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Abbreviation: CTB
Appearance Frequency: 1223 time(s)
Long forms: 143

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
cholera toxin B subunit
(677 times)
Neurology
(172 times)
BDA (39 times)
CT (26 times)
IgA (18 times)
1980 Amino acid sequence homology between cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin.
cholera toxin B
(150 times)
Neurology
(42 times)
CGRP (6 times)
FG (6 times)
NTS (6 times)
1987 Cooperativity of ganglioside-dependent with protein-dependent substratum adhesion and neurite extension of human neuroblastoma cells.
cytotrophoblast
(71 times)
Obstetrics
(23 times)
STB (20 times)
EVT (12 times)
MBG (6 times)
1989 [The DNA content in the cell nuclei of trophoblastic tumors].
cytotrophoblastic cells
(29 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(13 times)
hCG (6 times)
fFN (4 times)
MMP (4 times)
1989 Metastatic gestational choriocarcinoma. Unusual pathologic variant following therapy.
charge transfer band
(16 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
PL (4 times)
XRD (3 times)
FESEM (2 times)
2006 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and spectral properties of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanocrystals.
cutaneous tuberculosis
(16 times)
Dermatology
(9 times)
PTB (2 times)
TB (2 times)
anti-TB (1 time)
1989 [Apropos of 45 cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in Tlemcen (western Algeria)].
cholera toxin beta
(13 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
FVEP (3 times)
PLR (3 times)
ARC (2 times)
2000 Parabrachial nucleus projections to midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei of the rat.
cholera toxin B chain
(12 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
AV (5 times)
EVs (4 times)
PE (3 times)
1994 Humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune response to topical immunization with a subunit respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.
complex-trapping-blocking
(12 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(9 times)
BVDV (4 times)
HCV (4 times)
ADV (2 times)
1987 Identification of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infected cattle by complex-trapping-blocking (CTB) ELISA employing monoclonal antibodies directed against BLV-p24.
10  composite triple-beat
(10 times)
Biophysics
(10 times)
BER (10 times)
CNR (10 times)
CSO (10 times)
2010 Direct CATV modulation and phase remodulated radio-over-fiber transport system.
11  conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin
(10 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
OVA (2 times)
CT (1 time)
HApep (1 time)
1984 Cholera toxin B subunit as a carrier protein to stimulate a mucosal immune response.
12  CT B-subunit
(9 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
CT (8 times)
ETEC (2 times)
AI-2 (1 time)
1993 Analysis of the roles of antilipopolysaccharide and anti-cholera toxin immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in protection against Vibrio cholerae and cholera toxin by use of monoclonal IgA antibodies in vivo.
13  cadaveric temporal bone
(6 times)
Otolaryngology
(5 times)
CR (1 time)
FV (1 time)
GC (1 time)
2011 Evaluating the effectiveness of the Voxel-Man TempoSurg virtual reality simulator in facilitating learning mastoid surgery.
14  central tarsal bone
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
CT (4 times)
BMD (1 time)
DIT (1 time)
1999 In vivo matrix microdamage in a naturally occurring canine fatigue fracture.
15  CellTiter-Blue
(5 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
LDH (3 times)
aB (1 time)
AD (1 time)
2007 Comparison of results of the CellTiter Blue, the tetrazolium (3-[4,5-dimethylthioazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), and the lactate dehydrogenase assay applied in brain cells after exposure to advanced glycation endproducts.
16  cholera B subunit
(5 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(4 times)
ETEC (2 times)
ASC (1 time)
BP (1 time)
1989 Role of local IgA antitoxin-producing cells for intestinal protection against cholera toxin challenge.
17  cyanotriphenylborate
(5 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
GlyRs (3 times)
GlyR (1 time)
LSO (1 time)
1994 Cyanotriphenylborate: subtype-specific blocker of glycine receptor chloride channels.
18  cytotactin-binding
(5 times)
Biology
(2 times)
ECM (2 times)
1988 Molecular forms, binding functions, and developmental expression patterns of cytotactin and cytotactin-binding proteoglycan, an interactive pair of extracellular matrix molecules.
