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Abbreviation: CS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
conditioned stimulus
(2119 times)
Neurology
(837 times)
US (881 times)
CR (175 times)
UCS (112 times)
1973 Unilateral cortical spreading depression and conditioned eye blink responses in rabbits.
chitosan
(2060 times)
Biochemistry
(349 times)
SEM (179 times)
NPs (141 times)
FTIR (126 times)
1990 Effect of interpolymer complex formation on bioadhesive property and drug release phenomenon of compressed tablet consisting of chitosan and sodium hyaluronate.
cesarean section
(1891 times)
Obstetrics
(823 times)
CI (123 times)
VD (115 times)
OR (84 times)
0 [Cesarean section incidence and vaginal birth success rate at term pregnancy after myomectomy].
chondroitin sulfate
(1630 times)
Biochemistry
(423 times)
HA (307 times)
HS (290 times)
GAGs (272 times)
0 Effects of Oral Chondroitin Sulfate on Osteoarthritis-Related Pain and Joint Structural Changes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
cigarette smoke
(1331 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(231 times)
COPD (395 times)
CSE (181 times)
BALF (84 times)
1975 Chronic inhalation of nickel oxide and cigarette smoke by hamsters.
coronary sinus
(1085 times)
Cardiology
(807 times)
AF (133 times)
LV (121 times)
CRT (115 times)
1975 Abnormal regional metabolism and mechanical function in patients with ischemic heart diseases: improvement after successful regional revascularization by aortocoronary bypass.
corticosterone
(979 times)
Rheumatology
(104 times)
HPA (35 times)
RA (29 times)
UC (29 times)
0 Effectiveness of Intra-Articular Injections of Sodium Hyaluronate or Corticosteroids for Intracapsular Temporomandibular Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
citrate synthase
(885 times)
Physiology
(277 times)
LDH (168 times)
PFK (76 times)
COX (61 times)
1975 M. Quadriceps femoris of man, a muscle with an unusual enzyme activity pattern of energy supplying metabolism in mammals.
Cushing's syndrome
(797 times)
Endocrinology
(501 times)
ACTH (96 times)
CD (88 times)
UFC (72 times)
1981 The relationship of adrenal iodomethylnorcholesterol uptake to indices of adrenal cortical function in Cushing's syndrome.
10  compressed sensing
(775 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(238 times)
MRI (60 times)
TV (31 times)
SNR (30 times)
2007 Improved k-t BLAST and k-t SENSE using FOCUSS.
11  contrast sensitivity
(771 times)
Ophthalmology
(341 times)
VA (139 times)
BCVA (65 times)
AMD (33 times)
0 [Contrast sensitivity and optic coherence tomography examinations in adolescent patients with diabetes type I preretinopathy (a pilot study)].
12  cardiogenic shock
(519 times)
Cardiology
(333 times)
AMI (137 times)
PCI (112 times)
STEMI (86 times)
1976 Early care of acute myocardial infarction.
13  Cockayne syndrome
(418 times)
Molecular Biology
(83 times)
XP (168 times)
NER (102 times)
TTD (60 times)
1978 Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Recognition and relationship to neurological abnormalities in Cockayne's syndrome.
14  circumsporozoite
(393 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(134 times)
CTL (23 times)
ELISA (21 times)
PCR (9 times)
1983 Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes.
15  cavernous sinus
(240 times)
Neurosurgery
(126 times)
ICA (36 times)
DAVF (14 times)
IPS (14 times)
1982 Visualization of the superior ophthalmic vein on carotid angiography.
16  Cowden syndrome
(238 times)
Genetics, Medical
(69 times)
PTEN (19 times)
BRRS (18 times)
LDD (15 times)
1980 Cogan syndrome: studies in thirteen patients, long-term follow-up, and a review of the literature.
17  ciclosporin
(233 times)
Nephrology
(45 times)
AZA (7 times)
CyP (7 times)
LPS (6 times)
1977 Drug resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Taiwan during 1975.
18  conservative surgery
(230 times)
Neoplasms
(49 times)
RT (32 times)
FNA (22 times)
LBC (18 times)
1983 EVI antibodies in patients with Chagas' disease: relationship with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulins and effects of specific treatment.
19  clinical stage
(200 times)
Neoplasms
(90 times)
PS (33 times)
HD (31 times)
RT (22 times)
1976 Results of involved field and extended field radiotherapy in patients with pathologic state I and II Hodgkin's disease.
