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Abbreviation: CSA
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
cross-sectional area
(3349 times)
Physiology
(716 times)
MRI (231 times)
CT (174 times)
US (137 times)
1976 Adaptations of the left ventricle to chronic pressure overload.
childhood sexual abuse
(1184 times)
Pediatrics
(296 times)
PTSD (116 times)
CPA (40 times)
MSM (32 times)
1990 The role of the paediatric surgeon in alleged child sexual abuse.
central sleep apnea
(395 times)
Cardiology
(94 times)
OSA (151 times)
AHI (87 times)
SDB (77 times)
1990 Sleep apnea in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: beneficial effects of nasal CPAP.
colony-stimulating activity
(368 times)
Hematology
(166 times)
GM-CSF (20 times)
CM (17 times)
CSF (17 times)
1974 [Colony-stimulating activity (CSA) in human leukocytes].
chondroitin sulfate A
(256 times)
Communicable Diseases
(48 times)
PfEMP1 (36 times)
DBL (26 times)
IEs (24 times)
1975 The effects of polyanions on NBT Reductions hexose monophosphate shunt activity, and ultrastructure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
chemical shift anisotropy
(239 times)
Chemistry
(111 times)
MAS (42 times)
NMR (16 times)
DFT (11 times)
1985 Thermodynamic, motional, and structural aspects of gramicidin-induced hexagonal HII phase formation in phosphatidylethanolamine.
chronic stable angina
(80 times)
Cardiology
(39 times)
ACS (22 times)
CAD (18 times)
UA (12 times)
1993 Circadian variation of ischaemic events in patients with chronic stable angina: pathophysiological and therapeutical considerations.
critical shoulder angle
(71 times)
Orthopedics
(48 times)
AI (18 times)
RCT (11 times)
RCTs (9 times)
2013 Is there an association between the individual anatomy of the scapula and the development of rotator cuff tears or osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint?: A radiological study of the critical shoulder angle.
Controlled Substances Act
(68 times)
Jurisprudence
(45 times)
DEA (33 times)
FDA (7 times)
CBD (4 times)
1979 The effect of federal drug law on the incidence of drug abuse.
10  continuous spinal anesthesia
(53 times)
Anesthesiology
(39 times)
PDPH (6 times)
MAP (5 times)
CSE (4 times)
1989 The use of continuous spinal anesthesia in severe tetanus with autonomic disturbance.
11  coronary spastic angina
(53 times)
Cardiology
(34 times)
ACh (4 times)
CPS (4 times)
LDL (4 times)
1996 Nitric oxide activity is deficient in spasm arteries of patients with coronary spastic angina.
12  cervical spondylotic amyotrophy
(47 times)
Neurology
(18 times)
ALS (10 times)
CMAP (7 times)
MMT (6 times)
1990 [Neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cervical spondylosis and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments].
13  cysteine sulfinic acid
(47 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
CA (16 times)
HCA (12 times)
Cys (9 times)
1978 Taurine: an essential nutrient for the cat.
14  Clinical Skills Assessment
(46 times)
Education
(33 times)
ECFMG (8 times)
MRCGP (7 times)
SP (7 times)
1997 Clinical skills assessment with standardized patients.
15  Cyclosporine A
(46 times)
Transplantation
(7 times)
TAC (4 times)
IL (3 times)
AVT (2 times)
1983 Cyclosporine A impairs wound healing in rats.
16  cortical surface area
(45 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
CT (19 times)
CV (8 times)
PN (5 times)
1993 Direct interactions between platelets and cultured rat mesangial cells.
17  camphorsulfonic acid
(35 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
PANI (11 times)
CD (2 times)
DBSA (2 times)
2003 Helical conformational specificity of enzymatically synthesized water-soluble conducting polyaniline nanocomposites.
18  compressed spectral array
(32 times)
Neurology
(14 times)
EEG (8 times)
BAEP (3 times)
DSA (2 times)
1977 Cerebral monitoring by compressed spectral array.
19  catalyzed signal amplification
(28 times)
Histocytochemistry
(10 times)
ISH (6 times)
ABC (2 times)
AM (2 times)
1996 Application of catalyzed signal amplification in immunodetection of gonadotropin subunits in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
20  conformational space annealing
(28 times)
Biochemistry
(11 times)
CFMC (2 times)
DFA (2 times)
MCM (2 times)
1998 Conformational analysis of the 20-residue membrane-bound portion of melittin by conformational space annealing.
21  chiral solvating agent
(25 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
CSR (2 times)
ee (2 times)
MA (2 times)
1996 Intermolecular (1)H-(1)H Two-Dimensional Nuclear Overhauser Enhancements in the Characterization of a Rationally Designed Chiral Recognition System.
