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Abbreviation: DEF
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Long forms: 105

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
duck embryo fibroblast
(54 times)
Virology
(28 times)
CEF (9 times)
DEV (7 times)
MDV (7 times)
1970 Combined fluorescent-antibody and electron microscopy study of Marek's disease virus-infected cell culture.
dose enhancement factor
(48 times)
Biophysics
(18 times)
GNPs (6 times)
RT (6 times)
GNP (5 times)
1976 Inactivation of carotenoid-producing and albino strains of Neurospora crassa by visible light, blacklight, and ultraviolet radiation.
DEFICIENS
(29 times)
Botany
(16 times)
GLO (16 times)
AP3 (13 times)
PI (8 times)
1995 Functional analysis of the Antirrhinum floral homeotic DEFICIENS gene in vivo and in vitro by using a temperature-sensitive mutant.
deferoxamine
(21 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
SOD (4 times)
DMTU (3 times)
EDTA (3 times)
1979 Effect of desferoxamine on tissue and tumor retention of gallium-67: concise communication.
N,N-diethylformamide
(19 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
DMF (7 times)
MOF (4 times)
MOFs (3 times)
1996 Microsomal oxidation of N,N-diethylformamide and its effect on P450-dependent monooxygenases in rat liver.
diethyl fumarate
(16 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(7 times)
PPF (9 times)
DMF (4 times)
DEM (3 times)
1982 Chemically-induced glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation.
deficient
(13 times)
Science
(4 times)
AI (2 times)
CON (2 times)
SUP (2 times)
1990 Antibiotic-induced vitamin K deficiency and the role of the presence of intestinal flora.
dose effect factor
(12 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
5-FU (5 times)
ADM (5 times)
BLM (5 times)
1984 Interactions of radiation and adriamycin, bleomycin, mitomycin C or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in intestinal crypt cells.
Defibrotide
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
CH (1 time)
FUT (1 time)
GSH-Px (1 time)
1988 Protection of the ischaemic myocardium from reperfusion injury by defibrotide and its possible mechanism of action.
10  deformation
(6 times)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
ADF (1 time)
Cp (1 time)
DFT (1 time)
1995 Speed gradients and the perception of surface slant: analysis is two-dimensional not one-dimensional.
11  defensin
(4 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
ATT (1 time)
CFU (1 time)
DUOX (1 time)
1993 Defensins reduce the barrier integrity of a cultured epithelial monolayer without cytotoxicity.
12  deficit
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ADQ (1 time)
ALT (1 time)
AP (1 time)
2002 Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude.
13  dynamic end-tidal forcing
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
BOLD (1 time)
CO2 (1 time)
FIC (1 time)
1998 Effect of low-dose acetazolamide on the ventilatory CO2 response during hypoxia in the anaesthetized cat.
14  Defensive
(3 times)
Sports
(1 time)
NIM (2 times)
PAI (2 times)
ADI (1 time)
2008 The Assessment of Depression Inventory (ADI): an appraisal of validity in an outpatient sample.
15  Defensiveness Index
(3 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
PAI (3 times)
PIM (3 times)
NIM (2 times)
1998 Detecting socially desirable responding with the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Positive Impression Management scale and the Defensiveness Index.
16  defibrillation
(3 times)
Anesthesia
(1 time)
VF (3 times)
CS (1 time)
ICD (1 time)
1988 Magnesium fluxes in ventricular fibrillation and defibrillation in untreated and dibenzepine HC1 pretreated cats.
17  deficit group
(3 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
AL (1 time)
BAL (1 time)
CR (1 time)
1979 The effect of vitamin A deficiency on the in vitro cellular immune response of rats.
18  definitive outcome-based evaluation
(3 times)
Traumatology
(1 time)
TRISS (2 times)
ISS (1 time)
MTOS (1 time)
1998 Employment of trauma and injury severity score and a severity characterization of trauma in the outcome evaluation of trauma care and their research advances.
19  droplet enhanced fluorescence
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
LOD (1 time)
ssDNA (1 time)
2016 Droplet Enhanced Fluorescence for Ultrasensitive Detection Using Inkjet.
20  data extraction form
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
--- 2012 Safety and efficacy of stent placement for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a systematic review.
21  de Especialidades Farmaceuticas
(2 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
PDR (1 time)
2000 [(Mis)information on drugs: the double standard practiced by pharmaceutical companies].
