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Abbreviation: CSR
Appearance Frequency: 1736 time(s)
Long forms: 239

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
class switch recombination
(665 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(318 times)
AID (327 times)
SHM (233 times)
Ig (113 times)
1998 Ku70 is required for late B cell development and immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
(155 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(53 times)
CHF (58 times)
AHI (32 times)
CSA (27 times)
1977 Fluctuating intracranial hypertension due to Cheyne-Stokes respiration.
cumulative survival rate
(106 times)
Dentistry
(87 times)
MBL (7 times)
CI (5 times)
CIs (2 times)
1982 Enhanced kidney graft survival with retroplacental source gamma-globulin. Results of a 5-year prospective study at a single center.
corporate social responsibility
(96 times)
Public Health
(22 times)
FCTC (4 times)
NGOs (3 times)
BAT (2 times)
2004 Corporate social responsibility and the tobacco industry: hope or hype?
central serous retinopathy
(70 times)
Ophthalmology
(46 times)
OCT (7 times)
RPE (6 times)
AMD (4 times)
1975 Low intensity argon laser coagulation in central serous retinopathy (csr).
complete stable remission
(45 times)
General Surgery
(18 times)
MG (34 times)
MGFA (13 times)
PR (12 times)
1999 Characteristics of patients with otherwise typical winter depression, but with incomplete summer remission.
chronic sleep restriction
(34 times)
Psychophysiology
(10 times)
TSD (6 times)
PVT (4 times)
EEG (3 times)
2012 Effect of chronic sleep restriction and aging on calcium signaling and apoptosis in the hippocampus of young and aged animals.
cataract surgical rate
(33 times)
Ophthalmology
(15 times)
WHO (5 times)
CI (2 times)
GDP (2 times)
1998 [Synthesis of the blindness situation in the countries of the Organization for Cooperation and Coordination in the Control of Major Endemic Diseases].
cervical spondylotic radiculopathy
(31 times)
Complementary Therapies
(10 times)
VAS (10 times)
CSM (4 times)
NDI (4 times)
1982 Subjective postoperative results in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
10  combat stress reaction
(31 times)
Psychiatry
(14 times)
PTSD (8 times)
ASD (1 time)
ASR (1 time)
1984 Mental health care in the Lebanon War, 1982.
11  cellular stress response
(20 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
4PBA (1 time)
AhR (1 time)
Ala-Gln (1 time)
1998 CSR, a scavenger receptor-like protein with a protective role against cellular damage causedby UV irradiation and oxidative stress.
12  caesarean section rate
(18 times)
Obstetrics
(12 times)
OR (2 times)
AFI (1 time)
ANC (1 time)
1993 Caesarean section survey in Galway--1973 through 1987.
13  cumulative success rate
(15 times)
Dentistry
(13 times)
ACR (1 time)
CaP (1 time)
CIR (1 time)
1996 A prospective 15-year follow-up study of mandibular fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants. Clinical results and marginal bone loss.
14  coherent synchrotron radiation
(12 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
CLS (1 time)
DLSR (1 time)
FD-FT THz-EPR (1 time)
2002 Steady-state far-infrared coherent synchrotron radiation detected at BESSY II.
15  Czech Socialist Republic
(11 times)
Epidemiology
(4 times)
ARD (1 time)
GDR (1 time)
1973 [Occurrence of distemper (febris canum catarrhalis) in CSR (Czech Socialistic Republic)].
16  cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum
(10 times)
Molecular Biology
(6 times)
SSR (2 times)
AA (1 time)
DHA (1 time)
1978 Transient kinetics of Ca2+ transport of sarcoplasmic reticulum. A comparison of cardiac and skeletal muscle.
17  chart-stimulated recall
(10 times)
Rehabilitation
(4 times)
ACGME (2 times)
AUD (1 time)
CbD (1 time)
2000 Development of a tool to measure clinical competence in occupational therapy: a pilot study?
18  compartmentalized self-replication
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
7AI (1 time)
CPR (1 time)
d5NIC (1 time)
2001 Directed evolution of polymerase function by compartmentalized self-replication.
19  complete spatial randomness
(10 times)
Science
(2 times)
ATSR (1 time)
CBS (1 time)
DHE (1 time)
2004 Accounting for regional background and population size in the detection of spatial clusters and outliers using geostatistical filtering and spatial neutral models: the case of lung cancer in Long Island, New York.