19  cercosporin toxin biosynthesis
(4 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
BGCs (1 time)
GLS (1 time)
PKSs (1 time)
2003 Cercosporin-deficient mutants by plasmid tagging in the asexual fungus Cercospora nicotianae.
20  computed tomography of the brain
(4 times)
Emergency Medicine
(2 times)
CI (2 times)
OR (2 times)
CDR (1 time)
2013 The Kimberley Hospital Rule (KHR) for urgent computed tomography of the brain in a resource-limited environment.
21  Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau
(4 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
NF (3 times)
BPA (2 times)
COX (2 times)
2010 Expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in HMC-1 cells treated with bisphenol A is attenuated by plant-originating glycoprotein (75 kDa) by blocking p38 MAPK.
22  Cathepsin B
(3 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
Cbz-Lys-Lys-PABA (1 time)
2014 Prodrug-inspired probes selective to cathepsin B over other cysteine cathepsins.
23  cell surface receptors via its B subunit
(3 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
CT (3 times)
LeX (1 time)
2015 Fucosylation and protein glycosylation create functional receptors for cholera toxin.
24  cell tube block
(3 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
IHC (1 time)
WT1 (1 time)
2017 Cell tube block: a new technique to produce cell blocks from fluid cytology samples.
25  conotruncal banding
(3 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
LAL (2 times)
LV (2 times)
ED (1 time)
2002 Regional passive ventricular stress-strain relations during development of altered loads in chick embryo.
26  CTB-CpG
(3 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
ODN (2 times)
ODNs (1 time)
PBMC (1 time)
2006 Novel immunostimulatory agent based on CpG oligodeoxynucleotide linked to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin.
27  cytochalasin B
(3 times)
Biophysics
(1 time)
AA (1 time)
fMLP (1 time)
LDH (1 time)
1984 Sodium arachidonate induced in vitro polymorphonuclear leukocyte aggregation.
28  C-terminal, of the B subunit of cholera toxin
(2 times)
Virology
(1 time)
HCV (1 time)
HVR1 (1 time)
TMV (1 time)
2000 Development of a plant-derived subunit vaccine candidate against hepatitis C virus.
29  call-to-balloon
(2 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
PPCI (2 times)
STEMI (2 times)
2017 Impact of call-to-balloon time on 30-day mortality in contemporary practice.
30  cellulose tribenzoate
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
CTPC (2 times)
beta-CD (1 time)
CDMPC (1 time)
2004 [Chiral two-phase synergistic effect in high performance liquid chromatography].
31  Cervical tuberculosis
(2 times)
Wounds and Injuries
(1 time)
ASIA (1 time)
ATT (1 time)
2013 A practical therapeutic protocol for cervical tuberculosis.
32  changing the balance between cytotrophoblast
(2 times)
Embryology
(2 times)
HIFs (2 times)
VEGF (1 time)
VEGFs (1 time)
2003 Disruption of oxygen-regulated responses underlies pathological changes in the placentas of women who smoke or who are passively exposed to smoke during pregnancy.
33  Chernobyl Tissue Bank
(2 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2012 The chernobyl tissue bank - a repository for biomaterial and data used in integrative and systems biology modeling the human response to radiation.
34  chitobiase
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
FISH (1 time)
GNG5 (1 time)
1995 Lysosomal chitobiase (CTB) and the G-protein gamma 5 subunit (GNG5) genes co-localize to human chromosome 1p22.
35  cholera toxin B-pentamer
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
LTB (1 time)
SAP (1 time)
1997 Structural studies of receptor binding by cholera toxin mutants.
36  cholera toxin binding subunit
(2 times)
Chemistry, Physical
(1 time)
GFP (1 time)
ICAM (1 time)
MEFs (1 time)
2005 Ultrastructural identification of uncoated caveolin-independent early endocytic vehicles.
37  Clark's Twin Block
(2 times)
Orthodontics
(2 times)
--- 2012 Use of the Clark Twin Block functional appliance with and without an upper labial bow: a randomized controlled trial.
