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Abbreviation: DL
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Long forms: 575

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
detection limit
(196 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(72 times)
QL (20 times)
RSD (13 times)
CV (9 times)
1992 Nocturnal plasma levels of cytokines in healthy men.
direct laryngoscopy
(150 times)
Emergency Medicine
(42 times)
VL (49 times)
GVL (17 times)
CI (14 times)
1989 Indirect videolaryngoscopy versus direct endoscopy for larynx and pharynx cancer staging. Toward elimination of preliminary direct laryngoscopy.
deep learning
(148 times)
Medical Informatics
(24 times)
ML (23 times)
CNN (17 times)
AUC (14 times)
2015 Deep Learning for Drug-Induced Liver Injury.
drug loading
(105 times)
Pharmacology
(44 times)
EE (69 times)
PDI (14 times)
DSC (13 times)
2001 [Preparation of cucurbitacinBE polylactic acid nano-particles for targeting cervical lymph nodes].
Dalton's lymphoma
(99 times)
Neoplasms
(29 times)
TAM (7 times)
BMC (5 times)
BMDM (5 times)
1990 Activation of murine macrophages by tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interferon-gamma and cisplatin.
dorsolateral
(92 times)
Neurology
(37 times)
DM (32 times)
VL (15 times)
VM (13 times)
1975 [Effects of stimulating the caudal zones of the mesencephalic reticular formation on the postcruciate cortex of the cat].
dose level
(91 times)
Neoplasms
(69 times)
MTD (37 times)
DLT (31 times)
DLTs (11 times)
1995 Phase I clinical and pharmacological study of suppression of human antimouse antibody response to monoclonal antibody L6 by deoxyspergualin.
dichotic listening
(85 times)
Neurology
(36 times)
REA (24 times)
LEA (11 times)
CV (10 times)
1981 Cortical laterality and asymmetry of the Hoffmann reflex in psychiatric patients.
diagnostic laparoscopy
(71 times)
General Surgery
(48 times)
PAT (7 times)
CT (6 times)
EL (6 times)
1991 Diagnostic laparotomy in fever of unknown origin.
10  dioxin-like
(61 times)
Environmental Health
(38 times)
PCBs (34 times)
NDL (18 times)
AhR (10 times)
2006 Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.
11  distal latency
(50 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
DCI (15 times)
MCV (12 times)
NCV (11 times)
1982 [Motor conduction velocities and distal latencies in multiple sclerosis].
12  dyslipidemia
(47 times)
Medicine
(6 times)
HT (24 times)
DM (17 times)
OR (6 times)
1996 A metabolic syndrome in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. A controlled study.
13  difference limen
(38 times)
Psychology
(14 times)
PSE (8 times)
CI (2 times)
IOI (2 times)
1969 Behavioral discrimination of click intensity in cat.
14  ductal lavage
(37 times)
Neoplasms
(28 times)
NAF (5 times)
RPFNA (5 times)
DCIS (3 times)
2002 The utility of ductal lavage in breast cancer detection and risk assessment.
15  diode laser
(34 times)
Dentistry
(12 times)
SRP (4 times)
CAL (3 times)
DH (3 times)
1996 Semiconductor diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation versus filtering surgery with Mitomycin-C.
16  delayed luminescence
(28 times)
Biochemistry
(10 times)
HDW (2 times)
LDW (2 times)
TCM (2 times)
1977 [Delayed chloroplast luminescence. Activation and suppression].
17  double layer
(27 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
SL (5 times)
DSSCs (2 times)
EIS (2 times)
1993 Comparison of continuous single layer polypropylene anastomosis with double layer and stapled anastomoses in elective colon resections.
18  Dieulafoy's lesion
(26 times)
Gastroenterology
(12 times)
GI (6 times)
EBL (3 times)
CI (2 times)
2005 Dieulafoy's lesion: a case series study.
19  drip loss
(26 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(11 times)
CL (14 times)
SF (9 times)
WHC (9 times)
2001 Estimation of the genetic parameters of meat characteristics and of their genetic correlations with growth and body composition in an experimental broiler line.
20  distolingual
(25 times)
Dentistry
(23 times)
DB (15 times)
MB (8 times)
CBCT (6 times)
2005 Effect of partial recording protocols on estimates of prevalence of periodontal disease.
21  dictionary learning
(23 times)
Biology
(5 times)
CS (7 times)
CT (3 times)
BAN (2 times)
2013 Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing.
22  desloratadine
(21 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
FEX (2 times)
FSA (2 times)
IgE (2 times)
2001 Evaluation of the interaction of loratadine and desloratadine with P-glycoprotein.
23  Donath-Landsteiner
(19 times)
Hematology
(15 times)
PCH (13 times)
AIHA (5 times)
RBC (3 times)
1975 Autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
24  distance learning
(18 times)
Education
(4 times)
DE (2 times)
BI (1 time)
CBT (1 time)
2001 The virtual revolution: implications for academe.
25  dominant lethal
(18 times)
Genetics
(11 times)
DI (3 times)
EMS (2 times)
SLT (2 times)
1975 Innate metabolic differences and mutagen sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Radiosensitivity of hyperkinetic mutant.
