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Abbreviation: CI
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
confidence interval
(230069 times)
Neoplasms
(25988 times)
OR (69430 times)
HR (28836 times)
RR (18799 times)
1977 Correlation of spontaneous leukocyte blastogenesis with human renal allograft rejection.
cochlear implant
(3474 times)
Otolaryngology
(1429 times)
NH (318 times)
HA (165 times)
SSD (87 times)
1982 Comparison of promontory and cochlear implants within a single subject.
cardiac index
(2779 times)
Cardiology
(691 times)
HR (567 times)
MAP (551 times)
CO (298 times)
1970 Hemodynamics, coronary blood flow, and myocardial metabolism in coronary shock; response of 1-norepinephrine and isoproterenol.
combination index
(1101 times)
Neoplasms
(228 times)
DOX (37 times)
ROS (32 times)
TEG (31 times)
1981 [Effect of lindane on protein nutritive utilization in trout (Salmo gairdneri) (author's transl)].
cognitive impairment
(812 times)
Neurology
(254 times)
MS (115 times)
MMSE (75 times)
MoCA (56 times)
1993 Subtle extrapyramidal signs can predict the development of dementia in elderly individuals.
conformity index
(690 times)
Neoplasms
(232 times)
HI (269 times)
PTV (165 times)
VMAT (161 times)
1986 Correlation of renal histology with outcome in children with lupus nephritis.
cerebral infarction
(459 times)
Neurology
(105 times)
ICH (48 times)
SAH (42 times)
CH (41 times)
1979 Spontaneous platelet aggregation in cerebrovascular disease II. Further characterisation of the platelet defect.
continuous infusion
(359 times)
Neoplasms
(105 times)
5-FU (46 times)
CR (20 times)
PR (18 times)
1983 Continuous irradiation of the Lewis lung carcinoma in vivo at clinically-used "ultra" low-dose-rates.
cytoplasmic incompatibility
(324 times)
Biology
(70 times)
ANK (6 times)
MK (6 times)
PCR (5 times)
1990 Bidirectional incompatibility between conspecific populations of Drosophila simulans.
10  credible interval
(316 times)
Medicine
(33 times)
OR (39 times)
RR (28 times)
QALYs (13 times)
1998 Bayesian estimation of asthma prevalence, and comparison of exercise and questionnaire diagnostics in the absence of a gold standard.
11  complex I
(235 times)
Biochemistry
(47 times)
ROS (31 times)
OXPHOS (29 times)
mtDNA (21 times)
1997 Platelet mitochondrial respiratory chain function in Parkinson's disease.
12  chemical ionization
(213 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(138 times)
EI (121 times)
GC/MS (29 times)
GC-MS (21 times)
1975 Chemical-ionization mass spectrometry of beta-lactam antibiotics.
13  cumulative incidence
(208 times)
Transplantation
(66 times)
OS (42 times)
GVHD (37 times)
NRM (19 times)
1987 The incidence of AIDS among blacks and Hispanics.
14  configuration interaction
(168 times)
Chemistry
(138 times)
DFT (15 times)
CC (13 times)
CAS (6 times)
1993 A quantum mechanical study of the active site of aspartic proteinases.
15  calving interval
(145 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(69 times)
AFC (26 times)
DO (15 times)
GL (10 times)
1979 The relation of heart rhythm to postextrasystolic potentiation.
16  chilling injury
(121 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(39 times)
MDA (12 times)
CAT (11 times)
POD (9 times)
1990 Squalene in grapefruit wax as a possible natural protectant against chilling injury.
17  conical intersection
(121 times)
Chemistry
(108 times)
TDDFT (10 times)
PES (9 times)
PESs (9 times)
2003 Femtochemistry of trans-azomethane: a combined experimental and theoretical study.
18  cell index
(106 times)
Dentistry
(11 times)
RTCA (20 times)
RT-CES (6 times)
HR (5 times)
1987 The colour index (CI) and histological stains.
19  convergence insufficiency
(99 times)
Ophthalmology
(41 times)
CISS (23 times)
NPC (23 times)
PFV (9 times)
1986 Convergence insufficiency, fixation disparity, and control systems analysis.
20  cerebral ischemia
(87 times)
Complementary Therapies
(38 times)
EA (24 times)
MCAO (14 times)
sham (10 times)
1982 Protective actions of dexamethasone in acute cerebral ischemia.
21  cephalic index
(86 times)
General Surgery
(36 times)
ICV (5 times)
CT (4 times)
HC (4 times)
1976 Neonatal and maternal cranial form.
22  conventional imaging
(85 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(29 times)
PET/CT (14 times)
FDG (13 times)
PET (11 times)
1995 [Breast cancer: role of MRI in follow-up of cases treated].