22  Cajaninstilbene acid
(20 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
Abeta1-42 (1 time)
AD (1 time)
ARE (1 time)
2010 Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of cajaninstilbene acid in rats by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.
23  chemical shielding anisotropy
(20 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
MAS (5 times)
DFT (4 times)
EFG (3 times)
1997 71Ga Chemical Shielding and Quadrupole Coupling Tensors of the Garnet Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) from Single-Crystal (71)Ga NMR.
24  chicken serum albumin
(20 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(9 times)
phOx (3 times)
TD (3 times)
Dx (2 times)
1962 The metabolism of serum proteins in the hen and chick and secretion of serum proteins by the ovary of the hen.
25  child sexual assault
(20 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
PTSD (2 times)
ASA (1 time)
CAPS (1 time)
2000 The impact of DNA evidence in a child sexual assault trial.
26  Congenital sideroblastic anemia
(19 times)
Hematology
(12 times)
FA (2 times)
MDS-RS (2 times)
ALA (1 time)
1990 Congenital sideroblastic anemia without clinical iron overload. A case report.
27  clinically suspect arthralgia
(18 times)
Rheumatology
(15 times)
RA (13 times)
MCP (4 times)
MRI (3 times)
2015 Characterising arthralgia in the preclinical phase of rheumatoid arthritis using MRI.
28  community-supported agriculture
(18 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(8 times)
FV (2 times)
AFNs (1 time)
CI (1 time)
2012 Community supported agriculture membership in Arizona. An exploratory study of food and sustainability behaviours.
29  Computer Science and Applications
(18 times)
Sports Medicine
(10 times)
EE (4 times)
METs (3 times)
AEE (1 time)
1994 Validation of the CSA accelerometer for assessing children's physical activity.
30  Canadian Standards Association
(15 times)
Health Services
(2 times)
ASTM (2 times)
AAMI (1 time)
ANSI (1 time)
1980 The influence of standards on health care delivery.
31  Catalytic Site Atlas
(15 times)
Medical Informatics
(6 times)
THEMATICS (2 times)
AP (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
2004 The Catalytic Site Atlas: a resource of catalytic sites and residues identified in enzymes using structural data.
32  4-chloro-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid
(14 times)
Pharmacology
(12 times)
FG (2 times)
PPC (1 time)
TLC (1 time)
1975 Separation and quantitative analysis of furosemide and 4-chloro-5-sulfamoylanthranilic adid (CSA) by high pressure liquid chromatography.
33  cervical sagittal alignment
(14 times)
Orthopedics
(8 times)
AIS (5 times)
SVA (4 times)
CL (3 times)
2011 Cervical spine sagittal alignment variations following posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
34  chlorosulfonic acid
(14 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(5 times)
SWCNTs (3 times)
CNTs (2 times)
DA (2 times)
2011 Synthesis of novel tricalcium phosphate-bioactive glass composite and functionalization with rhBMP-2.
35  chromogenic substrate assay
(14 times)
Hematology
(9 times)
OSA (8 times)
FVIII (5 times)
APTT (3 times)
1989 Antithrombin III activity (residual thrombin activity) in plasma from non-medicated or heparinized horses.
36  cryosurgical ablation
(14 times)
General Surgery
(7 times)
RFA (9 times)
CCTs (2 times)
HR (2 times)
2000 Cryosurgical ablation and radiofrequency ablation for unresectable hepatic malignant neoplasms: a proposed algorithm.
