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Abbreviation: CS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
chitosan
(2431 times)
Biochemistry
(433 times)
SEM (217 times)
NPs (162 times)
FTIR (157 times)
1990 Effect of interpolymer complex formation on bioadhesive property and drug release phenomenon of compressed tablet consisting of chitosan and sodium hyaluronate.
conditioned stimulus
(2192 times)
Neurology
(862 times)
US (906 times)
CR (176 times)
UCS (112 times)
1973 Unilateral cortical spreading depression and conditioned eye blink responses in rabbits.
cesarean section
(2096 times)
Obstetrics
(885 times)
CI (143 times)
VD (130 times)
OR (97 times)
0 [Cesarean section incidence and vaginal birth success rate at term pregnancy after myomectomy].
chondroitin sulfate
(1737 times)
Biochemistry
(440 times)
HA (318 times)
HS (297 times)
GAGs (284 times)
0 Effects of Oral Chondroitin Sulfate on Osteoarthritis-Related Pain and Joint Structural Changes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
cigarette smoke
(1437 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(241 times)
COPD (430 times)
CSE (204 times)
BALF (91 times)
1975 Chronic inhalation of nickel oxide and cigarette smoke by hamsters.
coronary sinus
(1125 times)
Cardiology
(828 times)
AF (132 times)
LV (125 times)
CRT (123 times)
1975 Abnormal regional metabolism and mechanical function in patients with ischemic heart diseases: improvement after successful regional revascularization by aortocoronary bypass.
corticosteroids
(1031 times)
Rheumatology
(107 times)
HPA (35 times)
UC (34 times)
HA (30 times)
0 Effectiveness of Intra-Articular Injections of Sodium Hyaluronate or Corticosteroids for Intracapsular Temporomandibular Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
compressed sensing
(1020 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(262 times)
MRI (67 times)
DTS (42 times)
FS (33 times)
1985 Correlation between the compressive strength of iliac and vertebral trabecular bone in normal individuals.
citrate synthase
(939 times)
Physiology
(283 times)
LDH (178 times)
PFK (80 times)
COX (63 times)
1975 M. Quadriceps femoris of man, a muscle with an unusual enzyme activity pattern of energy supplying metabolism in mammals.
10  Cushing's syndrome
(871 times)
Endocrinology
(538 times)
ACTH (107 times)
CD (100 times)
UFC (78 times)
1981 The relationship of adrenal iodomethylnorcholesterol uptake to indices of adrenal cortical function in Cushing's syndrome.
11  contrast sensitivity
(818 times)
Ophthalmology
(362 times)
VA (148 times)
BCVA (70 times)
AMD (34 times)
0 [Contrast sensitivity and optic coherence tomography examinations in adolescent patients with diabetes type I preretinopathy (a pilot study)].
12  cardiogenic shock
(626 times)
Cardiology
(397 times)
AMI (156 times)
PCI (124 times)
STEMI (102 times)
1976 Early care of acute myocardial infarction.
13  Cockayne syndrome
(428 times)
Molecular Biology
(83 times)
XP (170 times)
NER (105 times)
TTD (61 times)
1978 Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Recognition and relationship to neurological abnormalities in Cockayne's syndrome.
14  circumsporozoite
(394 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(135 times)
CTL (23 times)
ELISA (21 times)
PCR (9 times)
1983 Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes.
15  cavernous sinus
(259 times)
Neurosurgery
(135 times)
ICA (37 times)
DAVF (16 times)
IPS (15 times)
1982 Visualization of the superior ophthalmic vein on carotid angiography.
16  Cowden syndrome
(255 times)
Genetics, Medical
(71 times)
BRRS (20 times)
PTEN (20 times)
LDD (15 times)
1980 Cogan syndrome: studies in thirteen patients, long-term follow-up, and a review of the literature.
17  conservative surgery
(252 times)
Neoplasms
(53 times)
RT (32 times)
FNA (22 times)
DS (18 times)
1983 EVI antibodies in patients with Chagas' disease: relationship with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulins and effects of specific treatment.
18  cardiac sarcoidosis
(247 times)
Cardiology
(135 times)
CMR (36 times)
PET (28 times)
FDG (23 times)
1986 [Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS)].