22  defeat
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
r-MSSD (1 time)
SEP (1 time)
VIC (1 time)
2001 Cardiac autonomic responses to intermittent social conflict in rats.
23  defect
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
CAN (1 time)
HA (1 time)
LD (1 time)
1999 The influence of hydroxyapatite granules on the healing of a segmental defect filled with autologous bone marrow.
24  defender
(2 times)
Physical Education and Training
(1 time)
ATT (2 times)
GK (1 time)
MF (1 time)
2015 Characteristics of high-level youth soccer players: variation by playing position.
25  defensiveness
(2 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
PIY (2 times)
INC (1 time)
PSI (1 time)
1999 Performance of the Personality Inventory for Youth validity scales.
26  definitive laparotomy
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
DCL (2 times)
MAC (2 times)
pDEF (1 time)
2018 The effect of damage control laparotomy on major abdominal complications: A matched analysis.
27  desaturation events frequency
(2 times)
Psychophysiology
(2 times)
SN (3 times)
AHI (2 times)
BMI (2 times)
1999 Sleep Apnea in Moderate-Severe Obese Patients.
28  diethoxyfluoresin
(2 times)
Zoology
(1 time)
7-BQ (1 time)
MDI (1 time)
MMC (1 time)
2010 Identifying a higher throughput assay for metabolism dependent inhibition (MDI).
29  differentiation enhancing factor
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
MEL (1 time)
1995 Extracellular release of the 'differentiation enhancing factor', a HMG1 protein type, is an early step in murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation.
30  direct ethanol fermentation
(2 times)
Biology
(2 times)
--- 2013 Direct ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass by Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis under a low temperature condition.
31  direct expert feedback
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
UVF (2 times)
ICC (1 time)
2017 Individualised Expert Feedback is Not Essential for Improving Basic Clinical Skills Performance in Novice Learners: A Randomized Trial.
32  docking site for ERK, FXFP
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DEJL (1 time)
Egr-1 (1 time)
ERK1 and -2 (1 time)
2004 A network of immediate early gene products propagates subtle differences in mitogen-activated protein kinase signal amplitude and duration.
33  2',7'-Diethylfluorescein
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
--- 2007 Tuning the pK(a) of fluorescein to optimize binding assays.
34  beta-defensin gene cluster
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
aCGH (1 time)
UBE2Q1 (1 time)
2018 Genomic changes of chromosomes 8p23.1 and 1q21: Novel mutations in malignant mesothelioma.
35  Cu-deficient
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
Cp (1 time)
MAR (1 time)
1996 Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.
36  data entry form
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
DKG (1 time)
2018 [Why Certification of Colorectal Cancer Centres Does Not Improve Surgical Quality].
37  Database of Expected Fold classes
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1997 An update of the DEF database of protein fold class predictions.
38  DBD was fused to CfEcR
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CfEcR (1 time)
CfUSP (1 time)
DBD (1 time)
2003 Improved ecdysone receptor-based inducible gene regulation system.
39  dead end filtration
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
EDCs (1 time)
HA (1 time)
PhACs (1 time)
2016 Sorption and toxicity reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting chemicals in the presence of colloidal humic acid.
40  dead-end filling
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
--- 2017 DEF: an automated dead-end filling approach based on quasi-endosymbiosis.
41  Dean-coupled Elasto-inertial Focusing band
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
--- 2013 Multiplex particle focusing via hydrodynamic force in viscoelastic fluids.
42  death effector filament
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
FAF1 (1 time)
STS (1 time)
2005 Fas-associated factor-1 mediates chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis via death effector filament formation.
43  decayed, extracted, and filled
(1 time)
Anthropology
(1 time)
--- 2009 Associations between height, body mass, and frequency of decayed, extracted, and filled deciduous teeth among two cohorts of Taiwanese first graders.
44  default settings
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
OGP (1 time)
STA (1 time)
2000 Computer modeling of occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth with the CICERO CAD/CAM system.
45  defaunated sheep
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
EC (1 time)
2010 Predation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the rumen protozoon Entodinium caudatum studied in vitro by fluorescence emission.
46  defecography
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
DTP-US (1 time)
2015 Comparison of dynamic transperineal ultrasound and defecography for the evaluation of pelvic floor disorders.
47  defenders
(1 time)
Physical Fitness
(1 time)
CD (1 time)
FWD (1 time)
HR (1 time)
2018 Observation of Women Soccer Players' Physiology During a Single Season.
48  defense
(1 time)
Physical Fitness
(1 time)
HR (1 time)
OFF (1 time)
RPE (1 time)
2012 Effects of the number of players and game type constraints on heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and technical actions of small-sided soccer games.
