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Abbreviation: CS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
chitosan
(2301 times)
Biochemistry
(406 times)
SEM (204 times)
NPs (158 times)
FTIR (147 times)
1990 Effect of interpolymer complex formation on bioadhesive property and drug release phenomenon of compressed tablet consisting of chitosan and sodium hyaluronate.
conditioned stimulus
(2162 times)
Neurology
(852 times)
US (894 times)
CR (175 times)
UCS (112 times)
1973 Unilateral cortical spreading depression and conditioned eye blink responses in rabbits.
cesarean section
(2009 times)
Obstetrics
(862 times)
CI (135 times)
VD (124 times)
OR (94 times)
0 [Cesarean section incidence and vaginal birth success rate at term pregnancy after myomectomy].
chondroitin sulfate
(1700 times)
Biochemistry
(434 times)
HA (318 times)
HS (295 times)
GAGs (279 times)
0 Effects of Oral Chondroitin Sulfate on Osteoarthritis-Related Pain and Joint Structural Changes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
cigarette smoke
(1396 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(240 times)
COPD (416 times)
CSE (192 times)
BALF (89 times)
1975 Chronic inhalation of nickel oxide and cigarette smoke by hamsters.
coronary sinus
(1101 times)
Cardiology
(813 times)
AF (131 times)
LV (122 times)
CRT (120 times)
1975 Abnormal regional metabolism and mechanical function in patients with ischemic heart diseases: improvement after successful regional revascularization by aortocoronary bypass.
corticosteroids
(1010 times)
Rheumatology
(106 times)
HPA (35 times)
UC (33 times)
RA (30 times)
0 Effectiveness of Intra-Articular Injections of Sodium Hyaluronate or Corticosteroids for Intracapsular Temporomandibular Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
compressed sensing
(979 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(253 times)
MRI (63 times)
DTS (41 times)
SNR (31 times)
1985 Correlation between the compressive strength of iliac and vertebral trabecular bone in normal individuals.
citrate synthase
(918 times)
Physiology
(282 times)
LDH (175 times)
PFK (79 times)
COX (63 times)
1975 M. Quadriceps femoris of man, a muscle with an unusual enzyme activity pattern of energy supplying metabolism in mammals.
10  Cushing's syndrome
(837 times)
Endocrinology
(525 times)
ACTH (101 times)
CD (91 times)
UFC (77 times)
1981 The relationship of adrenal iodomethylnorcholesterol uptake to indices of adrenal cortical function in Cushing's syndrome.
11  contrast sensitivity
(795 times)
Ophthalmology
(351 times)
VA (145 times)
BCVA (65 times)
AMD (33 times)
0 [Contrast sensitivity and optic coherence tomography examinations in adolescent patients with diabetes type I preretinopathy (a pilot study)].
12  cardiogenic shock
(576 times)
Cardiology
(367 times)
AMI (146 times)
PCI (119 times)
STEMI (94 times)
1976 Early care of acute myocardial infarction.
13  Cockayne syndrome
(425 times)
Molecular Biology
(83 times)
XP (169 times)
NER (103 times)
TTD (61 times)
1978 Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Recognition and relationship to neurological abnormalities in Cockayne's syndrome.
14  circumsporozoite
(394 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(135 times)
CTL (23 times)
ELISA (21 times)
PCR (9 times)
1983 Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes.
15  Cowden syndrome
(252 times)
Genetics, Medical
(71 times)
BRRS (20 times)
PTEN (20 times)
LDD (15 times)
1980 Cogan syndrome: studies in thirteen patients, long-term follow-up, and a review of the literature.
16  cavernous sinus
(248 times)
Neurosurgery
(131 times)
ICA (37 times)
DAVF (15 times)
IPS (15 times)
1982 Visualization of the superior ophthalmic vein on carotid angiography.
17  conservative surgery
(245 times)
Neoplasms
(51 times)
RT (32 times)
FNA (22 times)
DS (18 times)
1983 EVI antibodies in patients with Chagas' disease: relationship with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulins and effects of specific treatment.
18  cardiac sarcoidosis
(230 times)
Cardiology
(124 times)
CMR (33 times)
PET (24 times)
FDG (21 times)
1986 [Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS)].
19  clinical stage
(206 times)
Neoplasms
(92 times)
PS (33 times)
HD (31 times)
RT (23 times)
1976 Results of involved field and extended field radiotherapy in patients with pathologic state I and II Hodgkin's disease.