19  ciclosporin
(234 times)
Nephrology
(45 times)
AZA (7 times)
CyP (7 times)
LPS (6 times)
1977 Drug resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Taiwan during 1975.
20  clinical stage
(208 times)
Neoplasms
(92 times)
PS (33 times)
HD (31 times)
RT (23 times)
1976 Results of involved field and extended field radiotherapy in patients with pathologic state I and II Hodgkin's disease.
21  cold storage
(197 times)
Transplantation
(107 times)
MP (49 times)
DCD (34 times)
DGF (28 times)
1986 Comparison of cold storage and perfusion of dog livers on function of tissue slices.
22  control subjects
(187 times)
Neurology
(39 times)
RA (21 times)
PD (11 times)
AD (10 times)
1979 Correlative studies of lymphocyte transformation and plasma protein levels in ankylosing spondylitis.
23  Constant score
(182 times)
Orthopedics
(107 times)
SSV (40 times)
VAS (19 times)
ASES (15 times)
1999 A multicenter study of 210 rotator cuff tears treated by arthroscopic acromioplasty.
24  calcium silicate
(153 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(43 times)
SBF (12 times)
SEM (11 times)
ALP (8 times)
2002 Bone regeneration with calcium sulfate: evidence for increased angiogenesis in rabbits.
25  circumferential strain
(138 times)
Cardiology
(64 times)
LS (68 times)
LV (50 times)
RS (43 times)
2000 Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant curved tube model of a coronary artery.
26  cortical stimulation
(122 times)
Neurology
(18 times)
SS (8 times)
IS (7 times)
TS (7 times)
1976 Effects of para-chlorophenylalanine and tryptophan on learning of a brightness discrimination in rats.
27  central sensitization
(115 times)
Neurology
(49 times)
CSI (31 times)
OA (10 times)
CSS (7 times)
1975 Serum IgE-concentrations in patients with contact sensitization.
28  corn silage
(108 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(87 times)
DM (33 times)
AH (19 times)
AS (14 times)
1979 Variables associated with peripartum traits in dairy cows. I. Effect of dietary forages and disorders on voluntary intake of feed, body weight and milk yield.
29  cryptogenic stroke
(108 times)
Cardiology
(30 times)
PFO (52 times)
AF (26 times)
CI (8 times)
1998 Coagulation abnormalities in adults with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.
30  congenital syphilis
(106 times)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(22 times)
ANC (5 times)
LB (5 times)
aOR (4 times)
1990 Resurgence of congenital syphilis in Trinidad.
31  chemical shift
(103 times)
Chemistry
(55 times)
EFG (21 times)
MAS (17 times)
DFT (7 times)
1996 Deuterium Quadrupole-Coupling and Chemical-Shielding Tensors in the Model Dipeptide Glycylglycine Monohydrochloride Monohydrate
32  corn stover
(102 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(38 times)
RS (10 times)
CM (9 times)
AD (8 times)
2009 Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations--effects of saccharification and particle size.
33  congenital scoliosis
(101 times)
Orthopedics
(41 times)
AIS (18 times)
IS (12 times)
SCM (5 times)
1983 Abnormalities of aggregation, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and 14C serotonin release in platelets of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
34  conscious sedation
(101 times)
Neurology
(16 times)
GA (71 times)
AIS (13 times)
LA (8 times)
1991 Functional assessment of coloanal anastomosis with reservoir and excision of the anal transition zone.
35  chondrosarcoma
(100 times)
Neoplasms
(41 times)
OS (22 times)
ES (9 times)
LR (6 times)
1982 Ultrastructural study of conventional chondrosarcomas and myxoid- and mesenchymal-chondrosarcomas.
36  Chinese Spring
(99 times)
Genetics
(58 times)
FISH (5 times)
GISH (4 times)
AFLP (3 times)
1981 Nitrate reductase activity (in vivo and in vitro) of ditelosomic stocks of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
37  carcinosarcoma
(96 times)
Neoplasms
(58 times)
LMS (17 times)
ESS (15 times)
OS (14 times)
1984 A clinical and pathologic study of 30 cases of malignant mixed mullerian epithelial and mesenchymal ovarian tumors: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
38  cholesterol sulfate
(96 times)
Biochemistry
(36 times)
CH (7 times)
RXLI (6 times)
DHEAS (5 times)
1980 Deuterium magnetic resonance of selectively deuterated cholesteryl esters in phosphatidylcholine vesicles.
39  Costello syndrome
(95 times)
Genetics, Medical
(51 times)
CFC (20 times)
NS (20 times)
CFCS (11 times)
1998 A case of Costello syndrome with endocrine features.
40  charge-separated
(94 times)
Chemistry
(81 times)
ET (13 times)
CT (7 times)
CR (6 times)
2000 Direct comparison of electron transfer properties of two distinct semisynthetic triads with non-protein based triad: unambiguous experimental evidences on protein matrix effects.