37  Central and South America
(13 times)
Epidemiology
(7 times)
ASR (2 times)
AUROC (2 times)
EAPC (2 times)
2006 Validation of the SAPS 3 admission prognostic model in patients with cancer in need of intensive care.
38  colorimetric sensor array
(12 times)
Food Analysis
(4 times)
PCA (2 times)
BPNN (1 time)
EBN (1 time)
2015 Tensor sufficient dimension reduction.
39  craniospinal axis
(12 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
GCT (2 times)
NGGCT (2 times)
CA (1 time)
1986 Medulloblastoma: the Duke University Medical Center experience.
40  cuckoo search algorithm
(12 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(6 times)
PSO (4 times)
GA (3 times)
PID (2 times)
2014 Adaptive cuckoo search algorithm for unconstrained optimization.
41  cell surface antigen
(11 times)
Bacteriology
(3 times)
LPS (2 times)
mAb (2 times)
CPV (1 time)
1975 Cell populations and known surface antigens of tumors induced by Abelson virus in pristane-primed BALB/c mice: an analysis by immunoelectron microscopy;.
42  Charcot spinal arthropathy
(11 times)
Spinal Cord Injuries
(4 times)
SCI (3 times)
CSF (1 time)
NLUTD (1 time)
2012 Surgical management of Charcot spinal arthropathy: a single-center retrospective series highlighting the evolution of management.
43  circulating schistosome antigen
(11 times)
Parasitology
(6 times)
mAb (3 times)
RIPEGA (3 times)
CIC (2 times)
1978 Circulating antigens and immune complexes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected rats. Characterization by radioimmunoprecipitation-PEG assay (RIPEGA).
44  crude soluble antigen
(11 times)
Parasitology
(4 times)
ELISA (3 times)
VL (3 times)
ESA (2 times)
1985 Somatic and excretory polysaccharide antigens of Leishmania donovani promastigotes.
45  circular-stapled anastomosis
(10 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
LSA (5 times)
HSA (4 times)
LRYGB (3 times)
1999 Which technique, circular stapled anastomosis or double stapling anastomosis, provides the optimal size and shape of rectal anastomotic opening?
46  climate-smart agriculture
(10 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
GHG (2 times)
APA (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2016 Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.
47  calcium sulfoaluminate
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
OPC (4 times)
XRD (3 times)
SEM (2 times)
2008 Properties of MSW fly ash-calcium sulfoaluminate cement matrix and stabilization/solidification on heavy metals.
48  campus sexual assault
(9 times)
Violence
(3 times)
AAU (1 time)
CAPPA (1 time)
IHE (1 time)
2016 Some types of hookups may be riskier than others for campus sexual assault.
49  cervical sagittal angle
(9 times)
Orthopedics
(5 times)
JOA (5 times)
VAS (5 times)
NDI (3 times)
2014 Effect of posterior subsidence on cervical alignment after anterior cervical corpectomy and reconstruction using titanium mesh cages in degenerative cervical disease.
50  chronic severe anemia
(9 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
BT (4 times)
PCWP (3 times)
ACG (1 time)
1985 Hemodynamic evaluation of blood transfusion in chronic severe anemia with special reference to speed of transfusion.
51  Cockayne syndrome A
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
CS (3 times)
CSB (3 times)
TCR (3 times)
1996 Molecular cloning and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD28, the yeast homolog of the human Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) gene.
52  colon-specific antigen
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
CEA (4 times)
COTA (3 times)
SP1 (2 times)
1975 Identification of a colon-specific antigen (CSA) in normal and neoplastic tissues.
53  colony survival assay
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
AT (4 times)
AFP (2 times)
DSB (2 times)
1997 Chromosome instability with bleomycin and X-ray hypersensitivity in a boy with Nijmegen breakage syndrome.
54  camel serum albumin
(8 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
BSA (2 times)
HSA (2 times)
AGEs (1 time)
1978 Evidence for the movement of fluid, macromolecules and ions from the brain extracellular space to the CSF.
55  chemical shift artifact
(8 times)
Radiology
(5 times)
MR (2 times)
MRI (2 times)
T1WI (2 times)
1987 Anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland: assessment by 1.5 T MR imaging.
56  chondrosarcoma
(8 times)
Neurosurgery
(2 times)
OS (2 times)
ALDH (1 time)
ES (1 time)
1999 Bone tumors in the pelvis presenting growth during pregnancy.
57  circumflex scapular artery
(8 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
CSAP (1 time)
DCIA (1 time)
IEA (1 time)
2001 [Clinical applications of variform free flaps of the scapular region for cervical burn contracture].
58  L-cysteine sulfinate
(8 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
HCA (4 times)
CA (3 times)
KA (2 times)
1978 Comparative study of miscellaneous properties of cysteine sulfinate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase in chick retina homogenate.