20  ciclosporin
(193 times)
Nephrology
(41 times)
AZA (6 times)
CyP (5 times)
MDR-TB (5 times)
1977 Drug resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Taiwan during 1975.
21  cold storage
(190 times)
Transplantation
(105 times)
MP (49 times)
DCD (33 times)
DGF (28 times)
1986 Comparison of cold storage and perfusion of dog livers on function of tissue slices.
22  control subjects
(178 times)
Neurology
(37 times)
RA (21 times)
AD (9 times)
PD (9 times)
1979 Correlative studies of lymphocyte transformation and plasma protein levels in ankylosing spondylitis.
23  Constant score
(167 times)
Orthopedics
(104 times)
SSV (37 times)
VAS (17 times)
DASH (14 times)
1999 A multicenter study of 210 rotator cuff tears treated by arthroscopic acromioplasty.
24  calcium silicate
(149 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(43 times)
SBF (12 times)
SEM (11 times)
ALP (8 times)
2002 Bone regeneration with calcium sulfate: evidence for increased angiogenesis in rabbits.
25  circumferential strain
(132 times)
Cardiology
(61 times)
LS (65 times)
LV (47 times)
RS (42 times)
2000 Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant curved tube model of a coronary artery.
26  cortical stimulation
(119 times)
Neurology
(17 times)
SS (8 times)
TS (7 times)
PRL (6 times)
1976 Effects of para-chlorophenylalanine and tryptophan on learning of a brightness discrimination in rats.
27  central sensitization
(110 times)
Neurology
(48 times)
CSI (29 times)
OA (9 times)
CSS (7 times)
1975 Serum IgE-concentrations in patients with contact sensitization.
28  corn silage
(104 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(86 times)
DM (30 times)
AH (18 times)
AS (14 times)
1979 Variables associated with peripartum traits in dairy cows. I. Effect of dietary forages and disorders on voluntary intake of feed, body weight and milk yield.
29  cryptogenic stroke
(104 times)
Cardiology
(29 times)
PFO (51 times)
AF (24 times)
CI (8 times)
1998 Coagulation abnormalities in adults with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.
30  chemical shift
(102 times)
Chemistry
(55 times)
EFG (21 times)
MAS (17 times)
DFT (7 times)
1996 Deuterium Quadrupole-Coupling and Chemical-Shielding Tensors in the Model Dipeptide Glycylglycine Monohydrochloride Monohydrate
31  chondrosarcoma
(99 times)
Neoplasms
(41 times)
OS (22 times)
ES (9 times)
LR (6 times)
1982 Ultrastructural study of conventional chondrosarcomas and myxoid- and mesenchymal-chondrosarcomas.
32  congenital syphilis
(98 times)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(21 times)
ANC (5 times)
RPR (4 times)
AOR (3 times)
1990 Resurgence of congenital syphilis in Trinidad.
33  conscious sedation
(98 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
GA (69 times)
AIS (13 times)
MT (8 times)
1991 Functional assessment of coloanal anastomosis with reservoir and excision of the anal transition zone.
34  corn stover
(96 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(36 times)
RS (10 times)
AD (7 times)
CM (7 times)
2009 Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations--effects of saccharification and particle size.
35  Chinese Spring
(95 times)
Genetics
(57 times)
FISH (5 times)
GISH (4 times)
AFLP (3 times)
1981 Nitrate reductase activity (in vivo and in vitro) of ditelosomic stocks of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
36  congenital scoliosis
(95 times)
Orthopedics
(38 times)
AIS (17 times)
IS (12 times)
SCM (5 times)
1983 Abnormalities of aggregation, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and 14C serotonin release in platelets of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
37  carcinosarcoma
(94 times)
Neoplasms
(57 times)
LMS (17 times)
ESS (15 times)
OS (13 times)
1984 A clinical and pathologic study of 30 cases of malignant mixed mullerian epithelial and mesenchymal ovarian tumors: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
38  cholesterol sulfate
(94 times)
Biochemistry
(36 times)
CH (7 times)
RXLI (6 times)
DHEAS (5 times)
1980 Deuterium magnetic resonance of selectively deuterated cholesteryl esters in phosphatidylcholine vesicles.
39  Costello syndrome
(93 times)
Genetics, Medical
(51 times)
CFC (20 times)
NS (20 times)
CFCS (11 times)
1998 A case of Costello syndrome with endocrine features.
40  charge-separated
(91 times)
Chemistry
(78 times)
ET (13 times)
CT (7 times)
CR (6 times)
2000 Direct comparison of electron transfer properties of two distinct semisynthetic triads with non-protein based triad: unambiguous experimental evidences on protein matrix effects.