38  Clark's twin-block appliance
(2 times)
Orthodontics
(1 time)
--- 2015 Effect of Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB) and non-extraction fixed mechano-therapy on the pharyngeal dimensions of growing children.
39  Congenital tuberculosis
(2 times)
Perinatology
(1 time)
GU (1 time)
IVF (1 time)
TB (1 time)
2013 Infertility, in vitro fertilization and congenital tuberculosis.
40  convex time budget
(2 times)
Behavior
(1 time)
WARP (1 time)
2017 External and internal consistency of choices made in convex time budgets.
41  cord-to-background ratio
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
CV (1 time)
F-FDG (1 time)
FDG (1 time)
2013 Changes in (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the spinal cord in a healthy population on serial positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
42  CT and its non-toxic binding subunit moiety
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
CT (2 times)
LT (2 times)
1993 [Cholera immunology and the molecular biology of cholera toxin. Recent progress and future prospects].
43  CT or its B subunit
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
CT (2 times)
1996 Cholera toxin increases IL-6 synthesis and decreases TNF-alpha production by rat peritoneal mast cells.
44  cyanotetrazolylborohydride
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
WFNA (1 time)
2017 Cyanotetrazolylborohydride (CTB) anion-based ionic liquids with low viscosity and high energy capacity as ultrafast-igniting hypergolic fuels.
45  cyclotribenzylene
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
GnHCl (2 times)
CD (1 time)
TASPs (1 time)
1999 Design of proteins using rigid organic macrocycles as scaffolds.
46  N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-benzamide
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
DBD (1 time)
HATs (1 time)
HDACs (1 time)
2015 Integrating epigenetic modulators into NanoScript for enhanced chondrogenesis of stem cells.
47  Trophoblast cell
(2 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(2 times)
TIMPs (2 times)
MMPs (1 time)
2011 Human decidua and invasive trophoblasts are rich sources of nearly all human matrix metalloproteinases.
48  1-butyl-3-(p-carboxyphenyl)sulphonylurea
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
HMTB (1 time)
1993 A new aspect of tolbutamide metabolism in the rabbit: the role of 1-butyl-3-(p-formylphenyl)sulphonylurea.
49  Calculated tumour burden
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CaP (1 time)
PPBC (1 time)
PSA (1 time)
2009 Trans rectal ultra sound guided prostate biopsies: a single centre experience in Sri Lanka.
50  Calvarial Tuberculosis
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2017 Calvarial Tuberculosis: A Case Report.
51  camellia twig blight
(1 time)
Botany
(1 time)
--- 2009 Modeling disease progression of Camellia twig blight using a recurrent event model.
52  can be used to replace the BD ProbeTec ET
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
MGIT (1 time)
MTC (1 time)
2009 Combining the Capilia TB assay with smear morphology for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
53  capacity to benefit
(1 time)
Ethics
(1 time)
--- 2016 Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.
54  Capilia TB assay or the BD ProbeTec ET
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
MGIT (1 time)
MTC (1 time)
2009 Combining the Capilia TB assay with smear morphology for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
55  carbamoyltobramycin
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
--- 2014 Concentrated biosynthesis of tobramycin by genetically engineered Streptomyces tenebrarius.
56  carbohydrate binding B-subunit
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
CTA (1 time)
rCTB (1 time)
2006 A fluorescent peptide substrate for measuring the ADP-ribosylation activity of the cholera toxin A-subunit.
57  carbon tetrabromide
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
BF (1 time)
DBM (1 time)
2007 Kinetic and mechanistic examinations of reductive transformation pathways of brominated methanes with nano-scale Fe and Ni/Fe particles.