41  corticospinal
(91 times)
Neurology
(58 times)
MEPs (15 times)
TMS (14 times)
CST (6 times)
1976 Spinal branching of corticospinal axons in the cat.
42  charge separation
(89 times)
Chemistry
(72 times)
CR (40 times)
ET (19 times)
CT (8 times)
2001 Modulating charge separation and charge recombination dynamics in porphyrin-fullerene linked dyads and triads: Marcus-normal versus inverted region.
43  Cordyceps sinensis
(89 times)
Complementary Therapies
(23 times)
SCr (6 times)
BUN (5 times)
StAR (5 times)
1991 [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb and serum renotropin on tubular epithelial cell growth].
44  corn starch
(89 times)
Biochemistry
(21 times)
RS (7 times)
TS (6 times)
FTIR (5 times)
1990 The influence of supplemental corn oil and free fatty acids on the reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
45  Comprehensive System
(86 times)
Psychology
(72 times)
R-PAS (9 times)
MCMI-III (2 times)
RIM (2 times)
2000 Impaired Wisconsin card sorting test performance in first-episode schizophrenia: resource or motivation deficit?
46  calcium score
(80 times)
Cardiology
(34 times)
CAD (23 times)
CT (10 times)
CAC (8 times)
2000 Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography.
47  cardiac surgery
(76 times)
Cardiology
(21 times)
CPB (10 times)
AKI (9 times)
OR (6 times)
1983 Thymic lymphocyte subpopulations in myasthenia gravis.
48  complex spike
(76 times)
Neurology
(31 times)
SS (37 times)
PC (13 times)
PCs (12 times)
1977 Purkinje cell activity during motor learning.
49  cervical spondylosis
(74 times)
Neurology
(24 times)
VAS (11 times)
CI (6 times)
NDI (6 times)
1981 [Roentgenological measurement of the cervical vertebral bodies in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical spondylosis (CS) (author's transl)].
50  calf serum
(72 times)
Cell Biology
(17 times)
FBS (11 times)
FCS (7 times)
DMEM (4 times)
1970 Propagation and growth cycle of Rickettsia quintana in a new liquid medium.
51  compartment syndrome
(68 times)
Traumatology
(16 times)
ICP (4 times)
CK (3 times)
ALI (2 times)
1986 Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG): do they precipitate lower-extremity compartment syndromes?
52  cytoreductive surgery
(66 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
HIPEC (33 times)
PC (21 times)
IPHC (8 times)
1992 [Surgery called tumoral reduction: myth or reality?].
53  corpus striatum
(63 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DA (16 times)
SN (12 times)
ME (5 times)
1979 Interactions between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in rat brain demonstrated by small unilateral lesions of the raphe nuclei.
54  craniosynostosis
(62 times)
Dentistry
(16 times)
CT (5 times)
ICP (4 times)
WT (4 times)
1992 Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve.
55  carotid stenosis
(60 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
CEA (10 times)
CAS (6 times)
ABI (4 times)
1994 Surgical management in patients with coexistent coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Long-term results.
56  conditional survival
(60 times)
Neoplasms
(36 times)
OS (20 times)
CSS (6 times)
SEER (6 times)
2007 Conditional survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: results from the SEER dataset 1973-1998.
57  carcinoid syndrome
(59 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
NETs (17 times)
CHD (10 times)
TE (6 times)
1977 Pituitary-gonadal function in the carcinoid syndrome: effect of parachlorophynylalanine therapy.
58  culture supernatant
(57 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(25 times)
LA (4 times)
LPS (4 times)
DCs (3 times)
1973 Micropolyspora faeni and farmer's lung disease.
59  Carnegie stage
(55 times)
Anatomy
(27 times)
HPE (2 times)
HSCs (2 times)
ICB (2 times)
1993 Neural tube defects in the parietal region of human embryos: failure to close or closure-reopening?
60  composite score
(55 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
TIA (5 times)
ASI (4 times)
ROC (4 times)
1986 Surgical treatment of cerebrovascular occlusive disease. A follow-up study.
61  circumsporozoite protein
(53 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(23 times)
TRAP (5 times)
CTL (3 times)
MVA (3 times)
1984 Neutralization of the infectivity of sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi by antibodies to a synthetic peptide.