20  cardiac sarcoidosis
(199 times)
Cardiology
(112 times)
CMR (26 times)
PET (21 times)
FDG (19 times)
1986 [Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS)].
21  cold storage
(184 times)
Transplantation
(105 times)
MP (48 times)
DCD (32 times)
DGF (29 times)
1986 Comparison of cold storage and perfusion of dog livers on function of tissue slices.
22  control subjects
(172 times)
Neurology
(37 times)
RA (21 times)
AD (9 times)
PD (9 times)
1979 Correlative studies of lymphocyte transformation and plasma protein levels in ankylosing spondylitis.
23  Constant score
(152 times)
Orthopedics
(97 times)
SSV (33 times)
VAS (16 times)
DASH (14 times)
1999 A multicenter study of 210 rotator cuff tears treated by arthroscopic acromioplasty.
24  compressive strength
(146 times)
Dentistry
(46 times)
DTS (38 times)
FS (27 times)
DC (8 times)
1985 Correlation between the compressive strength of iliac and vertebral trabecular bone in normal individuals.
25  calcium silicate
(140 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(42 times)
SBF (12 times)
SEM (11 times)
ALP (8 times)
2002 Bone regeneration with calcium sulfate: evidence for increased angiogenesis in rabbits.
26  circumferential strain
(125 times)
Cardiology
(58 times)
LS (58 times)
LV (47 times)
RS (38 times)
2000 Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant curved tube model of a coronary artery.
27  cortical stimulation
(119 times)
Neurology
(17 times)
SS (8 times)
TS (7 times)
DS (6 times)
1976 Effects of para-chlorophenylalanine and tryptophan on learning of a brightness discrimination in rats.
28  chemical shift
(99 times)
Chemistry
(54 times)
EFG (21 times)
MAS (17 times)
DFT (7 times)
1996 Deuterium Quadrupole-Coupling and Chemical-Shielding Tensors in the Model Dipeptide Glycylglycine Monohydrochloride Monohydrate
29  central sensitization
(98 times)
Neurology
(44 times)
CSI (24 times)
OA (9 times)
CSS (7 times)
1985 Expectancy, covert sensitization and imaginal desensitization in compulsive sexuality.
30  corn silage
(96 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(81 times)
DM (27 times)
AH (18 times)
AS (12 times)
1979 Variables associated with peripartum traits in dairy cows. I. Effect of dietary forages and disorders on voluntary intake of feed, body weight and milk yield.
31  chondrosarcoma
(95 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
OS (21 times)
ES (9 times)
LR (6 times)
1982 Ultrastructural study of conventional chondrosarcomas and myxoid- and mesenchymal-chondrosarcomas.
32  cholesterol sulfate
(94 times)
Biochemistry
(36 times)
CH (7 times)
RXLI (6 times)
DHEAS (5 times)
1980 Deuterium magnetic resonance of selectively deuterated cholesteryl esters in phosphatidylcholine vesicles.
33  cryptogenic stroke
(94 times)
Vascular Diseases
(26 times)
PFO (47 times)
AF (20 times)
CI (8 times)
1998 Coagulation abnormalities in adults with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.
34  Chinese Spring
(91 times)
Genetics
(55 times)
FISH (5 times)
GISH (4 times)
AFLP (3 times)
1981 Nitrate reductase activity (in vivo and in vitro) of ditelosomic stocks of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
35  congenital syphilis
(90 times)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(20 times)
ANC (4 times)
RPR (4 times)
AOR (3 times)
1990 Resurgence of congenital syphilis in Trinidad.
36  Costello syndrome
(89 times)
Genetics, Medical
(48 times)
CFC (17 times)
NS (17 times)
CFCS (11 times)
1998 A case of Costello syndrome with endocrine features.
37  carcinosarcoma
(88 times)
Neoplasms
(54 times)
LMS (16 times)
ESS (14 times)
OS (13 times)
1984 A clinical and pathologic study of 30 cases of malignant mixed mullerian epithelial and mesenchymal ovarian tumors: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
38  conscious sedation
(88 times)
Neurology
(14 times)
GA (62 times)
AIS (11 times)
MT (7 times)
1991 Functional assessment of coloanal anastomosis with reservoir and excision of the anal transition zone.
39  corticospinal
(88 times)
Neurology
(57 times)
MEPs (14 times)
TMS (14 times)
CST (6 times)
1976 Spinal branching of corticospinal axons in the cat.
40  charge-separated
(86 times)
Chemistry
(74 times)
ET (13 times)
CR (6 times)
CT (6 times)
2000 Direct comparison of electron transfer properties of two distinct semisynthetic triads with non-protein based triad: unambiguous experimental evidences on protein matrix effects.