23  confidence
(79 times)
Medicine
(9 times)
OR (16 times)
HR (11 times)
RR (10 times)
2000 Biphasic anaphylactic reactions in pediatrics.
24  chronotropic incompetence
(74 times)
Cardiology
(38 times)
HR (30 times)
HRR (9 times)
CPET (8 times)
1996 A prospective multicenter study demonstrating clinical benefit with a new accelerometer-based DDDR pacemaker. Dromos Dr Investigators Group.
25  concordance index
(72 times)
Neoplasms
(42 times)
CT (15 times)
OS (10 times)
GTV (8 times)
1989 Consensus among bone marrow transplanters for diagnosis, grading and treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Committee of the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry.
26  confidence index
(68 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
OR (12 times)
HR (9 times)
RI (4 times)
1992 HYBRIDS AND PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS II. THE IMPACT OF HYBRIDS ON CLADISTIC ANALYSIS.
27  cold ischemia
(63 times)
Transplantation
(29 times)
WI (18 times)
UW (6 times)
I/R (4 times)
1989 The importance of iron, calcium and free radicals in reperfusion injury: an overview of studies in ischaemic rabbit kidneys.
28  confidence limits
(63 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
OR (16 times)
HR (5 times)
SIR (5 times)
1989 The resting electrocardiogram as a screening test. A clinical analysis.
29  calculus index
(62 times)
Dentistry
(39 times)
GI (31 times)
PI (27 times)
PD (16 times)
1977 [Calculus index (OHI-S) and periodontal condition in diabetes mellitus].
30  calcineurin inhibitor
(58 times)
Transplantation
(40 times)
MMF (14 times)
SRL (12 times)
LT (5 times)
2000 Experience with daclizumab in liver transplantation: renal transplant dosing without calcineurin inhibitors is insufficient to prevent acute rejection in liver transplantation.
31  conventional instrumentation
(56 times)
General Surgery
(13 times)
PSI (21 times)
TKA (16 times)
PUI (6 times)
2003 Beneficial effects of flexible insulin therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
32  cortical index
(50 times)
Orthopedics
(10 times)
BMD (7 times)
FMECA (4 times)
DXA (3 times)
1990 [Index of the diaphyseal cortex and mechanical strength of the femur in experimental studies].
33  cranial index
(48 times)
Pediatrics
(19 times)
CVAI (11 times)
CT (5 times)
ICV (5 times)
1990 Search for secular trends in calvarial diameters, cranial base height, indices, and capacity in South African Negro crania.
34  chemotactic index
(47 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(10 times)
CD (3 times)
PBMC (3 times)
RT-PCR (3 times)
1976 Leukocyte chemotaxis in diabetic patients and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives.
35  container index
(47 times)
Tropical Medicine
(24 times)
BI (33 times)
HI (29 times)
PI (7 times)
1999 Breeding habitats & seasonal variation in the larval density of Aedes aegypti (L) & Ae. albopictus (Skuse) in an urban garden in Calcutta city.
36  complexity index
(46 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
MSE (7 times)
HRV (5 times)
SE (5 times)
1994 Quantification of tight junction complexity by means of fractal analysis.
37  chronic inflammation
(45 times)
Communicable Diseases
(6 times)
AI (10 times)
SCC (6 times)
CIN I (3 times)
1980 [Comparative study of the persistence of 3 RNA-containing viruses in a continuous cell culture of human origin].