20  complete surgical resection
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
OS (4 times)
DFI (2 times)
PRS (2 times)
1995 Complete surgical resection combined with aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in children with advanced neuroblastoma.
21  cold shock response
(8 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
CWI (4 times)
BL (2 times)
fc (2 times)
2002 Coping with the cold: the cold shock response in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis.
22  Clinician's Severity Rating
(7 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
CBT (3 times)
GAD (2 times)
ICBT (2 times)
1996 Relationship between ADIS clinician's severity rating and self-report measures among social phobics.
23  cortisol secretion rate
(7 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(2 times)
17-KGS (1 time)
17-KS (1 time)
ABD (1 time)
1969 Effect of surgery on cortisol secretion rate (CSR) in normal and steroid-treated children.
24  calcium-sensing receptor
(6 times)
Diabetes Mellitus
(1 time)
COX (1 time)
HIF-1alpha (1 time)
LC3B (1 time)
2002 Evidence for cadmium mobilization of intracellular calcium through a divalent cation receptor in renal distal epithelial A6 cells.
25  cell survival rate
(6 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
DMSO (2 times)
AmB (1 time)
CPA (1 time)
1967 The vital statistics method of estimating net migration by age cohorts.
26  cervical spine radiography
(6 times)
Traumatology
(4 times)
CCLD (1 time)
CCR (1 time)
CCT (1 time)
1988 Selective application of cervical spine radiography in alert victims of blunt trauma: a prospective study.
27  Cochrane systematic review
(6 times)
Rehabilitation
(1 time)
CDSR (1 time)
CL (1 time)
CMRD (1 time)
2009 [Quality appraisal of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of pneumonia in China].
28  carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex
(5 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
ISP (5 times)
i.c.v (4 times)
HA (3 times)
1997 Central ANG II receptor involved in carotid sinus reflex resetting in chronically stressed rats.
29  chained schedule of reinforcement
(5 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(3 times)
3-PBC (1 time)
BP (1 time)
nAChRs (1 time)
2012 Effects of naltrexone on alcohol drinking patterns and extinction of alcohol seeking in baboons.
30  chair sit-and-reach
(5 times)
Sports Medicine
(2 times)
TUG (2 times)
10MWT (1 time)
2MST (1 time)
1998 The reliability and validity of a chair sit-and-reach test as a measure of hamstring flexibility in older adults.
31  circumferential strain rate
(5 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
LV (3 times)
CS (2 times)
LSR (2 times)
2013 Strain and strain rate echocardiography findings in children with asymptomatic congenital aortic stenosis.
32  continuous speech recognition
(5 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
ED (1 time)
PC (1 time)
2000 Report generation using digital speech recognition in radiology.
33  contrast-to-speckle ratio
(5 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(2 times)
FD-SAFT-DE (1 time)
FD-SAFT-VS (1 time)
FWHM (1 time)
1983 The improvement and quantitative assessment of B-mode images produced by an annular array/cone hybrid.
34  carotid sinus reactions
(4 times)
Brain
(1 time)
CA (2 times)
CAS (2 times)
EEG (1 time)
2003 Carotid sinus reactions during carotid artery stenting: predictors, incidence, and influence on clinical outcome.
35  cell surface receptor
(4 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
BECCs (1 time)
bFGF (1 time)
ECM (1 time)
1992 Kinetics of basic fibroblast growth factor binding to its receptor and heparan sulfate proteoglycan: a mechanism for cooperactivity.
36  Center for SUDEP Research
(4 times)
Medical Informatics
(2 times)
SUDEP (2 times)
EMU (1 time)
GRACE (1 time)
2015 Knowledge and perceptions of tobacco-related media in rural Appalachia.
37  chemical safety reports
(4 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
ECHA (2 times)
CSA (1 time)
eSDS (1 time)
2007 Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.
