FTIR (8 times)
SEM (4 times)
1984 Pretreatment for enhanced hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.
46  cervical insufficiency
(28 times)
Obstetrics
(6 times)
PD (2 times)
PTB (2 times)
AME (1 time)
1989 [Increasing mental performance by multistep oxygen therapy. Computer-assisted measurements of information processing capacity, intelligence, short-term memory and further parameters of cerebral performance].
47  cortical index
(28 times)
Orthopedics
(10 times)
BMD (7 times)
DXA (3 times)
OP (2 times)
1990 [Index of the diaphyseal cortex and mechanical strength of the femur in experimental studies].
48  community integration
(27 times)
Rehabilitation
(7 times)
ABI (3 times)
CIQ (3 times)
SI (3 times)
2005 Appraising evidence on community integration following brain injury: a systematic review.
49  cardiac output index
(26 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
HR (8 times)
MAP (7 times)
CVP (5 times)
1985 Increased cardiovascular responses to norepinephrine and calcium antagonists in essential hypertension compared with normotension in humans.
50  constraint-induced
(26 times)
Rehabilitation
(10 times)
CP (6 times)
CNS (2 times)
WMFT (2 times)
1997 Constraint-induced movement therapy for motor recovery after stroke.
51  consistency index
(24 times)
Biology
(7 times)
RI (4 times)
ADHD (1 time)
AHP (1 time)
1992 HYBRIDS AND PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS II. THE IMPACT OF HYBRIDS ON CLADISTIC ANALYSIS.
52  cortical inhibition
(24 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
TMS (15 times)
CSP (10 times)
SICI (10 times)
2002 Evidence for impaired cortical inhibition in schizophrenia using transcranial magnetic stimulation.
53  conditioned inhibition
(23 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
CS (6 times)
EU (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1980 Enhancement of bar-pressing rate in rats by the conditioned inhibitor of the CER.
54  I collagen
(23 times)
Rheumatology
(10 times)
CII (6 times)
FN (6 times)
CIV (4 times)
1990 Type I and type IV collagen promote adherence and spreading of human type II pneumocytes in vitro.
55  chemical intolerance
(22 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
EEG (3 times)
MCS (3 times)
BI (1 time)
1997 The association of respiratory problems in a community sample with self-reported chemical intolerance.
56  compression ignition
(22 times)
Environmental Health
(20 times)
BTE (8 times)
CO (5 times)
HC (5 times)
2001 Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
57  computational intelligence
(22 times)
Medical Informatics
(9 times)
GA (4 times)
EC (2 times)
SNP (2 times)
2005 Human-centric intelligent systems for exploration and knowledge discovery.
58  coverage index
(22 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
COIN (14 times)
DHI (10 times)
DNR (9 times)
2000 Dosimetric and volumetric criteria for selecting a source activity and a source type ((125)I or (103)Pd) in the presence of irregular seed placement in permanent prostate implants.
59  cardiac involvement
(21 times)
Cardiology
(9 times)
BMD (4 times)
MMP (3 times)
LI (2 times)
1998 Progression of cardiac involvement in patients with myotonic dystrophy, Becker's muscular dystrophy and mitochondrial myopathy during a 2-year follow-up.
60  cascade impactor
(21 times)
Pharmacology
(16 times)
APSD (10 times)
ACI (5 times)
AIM (3 times)
1997 Physical properties and use of pertechnegas as a ventilation agent.
61  colonic ischaemia
(21 times)
Vascular Diseases
(9 times)
AAA (5 times)
EVAR (5 times)
OR (4 times)
1991 Colonic ischemia complicating immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha.
62  cranial irradiation
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
ALL (6 times)
GH (4 times)
AL (2 times)
1993 Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and neuropsychological evaluation in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a young age.
63  cytotoxicity index
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
NK (2 times)
AHAbs (1 time)
ALL (1 time)
1975 Alteration of cell-surface antigenicity of the mouse plasmacytoma. I. Immunologic characterization of surface antigens masked during successive transplantations.