41  corticospinal
(89 times)
Neurology
(58 times)
MEPs (14 times)
TMS (14 times)
CST (6 times)
1976 Spinal branching of corticospinal axons in the cat.
42  Cordyceps sinensis
(88 times)
Complementary Therapies
(23 times)
SCr (6 times)
BUN (5 times)
StAR (5 times)
1991 [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb and serum renotropin on tubular epithelial cell growth].
43  Comprehensive System
(86 times)
Psychology
(72 times)
R-PAS (9 times)
MCMI-III (2 times)
RIM (2 times)
2000 Impaired Wisconsin card sorting test performance in first-episode schizophrenia: resource or motivation deficit?
44  charge separation
(83 times)
Chemistry
(68 times)
CR (39 times)
ET (19 times)
CT (8 times)
2001 Modulating charge separation and charge recombination dynamics in porphyrin-fullerene linked dyads and triads: Marcus-normal versus inverted region.
45  corn starch
(82 times)
Biochemistry
(18 times)
RS (7 times)
SCFA (5 times)
TS (5 times)
1990 The influence of supplemental corn oil and free fatty acids on the reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
46  calcium score
(79 times)
Cardiology
(33 times)
CAD (23 times)
CT (9 times)
CAC (8 times)
2000 Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography.
47  complex spike
(74 times)
Neurology
(31 times)
SS (37 times)
PC (12 times)
PCs (11 times)
1977 Purkinje cell activity during motor learning.
48  cardiac surgery
(72 times)
Cardiology
(21 times)
CPB (10 times)
AKI (9 times)
OR (6 times)
1983 Thymic lymphocyte subpopulations in myasthenia gravis.
49  cervical spondylosis
(72 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
VAS (11 times)
NDI (6 times)
CI (5 times)
1981 [Roentgenological measurement of the cervical vertebral bodies in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical spondylosis (CS) (author's transl)].
50  calf serum
(71 times)
Cell Biology
(17 times)
FBS (10 times)
FCS (7 times)
HS (4 times)
1970 Propagation and growth cycle of Rickettsia quintana in a new liquid medium.
51  compartment syndrome
(68 times)
Traumatology
(16 times)
ICP (4 times)
CK (3 times)
ALI (2 times)
1986 Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG): do they precipitate lower-extremity compartment syndromes?
52  cytoreductive surgery
(66 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
HIPEC (33 times)
PC (21 times)
IPHC (8 times)
1992 [Surgery called tumoral reduction: myth or reality?].
53  corpus striatum
(63 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DA (16 times)
SN (12 times)
ME (5 times)
1979 Interactions between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in rat brain demonstrated by small unilateral lesions of the raphe nuclei.
54  craniosynostosis
(59 times)
Dentistry
(14 times)
CT (5 times)
ICP (4 times)
WT (4 times)
1992 Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve.
55  carotid stenosis
(57 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
CEA (10 times)
CAS (6 times)
ABI (4 times)
1994 Surgical management in patients with coexistent coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Long-term results.
56  conditional survival
(57 times)
Neoplasms
(33 times)
OS (20 times)
CSS (6 times)
SEER (6 times)
2007 Conditional survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: results from the SEER dataset 1973-1998.
57  culture supernatant
(57 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(26 times)
LA (4 times)
LPS (4 times)
DCs (3 times)
1973 Micropolyspora faeni and farmer's lung disease.
58  carcinoid syndrome
(54 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
NETs (14 times)
CHD (10 times)
SSAs (5 times)
1977 Pituitary-gonadal function in the carcinoid syndrome: effect of parachlorophynylalanine therapy.
59  circumsporozoite protein
(53 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(23 times)
TRAP (5 times)
CTL (3 times)
MVA (3 times)
1984 Neutralization of the infectivity of sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi by antibodies to a synthetic peptide.