38  control-salt rats
(4 times)
Vascular Diseases
(3 times)
AHR (4 times)
6-keto-PGF1 alpha (1 time)
NE (1 time)
1992 Altered aortic production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha from aldosterone-salt hypertensive rats.
39  cytoskeletal reorganization
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
uPA (4 times)
ERK (1 time)
FAK (1 time)
1993 Cytoskeletal reorganization and TPA differently modify AP-1 to induce the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene in LLC-PK1 cells.
40  Cancer suspicious regions
(3 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
MR (2 times)
PCa (1 time)
RCM (1 time)
2013 1.5-T magnetic resonance-guided transgluteal biopsies of the prostate in patients with clinically suspected prostate cancer: technique and feasibility.
41  cardiac SR
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
SR (3 times)
CaM (1 time)
PLB (1 time)
1999 An autoinhibitory peptide from the erythrocyte Ca-ATPase aggregates and inhibits both muscle Ca-ATPase isoforms.
42  carrier-to-sideband ratio
(3 times)
Biophysics
(3 times)
RoF (2 times)
DSB (1 time)
NF (1 time)
2010 Performances improvement in radio over fiber link through carrier suppression using Stimulated Brillouin scattering.
43  Center for Scientific Review
(3 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
NIH (3 times)
NICHD (1 time)
2004 The changing face of peer review at the National Institutes of Health.
44  chemical shift ratio
(3 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
MR (1 time)
2007 Thymic hyperplasia and thymus gland tumors: differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging.
45  class-specific regions
(3 times)
Botany
(3 times)
CesA (2 times)
CslD (2 times)
FTIR (1 time)
2004 Molecular cloning of ten distinct hypervariable regions from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily in aspen trees.
46  corneal-scleral ring
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
ALC (1 time)
IC (1 time)
IHC (1 time)
2008 [Importance of 3T3 feeder layer to establish epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims].
47  4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
dual-UADLLME (2 times)
MAD (2 times)
MRM (1 time)
2016 Dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization for simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
48  cAMP-stabilizing region
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CSR-BP (1 time)
ldh-A (1 time)
LDHA (1 time)
1998 Protein kinase A stimulates binding of multiple proteins to a U-rich domain in the 3'-untranslated region of lactate dehydrogenase A mRNA that is required for the regulation of mRNA stability.
49  carboxylesterase from Streptomyces rochei
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
LAS (2 times)
PLE (2 times)
2007 An improved chemo-enzymatic synthesis of 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides: highly chemoselective enzymatic removal of protecting groups from corresponding methyl acetyl derivatives.
50  Carolina Seniors Registry
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CFI (2 times)
GA (2 times)
AMD (1 time)
2017 Frailty and inflammatory markers in older adults with cancer.
51  carotid sinus reflex
(2 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
BCO (1 time)
CSP (1 time)
HR (1 time)
1980 Mechanism of reflex control of cardiac contractility by carotid sinus baroreceptors.
52  case study research
(2 times)
Health Services Research
(1 time)
--- 2014 Using case study research as a rigorous form of inquiry.
53  cassava stillage residue
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
FFAs (1 time)
FTIR (1 time)
MA (1 time)
2011 Microscopic structure and properties changes of cassava stillage residue pretreated by mechanical activation.
54  Cataract Surgery Registry
(2 times)
Eye Diseases
(1 time)
IOL (1 time)
MOH (1 time)
PCR (1 time)
2014 The Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry: Cataract Surgery Practice Pattern.
55  cellulase-to-solid ratio
(2 times)
Technology
(1 time)
LSR (2 times)
BCR (1 time)
SSF (1 time)
2007 Production of L-lactic acid and oligomeric compounds from apple pomace by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: a response surface methodology assessment.