38  confidence level
(41 times)
Medicine
(6 times)
OR (14 times)
HR (4 times)
RR (3 times)
1993 Peripheral blood leukocyte count and respiratory symptoms.
39  carbonyl iron
(40 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
MR (13 times)
MRF (5 times)
BAL (3 times)
1990 Species comparisons of proximal alveolar deposition patterns of inhaled particulates.
40  crystallinity index
(39 times)
Polysaccharides
(6 times)
XRD (13 times)
FTIR (10 times)
MCC (4 times)
1984 Pretreatment for enhanced hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.
41  calcium ionophore
(38 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
DC (9 times)
DCs (5 times)
AML (3 times)
1983 Monocyte dependent excited oxygen radical generation in rheumatoid arthritis: inhibition by gold sodium thiomalate.
42  cervical insufficiency
(38 times)
Obstetrics
(11 times)
PTB (3 times)
TVC (3 times)
ART (2 times)
1989 [Increasing mental performance by multistep oxygen therapy. Computer-assisted measurements of information processing capacity, intelligence, short-term memory and further parameters of cerebral performance].
43  cognitive interview
(38 times)
Psychology
(14 times)
SI (7 times)
CE (3 times)
ADHD (2 times)
1995 Facilitating children's eyewitness recall with the revised cognitive interview.
44  contextual interference
(38 times)
Psychology
(9 times)
KR (3 times)
DL (2 times)
fMRI (2 times)
1994 The contextual interference effect for skill variations from the same and different generalized motor programs.
45  cylindrical inclusion
(37 times)
Virology
(15 times)
CP (7 times)
TuMV (5 times)
PD (4 times)
1988 In vitro analysis of tobacco vein mottling virus NIa cistron: evidence for a virus-encoded protease.
46  collagen type I
(31 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
FN (13 times)
ECM (8 times)
CIII (4 times)
1986 Characteristics of cellular immune responses to collagen type I or collagen type II.
47  cardiac output index
(29 times)
Cardiology
(9 times)
HR (9 times)
MAP (8 times)
CO (5 times)
1985 Increased cardiovascular responses to norepinephrine and calcium antagonists in essential hypertension compared with normotension in humans.
48  cultural importance index
(29 times)
Social Sciences
(21 times)
RFC (8 times)
ICF (7 times)
UV (6 times)
2009 Plants and traditional knowledge: an ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia).
49  Colon ischemia
(28 times)
General Surgery
(12 times)
AAA (7 times)
OR (6 times)
EVAR (5 times)
1991 Colonic ischemia complicating immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha.
50  compression ignition
(27 times)
Environmental Health
(25 times)
BTE (10 times)
HC (6 times)
CO (5 times)
2001 Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
51  computational intelligence
(27 times)
Medical Informatics
(9 times)
GA (4 times)
AI (2 times)
EC (2 times)
2004 Human-centric intelligent systems for exploration and knowledge discovery.
52  chemical intolerance
(26 times)
Environmental Health
(9 times)
EEG (3 times)
MCS (3 times)
BREESI (2 times)
1997 The association of respiratory problems in a community sample with self-reported chemical intolerance.
53  constraint-induced
(26 times)
Rehabilitation
(10 times)
CP (6 times)
CNS (2 times)
WMFT (2 times)
1997 Constraint-induced movement therapy for motor recovery after stroke.
54  coverage index
(26 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
COIN (16 times)
DHI (12 times)
DNR (11 times)
2000 Dosimetric and volumetric criteria for selecting a source activity and a source type ((125)I or (103)Pd) in the presence of irregular seed placement in permanent prostate implants.
55  cortical inhibition
(25 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
TMS (16 times)
CSP (10 times)
SICI (10 times)
2002 Evidence for impaired cortical inhibition in schizophrenia using transcranial magnetic stimulation.
56  conditioned inhibition
(24 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
CS (6 times)
EU (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1980 Enhancement of bar-pressing rate in rats by the conditioned inhibitor of the CER.
57  I collagen
(24 times)
Rheumatology
(10 times)
CII (6 times)
FN (6 times)
CIV (4 times)
1990 Type I and type IV collagen promote adherence and spreading of human type II pneumocytes in vitro.
58  cascade impactor
(23 times)
Pharmacology
(18 times)
APSD (11 times)
ACI (5 times)
AIM (3 times)
1997 Physical properties and use of pertechnegas as a ventilation agent.
59  clinical informatics
(23 times)
Medical Informatics
(9 times)
CD (1 time)
COVID-19 (1 time)
CT (1 time)
1996 RANZCP guidelines for psychotropic drugs: application to hospital inpatients. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists.