58  carboxy TB
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
HTB (1 time)
LC-RI-MS (1 time)
2011 Comprehensive quantitative and qualitative liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry analysis for safety testing of tolbutamide metabolites without standard samples.
59  Carboxydotrophic bacteria
(1 time)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
--- 2016 A Narrow pH Range Supports Butanol, Hexanol, and Octanol Production from Syngas in a Continuous Co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with In-Line Product Extraction.
60  cathepsin B-like
(1 time)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
ALP (1 time)
CEP (1 time)
PLCPs (1 time)
2019 Genome-Wide Identification of Papain-Like Cysteine Proteases in Gossypium hirsutum and Functional Characterization in Response to Verticillium dahliae.
61  ceftibuten
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
CFX (1 time)
1999 Interpretation of middle ear fluid concentrations of antibiotics: comparison between ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin.
62  cell and tissue biology
(1 time)
Education
(1 time)
AGE (1 time)
Hb (1 time)
2002 A thematic approach to enhance clinical content in a cell and tissue biology course.
63  cell-binding B subunit of CT
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
TCI (1 time)
2003 Transcutaneous immunization with cholera toxin B subunit adjuvant suppresses IgE antibody responses via selective induction of Th1 immune responses.
64  cell-binding B-subunit
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
2000 Differential effect of cholera toxin on CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells: specific inhibition of cytokine production but not proliferation of human naive T cells.
65  cell/B subunit
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CM (1 time)
1996 Local intravaginal vaccination of the female genital tract.
66  cellobiose, lactose, GlcNAc, and di-N,N'-acetylchitobiose
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
PNGases (1 time)
1997 Detailed studies on substrate structure requirements of glycoamidases A and F.
67  cells by using its receptor-binding B subunit
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
CTA1 (1 time)
ER (1 time)
2008 Derlin-1 facilitates the retro-translocation of cholera toxin.
68  cells is mediated by binding of the pentameric B subunit
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
FITC-CTB (1 time)
2002 Analysis of cholera toxin-ganglioside interactions by flow cytometry.
69  cells with the B pentamer of cholera toxin
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
BMDC (1 time)
2010 Enhanced antigen uptake by dendritic cells induced by the B pentamer of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa requires engagement of TLR2.
70  CellTiter-Blue() Cell Viability Assay
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
CPE (1 time)
FMD (1 time)
MIC (1 time)
2011 Diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.
71  Center for the Treatment of Burns
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
FTB (1 time)
MIM (1 time)
2018 A New Triage Method for Burn Disasters: Fast Triage in Burns (FTB).
72  central test battery
(1 time)
SD (1 time)
2016 Impact of Different Cutoff Criteria on Rate of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Diagnosis Using the Central Test Battery.
73  charge transfer phenomenon between O2- and Eu3+
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
IR (1 time)
LGP (1 time)
2018 Structural Study of Europium Doped Gadolinium Polyphosphates LiGd(PO3)4 and Its Effect on Their Spectroscopic, Thermal, Magnetic, and Optical Properties.
74  charge transition band
(1 time)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
FESEM (1 time)
XRD (1 time)
2017 The Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of CaMoO₄:Eu⁺ Nanocrystals by a Soft Chemical Route.
75  chemical tissue bonding
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
ACT (1 time)
ChABC (1 time)
2016 Use of novel chitosan hydrogels for chemical tissue bonding of autologous chondral transplants.
76  chemistry-to-biology
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
HP (1 time)
2017 Foldamer hypothesis for the growth and sequence differentiation of prebiotic polymers.
77  Chest tuberculosis
(1 time)
Radiography
(1 time)
--- 2015 Chest tuberculosis: Radiological review and imaging recommendations.