60  composite score
(53 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
TIA (5 times)
ASI (4 times)
ROC (4 times)
1986 Surgical treatment of cerebrovascular occlusive disease. A follow-up study.
61  corpuscles of Stannius
(53 times)
Endocrinology
(27 times)
STC (16 times)
aa (5 times)
STC1 (4 times)
1976 On the cytoarchitecture of the corpuscles of Stannius of the catfish, Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch).
62  Carnegie stage
(52 times)
Anatomy
(27 times)
HPE (2 times)
ICB (2 times)
MR (2 times)
1993 Neural tube defects in the parietal region of human embryos: failure to close or closure-reopening?
63  cyclic stretch
(48 times)
Cell Biology
(17 times)
VILI (14 times)
EC (11 times)
MV (5 times)
2003 Magnitude-dependent regulation of pulmonary endothelial cell barrier function by cyclic stretch.
64  colonoscopy
(47 times)
Gastroenterology
(19 times)
EGD (9 times)
CRC (7 times)
UC (6 times)
1995 Colonic investigations in the elderly: colonoscopy or barium enema?
65  chronic stress
(46 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
AS (5 times)
LC (5 times)
BM (3 times)
1999 Circadian rhythms and depression: effects of exercise in an animal model.
66  clinically significant
(46 times)
Urology
(17 times)
PCa (18 times)
mpMRI (12 times)
MRI (4 times)
1996 Some comments on "assessing clinical significance".
67  cold stress
(46 times)
Transplantation
(5 times)
CAT (4 times)
ELI (4 times)
GSH-Px (4 times)
1986 Assessment of myocardial perfusion during cold stress using thallium-201 scintigraphy in diabetic patients with abnormal changes in left ventricular function during cold stress.
68  cholesterol
(45 times)
Cardiology
(13 times)
TG (12 times)
HDLP (4 times)
HLP (4 times)
1977 Factors affecting bilirubin excretion in patients with cholesterol or pigment gallstones.
69  critical speed
(45 times)
Sports Medicine
(24 times)
3 MT (6 times)
3MT (4 times)
CP (3 times)
1995 Times to exhaustion at 90, 100 and 105% of velocity at VO2 max (maximal aerobic speed) and critical speed in elite long-distance runners.
70  central sulcus
(44 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
SEPs (5 times)
MR (4 times)
fMRI (3 times)
1989 Human cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of the median nerve. I. Cytoarchitectonic areas generating short-latency activity.
71  crush syndrome
(44 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
AKI (5 times)
ARF (3 times)
CK (3 times)
1985 [Role of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions in the cardiodepressive action of blood plasma in burn shock and the crush syndrome].
72  compassion satisfaction
(43 times)
Nursing
(16 times)
BO (27 times)
CF (22 times)
STS (17 times)
2011 Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in heart and vascular nurses.
73  chronic sinusitis
(42 times)
Otolaryngology
(22 times)
AR (6 times)
NP (6 times)
ESS (4 times)
1991 Neutrophil elastase and its complex with alpha 1-antitrypsin in soluble and insoluble fractions of nasal secretions of chronic sinusitis.
74  clinical supervision
(42 times)
Nursing
(29 times)
AHPs (3 times)
AH (1 time)
ANUMs (1 time)
1998 Clinical supervision: insider reports of a private world.
75  cervical spine
(41 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
CT (9 times)
MRI (9 times)
RA (6 times)
1984 On the pathogenesis of spondylosis deformans and arthrosis uncovertebralis: comparative form-analytical radiological and statistical studies on lumbar and cervical vertebral bodies.
76  choline-supplemented
(41 times)
Neoplasms
(17 times)
CD (38 times)
GGT (8 times)
DEN (5 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
77  cellulose sulfate
(40 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(5 times)
DS (5 times)
PEI (4 times)
PLL (4 times)
1974 Promotion of growth of tumour cells in acutely inflamed tissues.
78  corn stalk
(40 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(22 times)
AD (3 times)
PS (3 times)
RS (3 times)
2009 Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: a comparative study.
79  Currarino syndrome
(40 times)
Pediatrics
(12 times)
MNX1 (4 times)
ARM (3 times)
ARMs (2 times)
1999 Exclusion of the Sonic Hedgehog gene as responsible for Currarino syndrome and anorectal malformations with sacral hypodevelopment.
80  current smokers
(38 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(5 times)
NS (28 times)
FS (13 times)
ES (6 times)
1989 Twins, smoking and mortality: a 12-year prospective study of smoking-discordant twin pairs.
81  compensatory sweating
(37 times)
General Surgery
(23 times)
ETS (10 times)
TS (5 times)
ESB (4 times)
2003 Results of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) on hyperhidrosis, facial blushing, angina pectoris, vascular disorders and pain syndromes of the hand and arm.