41  Comprehensive System
(86 times)
Psychology
(72 times)
R-PAS (9 times)
MCMI-III (2 times)
RIM (2 times)
2000 Impaired Wisconsin card sorting test performance in first-episode schizophrenia: resource or motivation deficit?
42  congenital scoliosis
(85 times)
Orthopedics
(34 times)
AIS (16 times)
IS (12 times)
SCM (5 times)
1983 Abnormalities of aggregation, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and 14C serotonin release in platelets of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
43  Cordyceps sinensis
(85 times)
Complementary Therapies
(23 times)
SCr (5 times)
StAR (5 times)
BUN (4 times)
1991 [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb and serum renotropin on tubular epithelial cell growth].
44  corn stover
(85 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(33 times)
RS (9 times)
AD (5 times)
CM (5 times)
2009 Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations--effects of saccharification and particle size.
45  calcium score
(79 times)
Cardiology
(33 times)
CAD (23 times)
CT (9 times)
CAC (8 times)
2000 Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography.
46  charge separation
(79 times)
Chemistry
(64 times)
CR (39 times)
ET (19 times)
CT (7 times)
2001 Modulating charge separation and charge recombination dynamics in porphyrin-fullerene linked dyads and triads: Marcus-normal versus inverted region.
47  complex spike
(74 times)
Neurology
(31 times)
SS (37 times)
PC (12 times)
PCs (11 times)
1977 Purkinje cell activity during motor learning.
48  corn starch
(74 times)
Biochemistry
(14 times)
RS (5 times)
SCFA (5 times)
TS (5 times)
1990 The influence of supplemental corn oil and free fatty acids on the reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
49  calf serum
(71 times)
Cell Biology
(17 times)
FBS (10 times)
FCS (7 times)
HS (4 times)
1970 Propagation and growth cycle of Rickettsia quintana in a new liquid medium.
50  cardiac surgery
(69 times)
Cardiology
(19 times)
CPB (10 times)
AKI (9 times)
OR (6 times)
1983 Thymic lymphocyte subpopulations in myasthenia gravis.
51  compartment syndrome
(67 times)
Traumatology
(16 times)
ICP (4 times)
CK (3 times)
ALI (2 times)
1986 Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG): do they precipitate lower-extremity compartment syndromes?
52  cytoreductive surgery
(66 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
HIPEC (33 times)
PC (21 times)
IPHC (8 times)
1992 [Surgery called tumoral reduction: myth or reality?].
53  cervical spondylosis
(65 times)
Neurology
(22 times)
VAS (9 times)
MRI (5 times)
NDI (5 times)
1981 [Roentgenological measurement of the cervical vertebral bodies in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical spondylosis (CS) (author's transl)].
54  corpus striatum
(63 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DA (16 times)
SN (12 times)
ME (5 times)
1979 Interactions between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in rat brain demonstrated by small unilateral lesions of the raphe nuclei.
55  carotid stenosis
(55 times)
Neurology
(18 times)
CEA (9 times)
CAS (6 times)
ABI (4 times)
1994 Surgical management in patients with coexistent coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Long-term results.
56  culture supernatant
(54 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(25 times)
LA (4 times)
LPS (4 times)
DCs (3 times)
1973 Micropolyspora faeni and farmer's lung disease.
57  circumsporozoite protein
(53 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(23 times)
TRAP (5 times)
CTL (3 times)
MVA (3 times)
1984 Neutralization of the infectivity of sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi by antibodies to a synthetic peptide.
58  corpuscles of Stannius
(53 times)
Endocrinology
(27 times)
STC (16 times)
aa (5 times)
CaSR (2 times)
1976 On the cytoarchitecture of the corpuscles of Stannius of the catfish, Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch).
59  craniosynostosis
(53 times)
Dentistry
(13 times)
CT (4 times)
ICP (4 times)
WT (4 times)
1992 Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve.