59  calcium sulfoaluminate cement
(7 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
ACW (1 time)
CAC (1 time)
CFA (1 time)
2008 Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste.
60  Clot Signature Analyzer
(7 times)
Vascular Diseases
(3 times)
CT (6 times)
CITF (5 times)
PHT (5 times)
1998 The Xylum Clot Signature Analyzer: a dynamic flow system that simulates vascular injury.
61  Cockayne syndrome group A
(7 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
CS (2 times)
CPD (1 time)
CSB (1 time)
1998 Severe prenatal growth retardation, dysmorphic features, pigmentary retinopathy, and generalized absence of subcutaneous tissues: a new entity?
62  convective self-assembly
(7 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
ES-VRH (1 time)
fcc (1 time)
HSP (1 time)
2004 Nanosphere lithography: fabrication of large-area Ag nanoparticle arrays by convective self-assembly and their characterization by scanning UV-visible extinction spectroscopy.
63  coupled simulated annealing
(7 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
ACO (1 time)
ANN (1 time)
BP (1 time)
1997 Elucidation of neurophysin/bioligand interactions from molecular modeling.
64  cervical sympathetic activity
(6 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
MIBG (2 times)
ABP (1 time)
CHF (1 time)
1989 [Response of the cervical sympathetic activity to acute hypoxemia in dogs and its modification by volatile anesthetics].
65  cetostearyl alcohol
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
CA (1 time)
CAPEO (1 time)
cryo-SEM (1 time)
1994 [Hemolytic activity of tensides--determination of the interaction between O/W- and W/O-surfactants].
66  clonal selection algorithm
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AIS (3 times)
SSTP (2 times)
ANN (1 time)
2013 Development of effluent removal prediction model efficiency in septic sludge treatment plant through clonal selection algorithm.
67  Cognitive Styles Analysis
(6 times)
Education
(3 times)
ILS (2 times)
ActRefl (1 time)
LSI (1 time)
1993 The effect of cognitive style and mode of presentation on learning performance.
68  complex spike activity
(6 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
ZII (4 times)
CF (3 times)
PCs (3 times)
2005 Spatiotemporal tuning of optic flow inputs to the vestibulocerebellum in pigeons: differences between mossy and climbing fiber pathways.
69  cascaded-systems analysis
(5 times)
Biophysics
(5 times)
DQE (4 times)
DE (2 times)
SPC (2 times)
2005 Generalized DQE analysis of radiographic and dual-energy imaging using flat-panel detectors.
70  childhood and/or adolescent sexual abuse
(5 times)
Psychiatry
(3 times)
ASA (1 time)
HPA (1 time)
PTSD (1 time)
1997 Enhanced dexamethasone suppression of plasma cortisol in adult women traumatized by childhood sexual abuse.
71  Chinese Stomatological Association
(5 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
CSOMS (1 time)
DHVM (1 time)
DVA (1 time)
2004 [Summary of 2004 Chinese National Conference on oral and maxillofacial vascular anomalies].
72  cholestyramine
(5 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
AC (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BDF (1 time)
1980 Studies on the use of activated charcoal and cholestyramine for reducing the body burden of polybrominated biphenyls.
73  CHROMagar Staph aureus
(5 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
MRSA (2 times)
MSA (2 times)
CF (1 time)
2000 Evaluation of CHROMagar Staph. aureus, a new chromogenic medium, for isolation and presumptive identification of Staphylococcus aureus from human clinical specimens.
74  complex segregation analysis
(5 times)
Dermatology
(1 time)
GDA (1 time)
1995 Complex segregation analysis of Gerbera flower colour.
75  cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels
(5 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
CT (4 times)
COPD (3 times)
AIC (1 time)
2010 Pulmonary hypertension and computed tomography measurement of small pulmonary vessels in severe emphysema.
76  cross-sectional area of the vessel wall
(5 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
WKY (3 times)
SHR (2 times)
SHRSP (2 times)
1996 Effects of endothelin receptor inhibition on cerebral arterioles in hypertensive rats.
77  central sleep apnea syndrome
(4 times)
Psychophysiology
(2 times)
AHI (1 time)
ASV (1 time)
CPAP (1 time)
2006 Compliance with and effectiveness of adaptive servoventilation versus continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure over a six month period.