78  childhood tuberculosis
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
CFA (1 time)
ELISA (1 time)
2002 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of antibody response in childhood tuberculosis against antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
79  children with TB
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
HA (1 time)
HC (1 time)
IgA (1 time)
2012 Elevated anti-tuberculous glycolipid antibody titres in healthy adults and tuberculosis patients in Thailand.
80  Chloranthalactone B
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
AP (1 time)
IL-1beta (1 time)
LPS (1 time)
2016 Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Chloranthalactone B in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells.
81  cholera toxin B fragment
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
--- 1996 Use of the sensitive anterograde tracer cholera toxin fragment B reveals new details of the central retinal projections in turtles.
82  cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
--- 2001 Expression of the native cholera toxin B subunit gene and assembly as functional oligomers in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts.
83  Cholera toxin subunit B conjugates Alexa Fluor
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DMPC (1 time)
2016 Therapeutic effects of trehalose liposomes against lymphoblastic leukemia leading to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
84  ciclotropium bromide
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
HNB (1 time)
LES (1 time)
1988 [Double-blind study of the effect of cyclotropium bromide on the smooth musculature of the esophagus. Description of a test of spasmolytic action].
85  circulatory transient blockade
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CAOD (1 time)
1993 [Controlled circulatory blockade. Historical principles and future perspectives].
86  City Tumour Board
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2013 City tumour board Karachi: an innovative step in multidisciplinary consensus meeting and its two years audit.
87  classical theory of behaviour
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
ADM (1 time)
2007 Some conceptual problems with the classical theory of behaviour.
88  clinical specimens, while the labour-intensive BD ProbeTec ET
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
MGIT (1 time)
MTC (1 time)
2009 Combining the Capilia TB assay with smear morphology for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
89  co-administered with the B subunit of the cholera toxin
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 2003 Stimulation of long-lasting protection against Streptococcus pyogenes after intranasal vaccination with non adjuvanted fibronectin-binding domain of the SfbI protein.
90  Coal-tar-based
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
Fpg (1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
UVA (1 time)
2015 Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line.
91  Coastal Technical Base
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
ADER (1 time)
RW (1 time)
SNF (1 time)
2018 Radiation situation dynamics at the Andreeva Bay site for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste over the period 2002-2016.
92  codelivered antigens, whereas its nontoxic B subunit
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
DC (1 time)
OVA (1 time)
2003 Cholera toxin and its B subunit promote dendritic cell vaccination with different influences on Th1 and Th2 development.
93  Cognitive Target Biopsy
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
mpMRI (1 time)
TRUS (1 time)
ZSB (1 time)
2016 Cognitive zonal fusion biopsy of the prostate: Original technique between target and saturation.
94  cognitive test battery
(1 time)
Biomedical Research
(1 time)
Tc (1 time)
2016 Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.
95  cognitive-targeted biopsy
(1 time)
Urologic Diseases
(1 time)
MRI (1 time)
PCa (1 time)
PI-RADS (1 time)
2018 Cognitive-Targeted versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Detection.
96  coherent twin boundary
(1 time)
bcc (1 time)
DL (1 time)
MD (1 time)
2017 Investigation of Interaction between Dislocation Loop and Coherent Twin Boundary in BCC Ta Film during Nanoindentation.
97  collagen turnover biomarker
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
CICP (1 time)
NT-proBNP (1 time)
NT-proMMP1 (1 time)
2013 Eplerenone in systemic right ventricle: double blind randomized clinical trial. The evedes study.
98  combat trouser binder
(1 time)
Military Medicine
(1 time)
T-POD (1 time)
0 Combat Trousers as Effective Improvised Pelvic Binders A Comparative Cadaveric Study.
99  combination of tea infusion and normal beer
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
TBW (1 time)
2016 Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.
100  commercial toxin binder
(1 time)
Mycotoxins
(1 time)
AF (1 time)
AFB1 (1 time)
2019 The first in vivo application of synthetic polymers based on methacrylic acid as an aflatoxin sorbent in an animal model.