62  corpuscles of Stannius
(53 times)
Endocrinology
(27 times)
STC (16 times)
aa (5 times)
CaSR (2 times)
1976 On the cytoarchitecture of the corpuscles of Stannius of the catfish, Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch).
63  cyclic stretch
(51 times)
Cell Biology
(17 times)
VILI (14 times)
EC (11 times)
ECs (5 times)
2003 Magnitude-dependent regulation of pulmonary endothelial cell barrier function by cyclic stretch.
64  clinically significant
(50 times)
Urology
(19 times)
PCa (21 times)
mpMRI (13 times)
CI (4 times)
1996 Some comments on "assessing clinical significance".
65  chronic stress
(49 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AS (6 times)
LC (5 times)
BM (3 times)
1999 Circadian rhythms and depression: effects of exercise in an animal model.
66  colonoscopy
(49 times)
Gastroenterology
(20 times)
EGD (9 times)
CRC (8 times)
UC (6 times)
1995 Colonic investigations in the elderly: colonoscopy or barium enema?
67  critical speed
(49 times)
Sports Medicine
(25 times)
3 MT (6 times)
3MT (4 times)
CP (4 times)
1995 Times to exhaustion at 90, 100 and 105% of velocity at VO2 max (maximal aerobic speed) and critical speed in elite long-distance runners.
68  cold stress
(48 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
CAT (4 times)
ELI (4 times)
GSH-Px (4 times)
1986 Assessment of myocardial perfusion during cold stress using thallium-201 scintigraphy in diabetic patients with abnormal changes in left ventricular function during cold stress.
69  compassion satisfaction
(48 times)
Nursing
(18 times)
BO (30 times)
CF (25 times)
STS (20 times)
2011 Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in heart and vascular nurses.
70  cholesterol
(45 times)
Cardiology
(13 times)
TG (12 times)
HDLP (4 times)
HLP (4 times)
1977 Factors affecting bilirubin excretion in patients with cholesterol or pigment gallstones.
71  crush syndrome
(45 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
AKI (5 times)
ARF (3 times)
CK (3 times)
1985 [Role of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions in the cardiodepressive action of blood plasma in burn shock and the crush syndrome].
72  central sulcus
(44 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
SEPs (5 times)
MR (4 times)
fMRI (3 times)
1989 Human cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of the median nerve. I. Cytoarchitectonic areas generating short-latency activity.
73  chronic sinusitis
(43 times)
Otolaryngology
(22 times)
AR (6 times)
NP (6 times)
ESS (4 times)
1991 Neutrophil elastase and its complex with alpha 1-antitrypsin in soluble and insoluble fractions of nasal secretions of chronic sinusitis.
74  corn stalk
(43 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(23 times)
AD (3 times)
PS (3 times)
RS (3 times)
2009 Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: a comparative study.
75  cervical spine
(42 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
CT (9 times)
MRI (9 times)
RA (6 times)
1984 On the pathogenesis of spondylosis deformans and arthrosis uncovertebralis: comparative form-analytical radiological and statistical studies on lumbar and cervical vertebral bodies.
76  clinical supervision
(42 times)
Nursing
(29 times)
AHPs (3 times)
AH (1 time)
ANUMs (1 time)
1998 Clinical supervision: insider reports of a private world.
77  choline-supplemented
(41 times)
Neoplasms
(17 times)
CD (38 times)
GGT (8 times)
DEN (5 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
78  Currarino syndrome
(41 times)
Pediatrics
(12 times)
MNX1 (4 times)
ARM (3 times)
ARMs (2 times)
1999 Exclusion of the Sonic Hedgehog gene as responsible for Currarino syndrome and anorectal malformations with sacral hypodevelopment.
79  cellulose sulfate
(40 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(5 times)
DS (5 times)
PEI (4 times)
PLL (4 times)
1974 Promotion of growth of tumour cells in acutely inflamed tissues.
80  current smokers
(39 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(5 times)
NS (29 times)
FS (14 times)
ES (6 times)
1989 Twins, smoking and mortality: a 12-year prospective study of smoking-discordant twin pairs.
81  cross-sectional
(38 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
OCT (8 times)
CBCT (3 times)
CC (2 times)
1991 Comparative study of three different approaches on the estimation of the lung-heart ratio in thallium 201 scintigrams in relation to the extent of coronary artery disease and left ventricular function.