78  chaotic simulated annealing
(4 times)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
CNN (1 time)
CNN's (1 time)
FSA (1 time)
1999 A unified framework for chaotic neural-network approaches to combinatorial optimization.
79  charge sensitivity analysis
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
AIM (1 time)
BOMD (1 time)
CT (1 time)
2000 Coupling relations between molecular electronic and geometrical degrees of freedom in density functional theory and charge sensitivity analysis
80  chemicals safety assessment
(4 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
REACH (2 times)
SPERCs (2 times)
CSR (1 time)
2008 Concept of REACH and impact on evaluation of chemicals.
81  circular-stapled
(4 times)
Metabolism
(4 times)
LSA (4 times)
GJA (2 times)
HSA (2 times)
2009 Results of gastrojejunal anastomotic technique designed to reduce stricture.
82  Clearfil SA Cement
(4 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
VAR (3 times)
CG (2 times)
MH (2 times)
2010 In vitro comparative bond strength of contemporary self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion.
83  clinically significant anxiety
(4 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
AHA (1 time)
CSD (1 time)
DCs (1 time)
2015 Role of ITPA and SLC28A2 genes in the prediction of anaemia associated with protease inhibitor plus ribavirin and peginterferon in hepatitis C treatment.
84  cocaine self-administration
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
BrdU (1 time)
CSA-CONT (1 time)
D2R (1 time)
2006 Effects of a nicotine conjugate vaccine on the acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration in rats.
85  coconut shell ash
(4 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
BD (1 time)
CS (1 time)
E/C (1 time)
2018 Data on the pozzolanic activity in coconut shell ash (CSA) for use in sustainable construction.
86  competing stimulus assessment
(4 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(3 times)
ASD (2 times)
CB (1 time)
FA (1 time)
2011 Evaluation of response blocking and re-presentation in a competing stimulus assessment.
87  Council on Scientific Affairs
(4 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
ADA (2 times)
CBCT (1 time)
CEBD (1 time)
1994 Environmental tobacco smoke. Health effects and prevention policies. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.
88  cytokine secretion assay
(4 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
MHC (2 times)
A02pp65 (1 time)
BCG (1 time)
2005 Isolation and expansion of tumor-specific CD4+ T-cells by means of cytokine secretion.
89  pressure-cross-sectional area
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CP (1 time)
LNA (1 time)
NTG (1 time)
1994 Compliance of isolated porcine coronary small arteries and coronary pressure-flow relations.
90  camphor sulfonate
(3 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CCPs (1 time)
DFT (1 time)
DVS (1 time)
2010 Preformulation investigation of some clopidogrel addition salts.
91  Canadian Space Agency
(3 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(2 times)
NASA (2 times)
CNES (1 time)
ESA (1 time)
1995 Group dynamics training for manned spaceflight and the CAPSULS mission: prophylactic against incompatibility and its consequences?
92  canine secretory alloantigens
(3 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
--- 1974 Studies on canine secretory alloantigens (CSA).
93  carbon/salt/adhesive
(3 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
ECG (1 time)
EDA (1 time)
HRV (1 time)
2015 Low Impedance Carbon Adhesive Electrodes with Long Shelf Life.
94  caudal subarachnoid analgesia
(3 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
CEA (3 times)
1983 Continuous caudal epidural and subarachnoid anesthesia in mares: a comparative study.
95  Central Statistical Agency
(3 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
ANC (1 time)
NMA (1 time)
SDH (1 time)
2017 Long-term climate data description in Ethiopia.
96  central suburban county
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
RDS (3 times)
RTA (3 times)
RVA (3 times)
2011 Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban-rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution.
97  cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type
(3 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
BA (1 time)
NPY (1 time)
PAI (1 time)
2014 [Cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery treated with thermosensitive moxibustion with different dosages: a randomized controlled trial].
98  childhood separation anxiety
(3 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
dPAG (2 times)
PD (2 times)
CG (1 time)
2006 An exploration of associations between separation anxiety in childhood and complicated grief in later life.
99  chitosan acetate
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
5-ASA (1 time)
EC (1 time)
HPMC (1 time)
2008 Development of time-, pH-, and enzyme-controlled colonic drug delivery using spray-dried chitosan acetate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
100  chlorosalicylic acid
(3 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
CAR (1 time)
CC (1 time)
CDDs (1 time)
2001 Degradation of chlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by two types of bacteria having angular dioxygenases with different features.