49  defensin gene
(1 time)
Biomedical Research
(1 time)
CN (1 time)
CNV (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2012 Association studies of the copy-number variable ss-defensin cluster on 8p23.1 in adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.
50  defensive strategy
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2015 Motivational cues predict the defensive system in team handball: A model based on regulatory focus theory.
51  defibrinogenase
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
AMI (1 time)
Fg (1 time)
UK (1 time)
2003 [Study on defibrinogenasing enhancing the thrombolytic effect of urokinase on acute myocardial infarction].
52  deficient chow
(1 time)
Developmental Biology
(1 time)
TGF-beta1 (1 time)
2013 Maternal vitamin D deficiency programmes adult renal renin gene expression and renal function.
53  deficient CP
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ADQ (1 time)
1988 Postpartum reproduction in protein restricted beef cows: effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.
54  deficient in choline
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
2011 Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.
55  deficit-efficiency factor
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
MER (1 time)
SER (1 time)
1993 Severe vs moderate energy restriction with and without exercise in the treatment of obesity: efficiency of weight loss.
56  defined as the 'PEEP
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
LIP (1 time)
P-V (1 time)
PEEP (1 time)
2007 Two methods of setting positive end-expiratory pressure in acute lung injury: an experimental computed tomography volumetric study.
57  Definite
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
ARI (1 time)
DYR (1 time)
SPE (1 time)
2002 Changes in expansion and mechanical strength during water storage of a traditional and three modified resin composites.
58  definitely preventable
(1 time)
Traumatology
(1 time)
CNS (1 time)
POSS (1 time)
PROB (1 time)
1992 Inter-rater reliability of preventable death judgments. The Preventable Death Study Group.
59  definitive chest closure
(1 time)
Traumatology
(1 time)
IQR (1 time)
TCC-P (1 time)
TRISS (1 time)
2011 Does temporary chest wall closure with or without chest packing improve survival for trauma patients in shock after emergent thoracotomy?
60  deflazacort
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
APIs (1 time)
DRs (1 time)
2015 Preparation and characterization of polymorphs of the glucocorticoid deflazacort.
61  deflection
(1 time)
Physics
(1 time)
DLCA (1 time)
2002 Dangling bond deflection model: growth of gel network with loop structure.
62  Deformity index
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
OA (1 time)
PT (1 time)
1999 Severity of hand osteoarthritis and its association with upper extremity impairment in a population of disabled older women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.
63  defusion protocol
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
MOT (1 time)
2014 Effects of an acceptance/defusion intervention on experimentally induced generalized avoidance: a laboratory demonstration.
64  Degeneration Associated with External Factors
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
ARG (1 time)
DFN (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1999 rCBF in neurodegenerative diseases as estimated by the autoradiographic (ARG) method and delayed I-123-IMP studies.
65  delayed enteral feeding
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
EEF (1 time)
ICU (1 time)
TBI (1 time)
2012 Effect of early compared with delayed enteral nutrition on endocrine function in patients with traumatic brain injury: an open-labeled randomized trial.
66  delayed ettringite formation
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
EDS (1 time)
EXAFS (1 time)
S/S (1 time)
2008 Characterization of stabilized/solidified refinery oily sludge and incinerated refinery sludge with cement using XRD, SEM and EXAFS.
67  Delayed neurotoxic, late acute and cholinergic effects of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
nBM (1 time)
1979 Delayed neurotoxic, late acute and cholinergic effects of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF): subchronic (90 days) administration in hens.
68  demonstrate the effect of colchicine and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
HRP (2 times)
SRII (1 time)
1983 Effect of colchicine and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on the biliary excretion of sucrose, mannitol and horseradish peroxidase in the rat.
69  dendrite extension factor
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 1993 Macrophages release melanocyte dendrite extension factor in response to ultra-violet ray.
70  dense fraction of erythrocytes
(1 time)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
AHA (1 time)
DSDE (1 time)
IDA (1 time)
2009 [Density-specific distribution of erythrocytes in different types of anemia].
71  deposition enhancement factors
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
DFs (1 time)
TB (1 time)
2011 Deposition of naphthalene and tetradecane vapors in models of the human respiratory system.
72  described for determination of S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
GPC (1 time)
1983 Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) in water and fish tissue.
73  detachment of the engorged females
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
--- 2005 [Morphologic characterization and biological aspects of evolutive forms of Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilborne, 1893) (Protozoa: Babesiidae) in Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887)].