82  cross-sectional
(36 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
OCT (7 times)
CBCT (3 times)
CC (2 times)
1991 Comparative study of three different approaches on the estimation of the lung-heart ratio in thallium 201 scintigrams in relation to the extent of coronary artery disease and left ventricular function.
83  cromolyn sodium
(35 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
BDP (2 times)
CD (2 times)
EIA (2 times)
1981 A clinical trial of combined cromolyn/beclomethasone treatment for chronic asthma.
84  cysteine synthase
(35 times)
Biochemistry
(13 times)
SAT (10 times)
CBS (4 times)
PCS (4 times)
1997 Cysteine synthesis in plants: protein-protein interactions of serine acetyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
85  cuckoo search
(33 times)
Medical Informatics
(10 times)
PSO (12 times)
ABC (6 times)
DE (4 times)
2012 A hybrid metaheuristic DE/CS algorithm for UCAV three-dimension path planning.
86  calsequestrin
(32 times)
Cell Biology
(13 times)
SR (15 times)
TC (8 times)
ER (7 times)
1988 Endoplasmic reticulum of rat liver contains two proteins closely related to skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and calsequestrin.
87  cell saver
(32 times)
General Surgery
(13 times)
CPB (9 times)
HB (4 times)
CABG (3 times)
1990 Acute plasmapheresis during cardiac surgery: volume replacement by crystalloids versus colloids.
88  cancer survivors
(31 times)
Neoplasms
(18 times)
PA (4 times)
BCS (2 times)
BMI (2 times)
2007 An audiovisual information resource to assist in the transition from completion of potentially curative treatment for cancer through to survivorship: a systematic development process.
89  cleavage site
(31 times)
Virology
(10 times)
PR (6 times)
HA (5 times)
HIV-1 (4 times)
1999 Role of exonucleolytic degradation in group I intron homing in phage T4.
90  core-shell
(31 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
NPs (6 times)
QDs (4 times)
XRD (4 times)
2005 General equation for size nanocharacterization of the core-shell nanoparticles by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
91  cortisol
(31 times)
Complementary Therapies
(5 times)
ACTH (5 times)
PRL (5 times)
AD (4 times)
1978 Hormonal response to stress in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
92  carotid sinus
(30 times)
Physiology
(15 times)
CSN (4 times)
HR (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1975 Bulbo-spinal neurons activated by baroreceptor afferents and their possible role in inhibition of preganglionic sympathetic neurons.
93  complement system
(30 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
AP (6 times)
AMD (3 times)
CP (2 times)
1998 [The complement-activating action of modern x-ray contrast agents].
94  conditioning stimulation
(30 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
i.t (6 times)
SP (5 times)
GAL (4 times)
1976 [Conditioning of emotional behavior caused by hypothalamic stimulation (3): The learned behavior caused by hypothalamic stimulation in rabbits].
95  Constant Spring
(30 times)
Hematology
(16 times)
Hb (15 times)
PCR (3 times)
G6PD (2 times)
1981 Homozygous haemoglobin Constant Spring: a need for revision of concept.
96  controls
(30 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
MS (3 times)
AC (2 times)
AD (2 times)
1978 Effect of isometric strength training of mechanical, electrical, and metabolic aspects of muscle function.
97  Chondroid syringoma
(29 times)
Pathology
(10 times)
ACS (1 time)
ACT (1 time)
CK (1 time)
1988 [Chondroid syringoma (borderline type)].
98  Crouzon syndrome
(29 times)
Genetics, Medical
(7 times)
FGFR2 (6 times)
AS (5 times)
PS (3 times)
1993 Quantitation of craniofacial anomalies in utero: fetal alcohol and Crouzon syndromes and thanatophoric dysplasia.
99  chiral selector
(28 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(24 times)
HSCCC (6 times)
CSP (5 times)
CE (3 times)
1995 Resolution of gram quantities of racemates by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
100  circular stapler
(27 times)
General Surgery
(18 times)
LS (11 times)
HS (10 times)
CI (5 times)
1992 Direct comparison between Czerny-Lembert and circular-stapled anastomotic techniques in colorectal anastomosis: a similar pattern of healing for both.