64  contrast index
(17 times)
Radiology
(6 times)
DCE-MRI (6 times)
MRI (3 times)
T1WI (3 times)
1992 [Low flip angle spin-echo MR imaging to obtain better Gd-DTPA enhanced imaging with ECG gating].
65  Criegee intermediate
(17 times)
Chemistry
(15 times)
POZ (2 times)
SOZ (2 times)
AES (1 time)
2005 Unusual aggregates from the oxidation of alkene self-assembled monolayers: a previously unrecognized mechanism for SAM ozonolysis?
66  Charlson Index
(16 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
KFI (2 times)
PD (2 times)
AAMET (1 time)
1996 An intervention on discharge polypharmacy.
67  confidence ratio
(16 times)
Nursing
(2 times)
OR (9 times)
HR (2 times)
PR (2 times)
1996 Acute stroke with atrial fibrillation. The Copenhagen Stroke Study.
68  conformity
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(13 times)
HI (7 times)
VMAT (6 times)
GI (4 times)
2001 NOMOS Peacock IMRT utilizing the Beak post collimation device.
69  chromosomal instability
(15 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
CRC (2 times)
FA (2 times)
MI (2 times)
1999 Microsatellite instability and aneuploidy rate in young colorectal-cancer patients do not differ significantly from those in older patients.
70  chronic illness
(15 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
MEND (2 times)
AOR (1 time)
BCS (1 time)
2002 Gender differences in adapting to a child's chronic illness: a causal model.
71  ciprofloxacin
(15 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
AUC (2 times)
CR (2 times)
EM (2 times)
1989 In vitro activity of lomefloxacin (NY-198 or SC 47111), ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin against 100 clinical Legionella strains.
72  class I
(15 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
CII (6 times)
sHSPs (5 times)
CIII (2 times)
1996 Cephalometric comparisons of craniofacial and upper airway structure by skeletal subtype and gender in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
73  colonic inertia
(15 times)
Gastroenterology
(12 times)
TAC (4 times)
EMG (2 times)
OD (2 times)
1989 Cisapride accelerates colonic transit in constipated patients with colonic inertia.
74  conventional instrumentation
(15 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
PSI (12 times)
TKA (12 times)
HKA (3 times)
2014 Patient-specific instrumentation does not improve alignment in total knee arthroplasty.
75  cortical infarction
(15 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
BI (3 times)
CCS (3 times)
FP (3 times)
1989 Experimental models of brain injury.
76  cultural importance index
(15 times)
Social Sciences
(14 times)
RFC (5 times)
Fic (2 times)
ICF (2 times)
2009 Plants and traditional knowledge: an ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia).
77  chymase inhibitor
(14 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
LV (3 times)
ACE (2 times)
Ang II (2 times)
2003 Calpain inhibitor (BSF 409425) diminishes ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage of rabbit heart mitochondria.
78  collagen I
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
ECM (8 times)
CIV (4 times)
CIII (3 times)
1992 Extracellular matrix protein: gene expression and synthesis in cultured rat mesangial cells.
79  comorbidity index
(14 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
CIRS (2 times)
HR (2 times)
HRQoL (2 times)
1997 Comorbidity measures for stroke outcome research: a preliminary study.
80  confidence interval for the difference
(14 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
ALL (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
1993 Variability in the stereoselective disposition of ibuprofen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
81  conventional irrigation
(14 times)
Dentistry
(6 times)
PUI (5 times)
LAI (3 times)
SEM (2 times)
2009 Laser induced explosive vapor and cavitation resulting in effective irrigation of the root canal. Part 2: evaluation of the efficacy.