60  composite score
(50 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
TIA (5 times)
ASI (4 times)
FMS (4 times)
1986 Surgical treatment of cerebrovascular occlusive disease. A follow-up study.
61  Carnegie stage
(49 times)
Anatomy
(25 times)
HPE (2 times)
MR (2 times)
MRI (2 times)
1993 Neural tube defects in the parietal region of human embryos: failure to close or closure-reopening?
62  carcinoid syndrome
(47 times)
Neoplasms
(13 times)
NETs (13 times)
CHD (9 times)
SSAs (5 times)
1977 Pituitary-gonadal function in the carcinoid syndrome: effect of parachlorophynylalanine therapy.
63  conditional survival
(47 times)
Neoplasms
(29 times)
OS (16 times)
CSS (5 times)
SEER (5 times)
2007 Conditional survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: results from the SEER dataset 1973-1998.
64  cyclic stretch
(46 times)
Cell Biology
(16 times)
VILI (12 times)
EC (11 times)
SS (5 times)
2003 Magnitude-dependent regulation of pulmonary endothelial cell barrier function by cyclic stretch.
65  cholesterol
(45 times)
Cardiology
(13 times)
TG (12 times)
HDLP (4 times)
HLP (4 times)
1977 Factors affecting bilirubin excretion in patients with cholesterol or pigment gallstones.
66  cold stress
(45 times)
Transplantation
(5 times)
CAT (4 times)
ELI (4 times)
GSH-Px (4 times)
1986 Assessment of myocardial perfusion during cold stress using thallium-201 scintigraphy in diabetic patients with abnormal changes in left ventricular function during cold stress.
67  colonoscopy
(44 times)
Gastroenterology
(18 times)
EGD (9 times)
CRC (6 times)
UC (6 times)
1995 Colonic investigations in the elderly: colonoscopy or barium enema?
68  chronic stress
(43 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
AS (5 times)
LC (5 times)
BM (3 times)
1999 Circadian rhythms and depression: effects of exercise in an animal model.
69  central sulcus
(42 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
SEPs (5 times)
MR (4 times)
fMRI (3 times)
1989 Human cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of the median nerve. I. Cytoarchitectonic areas generating short-latency activity.
70  chronic sinusitis
(42 times)
Otolaryngology
(22 times)
AR (6 times)
NP (6 times)
ESS (4 times)
1991 Neutrophil elastase and its complex with alpha 1-antitrypsin in soluble and insoluble fractions of nasal secretions of chronic sinusitis.
71  clinically significant
(42 times)
Urology
(14 times)
PCa (16 times)
mpMRI (11 times)
MRI (4 times)
1996 Some comments on "assessing clinical significance".
72  choline-supplemented
(41 times)
Neoplasms
(17 times)
CD (38 times)
GGT (8 times)
DEN (5 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
73  critical speed
(41 times)
Sports Medicine
(22 times)
3 MT (6 times)
3MT (3 times)
CP (3 times)
1995 Times to exhaustion at 90, 100 and 105% of velocity at VO2 max (maximal aerobic speed) and critical speed in elite long-distance runners.
74  cellulose sulfate
(40 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
DS (5 times)
PEI (4 times)
PLL (4 times)
1974 Promotion of growth of tumour cells in acutely inflamed tissues.
75  cervical spine
(40 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
CT (9 times)
MRI (9 times)
RA (5 times)
1984 On the pathogenesis of spondylosis deformans and arthrosis uncovertebralis: comparative form-analytical radiological and statistical studies on lumbar and cervical vertebral bodies.
76  clinical supervision
(40 times)
Nursing
(28 times)
AHPs (3 times)
AH (1 time)
ANUMs (1 time)
1998 Clinical supervision: insider reports of a private world.
77  corn stalk
(38 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(22 times)
AD (3 times)
PS (3 times)
RS (3 times)
2009 Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: a comparative study.
78  Currarino syndrome
(38 times)
Pediatrics
(12 times)
MNX1 (4 times)
ARM (2 times)
ARMs (2 times)
1999 Exclusion of the Sonic Hedgehog gene as responsible for Currarino syndrome and anorectal malformations with sacral hypodevelopment.
79  current smokers
(38 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(5 times)
NS (28 times)
FS (13 times)
ES (6 times)
1989 Twins, smoking and mortality: a 12-year prospective study of smoking-discordant twin pairs.
80  compassion satisfaction
(37 times)
Nursing
(15 times)
BO (23 times)
CF (19 times)
STS (14 times)
2011 Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in heart and vascular nurses.