74  determination by gas chromatography of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
ppt (1 time)
1987 Extraction and determination by gas chromatography of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) in fish and water.
75  determination of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
GPC (1 time)
1983 Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) in water and fish tissue.
76  devoid of added pyridoxine hydrochloride
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
--- 1990 Subtle abnormalities of gait detected early in vitamin B6 deficiency in aged and weanling rats with hind leg gait analysis.
77  devoid of added vitamin B-6
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
PF-CON (1 time)
1987 Attenuation of acoustic and tactile startle responses of vitamin B-6 deficient rats.
78  dextran sulphate euglobulin fraction
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
scu-PA (1 time)
scuPA-AA (1 time)
1991 An analysis of the activators of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) in the dextran sulphate euglobulin fraction of normal plasma and of plasmas deficient in factor XII and prekallikrein.
79  diesel exhaust fumes
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
PAH (1 time)
2017 Association between lung cancer somatic mutations and occupational exposure in never-smokers.
80  Diethylether fraction
(1 time)
Computational Biology
(1 time)
EAF (1 time)
HF (1 time)
MF (1 time)
2018 Phytochemical analysis and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves and its solventpartitioned fractions.
81  differential equilibrium function
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 1999 Role of polyphenols in copper complexation in red wines.
82  dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
3,4-DCA (1 time)
AhR (1 time)
CALUX (1 time)
2016 The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.
83  diisopropylfluorophosphate
(1 time)
Chemistry, Clinical
(1 time)
DEP (1 time)
MUGB (1 time)
1982 A serine protease activity of human serum albumin towards 4-methylumbelliferyl-guanidinobenzoate (MUGB) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DEP): implications for the use of MUGB reactivity in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.
84  diminished EF
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
ANOVA (1 time)
CAD (1 time)
EF (1 time)
1994 Response of patients with coronary artery disease stratified by ejection fraction following short-term training.
85  discharging electro-flocculation
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
--- 2017 Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.
86  distance from the entry point to the facet joint space
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
FJA (1 time)
FJV (1 time)
2018 Incidence and risk factors of facet joint violation following percutaneous kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
87  Distance-based Evidence Fusion
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
LRC (1 time)
2010 Linear regression for face recognition.
88  docetaxel, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
5-FU (1 time)
CI (1 time)
PS (1 time)
2006 Phase II multicenter trial of docetaxel, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil (DEF) in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer: a novel, safe, and active regimen.
89  docking site for ERK, termed the FXFP
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
ERK1 (1 time)
2002 Molecular interpretation of ERK signal duration by immediate early gene products.
90  domain of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and TR
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
VDR (1 time)
VDRE (1 time)
2001 The role of hinge domain in heterodimerization and specific DNA recognition by nuclear receptors.
91  dose (100-1000 mg/kg) of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AChE (1 time)
APase (1 time)
BuChE (1 time)
1986 Brain acetylcholinesterase, acid phosphatase, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activities in hens treated with a single dermal neurotoxic dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate.
92  dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
3-MC (1 time)
NTE (1 time)
OPIDN (1 time)
1984 Induction of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and inhibition of brain, liver, and plasma esterases by an acute dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) in the adult hen.
93  dose-enhancing factor
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
D-NP (1 time)
N-NP (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
2018 Photoperiodic Flower Mimicking Metallic Nanoparticles for Image-Guided Medicine Applications.
94  double-exponential front
(1 time)
Physics
(1 time)
BD (1 time)
2013 Early stages of Ostwald ripening.
95  downstream element factor
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
MLP (1 time)
1989 Replication-dependent activation of the adenovirus major late promoter is mediated by the increased binding of a transcription factor to sequences in the first intron.
96  dry evergreen forest
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
DDF (1 time)
HEF (1 time)
2001 Soil N fluxes in three contrasting dry tropical forests.
97  duck fibroblast cells
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
GEF (1 time)
GPV (1 time)
mAbs (1 time)
2012 Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against waterfowl parvoviruses VP3 protein.
98  dust emission flux
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AI (1 time)
DAOD (1 time)
DEAD (1 time)
2006 [Numerical simulations of spatial and temporal characteristics of airborne dust over Asia during springs of 2000 to 2002].
99  dynamic EF factor
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
EF (1 time)
2005 Dynamic effectiveness factor for catalyst particles.
100  dynamic extended folding
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2010 A folding "framework structure" of Tetrahymena group I intron.