82  caloric intake
(13 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(4 times)
BSA (2 times)
BW (2 times)
EBEE (2 times)
1987 Cardio respiratory responses in factory workers of north Delhi belonging to varying nutritional background.
83  capsular invasion
(13 times)
Urology
(3 times)
BCR (2 times)
EPE (2 times)
FA (2 times)
1992 Follicular thyroid carcinoma with capsular invasion alone: a nonthreatening malignancy.
84  cardiac
(13 times)
Critical Care
(5 times)
HR (3 times)
MAP (3 times)
SI (3 times)
1989 Ventricular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with reduced cardiac mass.
85  colonization index
(13 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
ICU (4 times)
CS (2 times)
ICUs (2 times)
1997 Epidemiological study of Candida spp. colonization in cardiovascular surgical patients.
86  compliance index
(13 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
NAFLD (2 times)
PWV (2 times)
SI (2 times)
1989 Serum digoxin and beta-methyldigoxin in elderly patients on hospital admission: correlation with home compliance and clinical variables.
87  critical incident
(13 times)
Nursing
(2 times)
AIMS (1 time)
CIRS (1 time)
CIS (1 time)
1997 The anaesthesia critical incident reporting system: an experience based database.
88  Canadian Intense
(12 times)
Toxicology
(7 times)
ISO (6 times)
ALI (1 time)
BaP (1 time)
2010 Estimating tar and nicotine exposure: human smoking versus machine generated smoke yields.
89  cation-independent
(12 times)
Cell Biology
(7 times)
CD (8 times)
Man-6-P (5 times)
MPRs (4 times)
1985 Lysosomal enzyme binding to mouse P388D1 macrophage membranes lacking the 215-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor: evidence for the existence of a second mannose 6-phosphate receptor.
90  chlorimipramine
(12 times)
Psychiatry
(5 times)
DMI (4 times)
DCI (3 times)
DA (2 times)
1977 Substituted amphetamine derivatives. II. Behavioural effects in mice related to monoaminergic neurones.
91  colloidal iron
(12 times)
Histocytochemistry
(4 times)
GPA (2 times)
PCF (2 times)
AF (1 time)
1976 Cytochemistry of colloidal iron binding to the surface of Hela cells and human erythrocytes.
92  continuous improvement
(12 times)
Health Services
(4 times)
BPR (1 time)
CW (1 time)
DMTA (1 time)
1990 Reproducibility of cumulative work, heart rate and blood pressure response during stepwise versus continuous load increment during a maximal bicycle ergometer test.
93  creatinase
(12 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
CA (7 times)
SO (7 times)
CV (4 times)
2002 Biosensors and flow-through system for the determination of creatinine in hemodialysate.
94  calcification index
(11 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
AAA (1 time)
AD (1 time)
AmCAD-UT (1 time)
1986 Age-related change in calcifications in the thoracic aorta: a study with computed tomography.
95  central incisor
(11 times)
Dentistry
(6 times)
LI (7 times)
CA (5 times)
IP (2 times)
2008 Range and mean discordance of individual tooth width of the mandibular anterior dentition.
96  checkpoint inhibitors
(11 times)
Immune System Diseases
(2 times)
PD-L1 (2 times)
AEs (1 time)
allo-HSCT (1 time)
2018 Treatment-related toxicities of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced cancers: A meta-analysis.
97  clinical improvement
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CR (4 times)
PR (4 times)
CLL (2 times)
1987 Treatment of refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia with prednimustine: a phase II study using strict response criteria.
98  Closing-in
(11 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
AD (5 times)
VD (2 times)
adherent-CI (1 time)
2013 Inducing closing-in phenomenon in healthy young adults: the effect of dual task and stimulus complexity on drawing performance.
99  color intensity
(11 times)
Chemistry
(6 times)
AC (2 times)
CM (2 times)
PEF (2 times)
2002 A new method to determine discoloration kinetics of uncoated white tablets occurring during stability testing-an application of instrumental color measurement in the development pharmaceutics.
100  creatinine index
(11 times)
Nephrology
(6 times)
HD (5 times)
LBM (4 times)
CKM (2 times)
1995 Creatinine kinetic modelling: a simple and reliable tool for the assessment of protein nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.