82  compensatory sweating
(37 times)
General Surgery
(23 times)
ETS (10 times)
TS (5 times)
ESB (4 times)
2003 Results of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) on hyperhidrosis, facial blushing, angina pectoris, vascular disorders and pain syndromes of the hand and arm.
83  cromolyn sodium
(36 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
AUC (2 times)
BDP (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1981 A clinical trial of combined cromolyn/beclomethasone treatment for chronic asthma.
84  cuckoo search
(35 times)
Medical Informatics
(10 times)
PSO (12 times)
ABC (6 times)
DE (4 times)
2012 A hybrid metaheuristic DE/CS algorithm for UCAV three-dimension path planning.
85  cysteine synthase
(35 times)
Biochemistry
(13 times)
SAT (10 times)
CBS (4 times)
PCs (4 times)
1997 Cysteine synthesis in plants: protein-protein interactions of serine acetyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
86  cancer survivors
(34 times)
Neoplasms
(19 times)
PA (6 times)
BCS (2 times)
BMI (2 times)
2007 An audiovisual information resource to assist in the transition from completion of potentially curative treatment for cancer through to survivorship: a systematic development process.
87  calsequestrin
(32 times)
Cell Biology
(13 times)
SR (15 times)
TC (8 times)
ER (7 times)
1988 Endoplasmic reticulum of rat liver contains two proteins closely related to skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and calsequestrin.
88  cell saver
(32 times)
General Surgery
(13 times)
CPB (9 times)
HB (4 times)
CABG (3 times)
1990 Acute plasmapheresis during cardiac surgery: volume replacement by crystalloids versus colloids.
89  cleavage site
(31 times)
Virology
(10 times)
PR (6 times)
HA (5 times)
HIV-1 (4 times)
1999 Role of exonucleolytic degradation in group I intron homing in phage T4.
90  complement system
(31 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
AP (6 times)
AMD (3 times)
CP (2 times)
1998 [The complement-activating action of modern x-ray contrast agents].
91  core-shell
(31 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
NPs (6 times)
QDs (4 times)
XRD (4 times)
2005 General equation for size nanocharacterization of the core-shell nanoparticles by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
92  cortisol
(31 times)
Complementary Therapies
(5 times)
ACTH (5 times)
PRL (5 times)
AD (4 times)
1978 Hormonal response to stress in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
93  carotid sinus
(30 times)
Physiology
(15 times)
CSN (4 times)
HR (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1975 Bulbo-spinal neurons activated by baroreceptor afferents and their possible role in inhibition of preganglionic sympathetic neurons.
94  chiral selector
(30 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(26 times)
HSCCC (6 times)
CSP (5 times)
CE (3 times)
1995 Resolution of gram quantities of racemates by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
95  circular stapler
(30 times)
General Surgery
(20 times)
LS (13 times)
HS (11 times)
CI (5 times)
1992 Direct comparison between Czerny-Lembert and circular-stapled anastomotic techniques in colorectal anastomosis: a similar pattern of healing for both.
96  conditioning stimulation
(30 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
i.t (6 times)
SP (5 times)
GAL (4 times)
1976 [Conditioning of emotional behavior caused by hypothalamic stimulation (3): The learned behavior caused by hypothalamic stimulation in rabbits].
97  Constant Spring
(30 times)
Hematology
(16 times)
Hb (15 times)
PCR (3 times)
G6PD (2 times)
1981 Homozygous haemoglobin Constant Spring: a need for revision of concept.
98  controls
(30 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
MS (3 times)
AC (2 times)
AD (2 times)
1978 Effect of isometric strength training of mechanical, electrical, and metabolic aspects of muscle function.
99  Crouzon syndrome
(30 times)
Genetics, Medical
(7 times)
FGFR2 (7 times)
AS (5 times)
PS (3 times)
1993 Quantitation of craniofacial anomalies in utero: fetal alcohol and Crouzon syndromes and thanatophoric dysplasia.
100  Chondroid syringoma
(29 times)
Pathology
(10 times)
ACS (1 time)
ACT (1 time)
CK (1 time)
1988 [Chondroid syringoma (borderline type)].