60  Criegee intermediate
(23 times)
Chemistry
(17 times)
POZ (4 times)
SOZ (3 times)
SCI (2 times)
2005 Unusual aggregates from the oxidation of alkene self-assembled monolayers: a previously unrecognized mechanism for SAM ozonolysis?
61  cardiac involvement
(22 times)
Cardiology
(9 times)
BMD (4 times)
MMP (3 times)
LI (2 times)
1999 Progression of cardiac involvement in patients with myotonic dystrophy, Becker's muscular dystrophy and mitochondrial myopathy during a 2-year follow-up.
62  cytotoxicity index
(21 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
NK (2 times)
AA (1 time)
AHAbs (1 time)
1975 Alteration of cell-surface antigenicity of the mouse plasmacytoma. I. Immunologic characterization of surface antigens masked during successive transplantations.
63  chromosomal instability
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
OSCC (4 times)
CRC (3 times)
CISH (2 times)
1999 Microsatellite instability and aneuploidy rate in young colorectal-cancer patients do not differ significantly from those in older patients.
64  chronic illness
(20 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
MEND (3 times)
CFT (2 times)
ACT (1 time)
2002 Gender differences in adapting to a child's chronic illness: a causal model.
65  collective intelligence
(20 times)
Science
(3 times)
AI (2 times)
ECG (2 times)
NA (2 times)
2010 Effects of muscle fatigue on gait characteristics under single and dual-task conditions in young and older adults.
66  cranial irradiation
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
ALL (6 times)
GH (4 times)
AL (2 times)
1993 Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and neuropsychological evaluation in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a young age.
67  curvature index
(20 times)
Orthopedics
(5 times)
JOA (4 times)
ROM (3 times)
CDM (2 times)
1992 Detection of autoimmunity parameters in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
68  conformity
(19 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
HI (8 times)
VMAT (7 times)
GI (6 times)
2001 NOMOS Peacock IMRT utilizing the Beak post collimation device.
69  Charlson Index
(18 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
KFI (2 times)
PD (2 times)
AAMET (1 time)
1996 An intervention on discharge polypharmacy.
70  checkpoint inhibitors
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
MPM (2 times)
OS (2 times)
PD-L1 (2 times)
2018 Treatment-related toxicities of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced cancers: A meta-analysis.
71  chymase inhibitor
(17 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
LV (3 times)
ACE (2 times)
Ang II (2 times)
2003 Calpain inhibitor (BSF 409425) diminishes ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage of rabbit heart mitochondria.
72  comorbidity index
(17 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
NRM (3 times)
CIRS (2 times)
HR (2 times)
1997 Comorbidity measures for stroke outcome research: a preliminary study.
73  confidence ratio
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
OR (9 times)
HR (3 times)
OS (2 times)
1996 Acute stroke with atrial fibrillation. The Copenhagen Stroke Study.
74  contrast index
(17 times)
Radiology
(6 times)
DCE-MRI (6 times)
MRI (3 times)
T1WI (3 times)
1992 [Low flip angle spin-echo MR imaging to obtain better Gd-DTPA enhanced imaging with ECG gating].
75  class I
(16 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
CII (7 times)
sHSPs (5 times)
CIII (2 times)
1996 Cephalometric comparisons of craniofacial and upper airway structure by skeletal subtype and gender in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
76  colonic inertia
(16 times)
Gastroenterology
(13 times)
TAC (4 times)
EMG (2 times)
OD (2 times)
1989 Cisapride accelerates colonic transit in constipated patients with colonic inertia.
77  Canadian Intense
(15 times)
Toxicology
(9 times)
ISO (8 times)
EPR (2 times)
VOCs (2 times)
2009 Estimating tar and nicotine exposure: human smoking versus machine generated smoke yields.
78  capsular invasion
(15 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
PTC (3 times)
BCR (2 times)
EPE (2 times)
1992 Follicular thyroid carcinoma with capsular invasion alone: a nonthreatening malignancy.
79  ciprofloxacin
(15 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
AUC (2 times)
CR (2 times)
EM (2 times)
1989 In vitro activity of lomefloxacin (NY-198 or SC 47111), ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin against 100 clinical Legionella strains.