81  crush syndrome
(37 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
ARF (3 times)
DEX (3 times)
NO (3 times)
1985 [Role of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions in the cardiodepressive action of blood plasma in burn shock and the crush syndrome].
82  compensatory sweating
(36 times)
General Surgery
(23 times)
ETS (9 times)
TS (5 times)
ESB (4 times)
2003 Results of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) on hyperhidrosis, facial blushing, angina pectoris, vascular disorders and pain syndromes of the hand and arm.
83  cross-sectional
(35 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
OCT (7 times)
CBCT (3 times)
CC (2 times)
1991 Comparative study of three different approaches on the estimation of the lung-heart ratio in thallium 201 scintigrams in relation to the extent of coronary artery disease and left ventricular function.
84  cysteine synthase
(35 times)
Biochemistry
(13 times)
SAT (10 times)
CBS (4 times)
PCS (4 times)
1997 Cysteine synthesis in plants: protein-protein interactions of serine acetyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
85  cromolyn sodium
(34 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
BDP (2 times)
CD (2 times)
EIA (2 times)
1981 A clinical trial of combined cromolyn/beclomethasone treatment for chronic asthma.
86  calsequestrin
(32 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
SR (15 times)
TC (8 times)
ER (7 times)
1988 Endoplasmic reticulum of rat liver contains two proteins closely related to skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and calsequestrin.
87  cell saver
(32 times)
General Surgery
(13 times)
CPB (9 times)
HB (4 times)
CABG (3 times)
1990 Acute plasmapheresis during cardiac surgery: volume replacement by crystalloids versus colloids.
88  cortisol
(31 times)
Complementary Therapies
(5 times)
ACTH (5 times)
PRL (5 times)
AD (4 times)
1978 Hormonal response to stress in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
89  cuckoo search
(31 times)
Medical Informatics
(9 times)
PSO (10 times)
ABC (5 times)
DE (3 times)
2012 A hybrid metaheuristic DE/CS algorithm for UCAV three-dimension path planning.
90  cleavage site
(30 times)
Virology
(10 times)
PR (6 times)
HA (4 times)
HIV-1 (4 times)
1999 Role of exonucleolytic degradation in group I intron homing in phage T4.
91  conditioning stimulation
(30 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
i.t (6 times)
SP (5 times)
GAL (4 times)
1976 [Conditioning of emotional behavior caused by hypothalamic stimulation (3): The learned behavior caused by hypothalamic stimulation in rabbits].
92  Constant Spring
(30 times)
Hematology
(16 times)
Hb (15 times)
PCR (3 times)
G6PD (2 times)
1981 Homozygous haemoglobin Constant Spring: a need for revision of concept.
93  controls
(30 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
MS (3 times)
AC (2 times)
AD (2 times)
1978 Effect of isometric strength training of mechanical, electrical, and metabolic aspects of muscle function.
94  core-shell
(30 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
NPs (6 times)
QDs (4 times)
XRD (4 times)
2005 General equation for size nanocharacterization of the core-shell nanoparticles by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
95  carotid sinus
(29 times)
Physiology
(15 times)
CSN (4 times)
HR (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1975 Bulbo-spinal neurons activated by baroreceptor afferents and their possible role in inhibition of preganglionic sympathetic neurons.
96  Chondroid syringoma
(28 times)
Pathology
(10 times)
ACS (1 time)
ACT (1 time)
CK (1 time)
1988 [Chondroid syringoma (borderline type)].
97  complement system
(28 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
AP (5 times)
AMD (3 times)
CP (2 times)
1998 [The complement-activating action of modern x-ray contrast agents].
98  cancer survivors
(27 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
PA (4 times)
BCS (2 times)
BMI (2 times)
2007 An audiovisual information resource to assist in the transition from completion of potentially curative treatment for cancer through to survivorship: a systematic development process.
99  chiral selector
(27 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(23 times)
HSCCC (6 times)
CSP (4 times)
CE (3 times)
1995 Resolution of gram quantities of racemates by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
100  Clinical Skills
(27 times)
Education
(20 times)
USMLE (11 times)
SPs (4 times)
CK (3 times)
1999 Early clinical experience enhances third-year pediatrics clerkship performance.