56  Central Specimen Reception
(2 times)
Health Services Research
(2 times)
CPOE (1 time)
EMR (1 time)
EUC (1 time)
2008 The use of performance metrics to monitor the impact of CPOE on pathology laboratory services.
57  charge-site-remote
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
CID (1 time)
ESI (1 time)
FAB (1 time)
2001 Effects of ionization mode on charge-site-remote and related fragmentation reactions of long-chain quaternary ammonium ions.
58  chiasmatic-sellar region
(2 times)
Neurosurgery
(2 times)
ACF (1 time)
CDI (1 time)
STA (1 time)
2017 [The efficacy of desmopressin in the treatment of central diabetes insipidus after resection of chiasmo-sellar region tumors].
59  child safety restraints
(2 times)
Traumatology
(2 times)
--- 2005 Racial differences in child safety restraint use in Tennessee.
60  chiral shift reagent
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CSA (2 times)
OR (1 time)
2002 Diastereoisomeric singly bridged cyclophosphazene-macrocyclic compounds.
61  circular shift register
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
AFE (2 times)
DSCS (2 times)
PWM (2 times)
2014 A dual slope charge sampling analog front-end for a wireless neural recording system.
62  clinically significant response
(2 times)
Urology
(1 time)
BPH (1 time)
DPH (1 time)
e.g., coma (1 time)
2002 Evaluating the efficiency of a combination of Pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.
63  cluster-situated regulators
(2 times)
Biotechnology
(2 times)
OTC (1 time)
2016 Heterologous expression of oxytetracycline biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae WVR2006 to improve production level and to alter fermentation process.
64  cognitive science of religion
(2 times)
Ethics
(2 times)
--- 2015 Why the cognitive science of religion cannot rescue 'spiritual care'.
65  coke strength after reaction
(2 times)
Toxicology
(1 time)
CRI (2 times)
HHF (1 time)
2016 Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making.
66  color sedimentation reaction
(2 times)
Internal Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1966 [The importance of the colored sedimentation reaction (CSR) in active forms of toxoplasmosis].
67  complementary-strand replication
(2 times)
Virology
(1 time)
RCR (2 times)
RDR (2 times)
MSV (1 time)
2010 Replicative intermediates of maize streak virus found during leaf development.
68  Complete spontaneous regression
(2 times)
Dermatology
(1 time)
MCC (1 time)
2000 Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma: a review of the 10 reported cases.
69  complete success rate
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
IOP (2 times)
KAUH (1 time)
MMC (1 time)
2008 Long-term results of viscocanalostomy in pseudoexfoliative and primary open angle glaucoma.
70  conventional specimen radiography
(2 times)
Breast Neoplasms
(1 time)
BCS (1 time)
IDSM (1 time)
2004 Intra-operative specimen analysis using faxitron microradiography for excision of mammographically suspicious, non-palpable breast lesions.
71  coronary sinus retroperfusion
(2 times)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
ACSSR (1 time)
ERP (1 time)
ET-1 (1 time)
1996 Effects of verapamil and magnesium sulfate on electrophysiologic changes during acute myocardial ischemia and following reperfusion in dogs: comparative effects of administration by intravenous and coronary sinus retroperfusion routes.
72  cortisol stress response
(2 times)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
AUC (2 times)
CT (1 time)
EA (1 time)
2003 Cortisol concentrations in 12- to 18-month-old infants: stability over time, location, and stressor.
73  cranial-spinal radiation
(2 times)
Nervous System Diseases
(1 time)
ADC (1 time)
CST (1 time)
DTI (1 time)
2006 Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter after cranial radiation in children for medulloblastoma: correlation with IQ.
74  critical stroke rate
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CP (1 time)
CV (1 time)
EP (1 time)
2012 Physiological responses and stroke-parameter changes during interval swimming in different age-group female swimmers.
75  cryosurvival rate
(2 times)
Gynecology
(1 time)
GEYC (1 time)
myo-Ins (1 time)
PM (1 time)
1983 Comparison of post-thaw sperm motility after freezing in liquid nitrogen with protective media of either glycerol or glycerol-egg-yolk-citrate.