80  confidence interval for the difference
(15 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
ALL (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
1993 Variability in the stereoselective disposition of ibuprofen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
81  cortical infarct
(15 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
BI (3 times)
CCS (3 times)
FP (3 times)
1989 Experimental models of brain injury.
82  cardiac
(14 times)
Critical Care
(5 times)
HR (4 times)
SVRI (4 times)
MAP (3 times)
1989 Ventricular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with reduced cardiac mass.
83  central incisor
(14 times)
Dentistry
(8 times)
LI (10 times)
CA (6 times)
DPP (2 times)
2008 Range and mean discordance of individual tooth width of the mandibular anterior dentition.
84  collagen I
(14 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
ECM (8 times)
CIV (4 times)
CIII (3 times)
1992 Extracellular matrix protein: gene expression and synthesis in cultured rat mesangial cells.
85  critical incident
(14 times)
Nursing
(3 times)
AIMS (1 time)
CIRS (1 time)
CIS (1 time)
1998 The anaesthesia critical incident reporting system: an experience based database.
86  caloric intake
(13 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(4 times)
BSA (2 times)
BW (2 times)
EBEE (2 times)
1987 Cardio respiratory responses in factory workers of north Delhi belonging to varying nutritional background.
87  cervical incompetence
(13 times)
Obstetrics
(5 times)
SD (2 times)
CE (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1986 Ultrasonic evaluation of cervical incompetence.
88  colonization index
(13 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
ICU (4 times)
CS (2 times)
ICUs (2 times)
1998 Epidemiological study of Candida spp. colonization in cardiovascular surgical patients.
89  continuous improvement
(13 times)
Health Services
(5 times)
BPR (1 time)
CW (1 time)
DMTA (1 time)
1990 Reproducibility of cumulative work, heart rate and blood pressure response during stepwise versus continuous load increment during a maximal bicycle ergometer test.
90  cation-independent
(12 times)
Cell Biology
(7 times)
CD (8 times)
Man-6-P (5 times)
MPRs (4 times)
1985 Lysosomal enzyme binding to mouse P388D1 macrophage membranes lacking the 215-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor: evidence for the existence of a second mannose 6-phosphate receptor.
91  chlorimipramine
(12 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
DMI (4 times)
DCI (3 times)
DA (2 times)
1977 Substituted amphetamine derivatives. II. Behavioural effects in mice related to monoaminergic neurones.
92  Chronic itch
(12 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
HD (7 times)
GEHIS (6 times)
HRQoL (3 times)
2015 Epidemiology of uraemic itch: New data.
93  chronotropic index
(12 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
HR (7 times)
CRP (2 times)
EC (2 times)
2004 Relationship between insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR and exercise test variables in asymptomatic middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes.
94  clustering index
(12 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
sEMG (6 times)
EMG (5 times)
RMS (2 times)
2010 "Clustering Index method": a new technique for differentiation between neurogenic and myopathic changes using surface EMG.
95  colloidal iron
(12 times)
Cell Biology
(4 times)
GPA (2 times)
PCF (2 times)
AF (1 time)
1976 Cytochemistry of colloidal iron binding to the surface of Hela cells and human erythrocytes.
96  compliance index
(12 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
NAFLD (2 times)
PWV (2 times)
SI (2 times)
1989 Serum digoxin and beta-methyldigoxin in elderly patients on hospital admission: correlation with home compliance and clinical variables.
97  creatinase
(12 times)
Biotechnology
(4 times)
CA (7 times)
SO (7 times)
CV (4 times)
2002 Biosensors and flow-through system for the determination of creatinine in hemodialysate.
98  creatinine index
(12 times)
Nephrology
(7 times)
HD (5 times)
LBM (4 times)
CHD (2 times)
1995 Creatinine kinetic modelling: a simple and reliable tool for the assessment of protein nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.
99  calcification index
(11 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
AAA (1 time)
AD (1 time)
AmCAD-UT (1 time)
1986 Age-related change in calcifications in the thoracic aorta: a study with computed tomography.
100  carbonyl index
(11 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
DSC (2 times)
FTIR (2 times)
MPs (2 times)
2017 Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.