76  cumulative implant survival rates
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
BICs (1 time)
ROIs (1 time)
2014 A retrospective analysis of 800 Branemark System implants following the All-on-Four™ protocol.
77  current suicide risk
(2 times)
Mental Disorders
(1 time)
MINI (2 times)
AD (1 time)
BDI (1 time)
2013 Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy and factors associated with current suicide risk.
78  C-peptide secretion rate
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
AUCCPR (1 time)
CPR (1 time)
DPP (1 time)
2014 The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin has the capacity to repair beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.
79  C-sections, and rates of births by C-section
(1 time)
Public Health
(1 time)
HQR (1 time)
IH (1 time)
2015 [Caesarean section in german hospitals: validity of hospital quality report data for monitoring C-section rates].
80  caesarean section
(1 time)
Health Services
(1 time)
GB (1 time)
1993 Caesarean section in Britain and the United States 12% or 24%: is either the right rate?
81  calcium, struvite, or radio-opaque
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
DD (1 time)
ESRD (1 time)
2006 Dent's disease and prevalence of renal stones in dialysis patients in Northeastern Italy.
82  Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 2018 Camptosorus sibiricus rupr aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis via dual effects against ROS and DNA damage.
83  capacity for plant species richness
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2010 Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness.
84  caprine syncytial retrovirus
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
AGID (1 time)
ELISA (1 time)
1984 Preparation and evaluation of antigens used in serological tests for caprine syncytial retrovirus antibody in sheep and goat sera.
85  carboplatin sustained-release
(1 time)
Animal Diseases
(1 time)
CBC (1 time)
2016 Evaluation of carboplatin sustained-release delivery system in dogs with cancer.
86  cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
bis Qn (1 time)
SC (1 time)
1985 Asymmetric block of a monovalent cation-selective channel of rabbit cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by succinyl choline.
87  cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AS (1 time)
DPH (1 time)
SH (1 time)
2000 Effects of tetrandrine on calcium transport, protein fluorescences and membrane fluidity of sarcoplasmic reticulum.
88  cardiac surgery recipient group
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
CABG (1 time)
CVR (1 time)
non-CSR (1 time)
2007 Renal transplantation in dialysis patients with the history of coronary artery bypass grafting and cardiac valve replacement.
89  Cardiac Surgical Register
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
HES (1 time)
2001 Comparison of UK paediatric cardiac surgical performance by analysis of routinely collected data 1984-96: was Bristol an outlier?
90  cardiac surgical resuscitation
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
TBL (1 time)
2017 Team-Based Learning Improves Staff Nurses' Knowledge of Open- and Closed-Chest Cardiac Surgical Resuscitation.
91  cardiosomatic reflex
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
DLF (1 time)
LRN (1 time)
2013 Lateral reticular nucleus modulates the cardiosomatic reflex evoked by intrapericardial capsaicin in the rat.
92  carrier-to-signal power ratio
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
SCI (1 time)
SSMF (1 time)
2013 Signal-carrier interleaved optical OFDM for direct detection optical communication.
93  cascade sponge reactor
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
UASB (1 time)
2011 Combination of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a novel cascade sponge reactor for sewage treatment.
94  cascaded shape regression
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
OSD (1 time)
2014 Prostate boundary segment extraction using cascaded shape regression and optimal surface detection.
95  cascading algorithm
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
--- 2015 Faster super-resolution imaging of high density molecules via a cascading algorithm based on compressed sensing.
96  case rate
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
SNBN (1 time)
SNBP (1 time)
2008 [Clustered secondary case rate in 10,088 patients with tuberculosis].
97  cassava starch residue
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2004 Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.
98  cassava storage root
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CPC (1 time)
sHSPs (1 time)
2012 Characterization of Carotenoid-protein Complexes and Gene Expression Analysis Associated with Carotenoid Sequestration in Pigmented Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Storage Root.
99  catalytic steam reforming
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
BET (1 time)
SEM (1 time)
2012 Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.
100  cataract surgical number per million population per year
(1 time)
Optometry
(1 time)
--- 2015 Distribution of cataract surgical rate and its economic inequality in Iran.