26  deadlift
(16 times)
Sports Medicine
(9 times)
BP (7 times)
SQ (6 times)
1RM (2 times)
1988 Time to fatigue during isometric exercise using different muscle masses.
27  dim light
(16 times)
Physiology
(8 times)
BL (11 times)
SR (2 times)
DAT (1 time)
1991 Bright light effects on body temperature, alertness, EEG and behavior.
28  DROOPING LEAF
(16 times)
Botany
(8 times)
CRC (3 times)
CNS (1 time)
dl-sup1 (1 time)
2003 SUPERWOMAN1 and DROOPING LEAF genes control floral organ identity in rice.
29  defensive linemen
(15 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
OL (14 times)
DB (11 times)
LB (10 times)
1988 Isokinetic leg flexion and extension strength of university football players.
30  delayed loading
(15 times)
Dentistry
(13 times)
IL (12 times)
EL (2 times)
ISQ (2 times)
2004 Implant stability measurement of delayed and immediately loaded implants during healing.
31  dermatopathic lymphadenitis
(15 times)
Pathology
(5 times)
AOSD (2 times)
LC (2 times)
LCH (2 times)
1980 Dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and lymph node involvement in mycosis fungoides.
32  disseminated leishmaniasis
(15 times)
Tropical Medicine
(8 times)
CL (11 times)
ML (5 times)
ATL (3 times)
2002 Disseminated leishmaniasis: a new and emerging form of leishmaniasis observed in northeastern Brazil.
33  description logic
(14 times)
Medical Informatics
(10 times)
MSC (2 times)
FHIR (1 time)
NLP (1 time)
2004 Overview and utilization of the NCI thesaurus.
34  disabled list
(14 times)
Sports Medicine
(5 times)
MLB (12 times)
MRI (3 times)
UCL (3 times)
2013 Glenohumeral findings on magnetic resonance imaging correlate with innings pitched in asymptomatic pitchers.
35  day length
(13 times)
Physiology
(7 times)
AI (1 time)
AT (1 time)
DMI (1 time)
1984 Seasonal relationships of thyroid, sexual and adrenocortical hormones to nutritional parameters and climatic factors in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of south Texas.
36  decidual lymphocytes
(13 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
PBL (9 times)
DAC (5 times)
NK (3 times)
1994 Differential expression of adhesion and homing molecules by human decidual and peripheral blood lymphocytes in early pregnancy.
37  demarcation line
(13 times)
Gastroenterology
(5 times)
EGC (4 times)
M-NBI (4 times)
ME-NBI (2 times)
1987 Existence of a connecting system in the flagellar apparatus and the accessory structures of Trypanosoma evansi.
38  dentate line
(13 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
ARL (3 times)
LAR (3 times)
IPAA (2 times)
1986 [Problems in general rules/TNM classification, and prognosis--rectal cancer].
39  dried latex
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
CPH (2 times)
PBZ (2 times)
ALT (1 time)
2003 Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats.
40  direct lateral
(12 times)
Orthopedics
(11 times)
THA (7 times)
DA (6 times)
PL (4 times)
2013 Does the surgical approach in one stage bilateral total hip arthroplasty affect blood loss?
41  DiversiLab
(12 times)
Microbiology
(8 times)
PFGE (8 times)
rep-PCR (6 times)
MRSA (4 times)
2010 Evaluation of the DiversiLab system for detection of hospital outbreaks of infections by different bacterial species.
42  DerSimonian-Laird
(10 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
CI (3 times)
BD (1 time)
CD (1 time)
1999 Evidence that metastasis is less common in cirrhotic than normal liver: a systematic review of post-mortem case-control studies.
43  deep layer
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
UL (4 times)
AB (1 time)
AP (1 time)
1980 Alcian blue staining during the formation of mesoblast in the primitive streak stage chick blastoderm.
44  double-lumen
(9 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
SL (5 times)
CVCs (2 times)
HB (2 times)
1990 Increased infection rate in double-lumen versus single-lumen Hickman catheters in cancer patients.
45  duct ligation
(9 times)
Pathology
(5 times)
ICG (2 times)
PAH (2 times)
2-DG (1 time)
1986 Relation between renal and hepatic excretion of drugs: I. Phenol red in comparison with p-aminohippurate and indocyanine green.
46  decision latitude
(8 times)
Occupational Medicine
(6 times)
PJD (5 times)
CI (2 times)
PD (2 times)
2003 [Reliability of the Karasek scale in the assessment of perceived occupational stress and gender-related differences in scores. The SEMM study].
47  decompressive laparotomy
(8 times)
Traumatology
(4 times)
ACS (5 times)
IAP (3 times)
TBSA (2 times)
2007 Increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and intracranial pressure after severe brain injury: multiple compartment syndrome.
48  diltiazem
(8 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
NF (6 times)
HB (5 times)
AH (3 times)
1985 Antiarrhythmic effect of diltiazem during halothane anesthesia in dogs and in humans.
49  dorsolateral area
(8 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
MT (7 times)
DM (3 times)
CO (2 times)
1988 Cortical connections of area 18 and dorsolateral visual cortex in squirrel monkeys.
50  d-limonene
(7 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
CA (2 times)
DCB (2 times)
NBR (2 times)
1984 The effect of quenching agents on contact urticaria caused by cinnamic aldehyde.
51  decision levels
(7 times)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
(3 times)
ROC (3 times)
COPD (2 times)
CAP (1 time)
1992 Exact calculation of probabilities of false positives and false negatives for low background counting.
52  deep level
(7 times)
Nanotechnology
(3 times)
NBE (5 times)
PL (2 times)
UV (2 times)
2005 Effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals.
53  diffuse leiomyomatosis
(7 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
AS (5 times)
ASDL (1 time)
ATS (1 time)
1993 Deletion of the paired alpha 5(IV) and alpha 6(IV) collagen genes in inherited smooth muscle tumors.
54  dominant leg
(7 times)
Sports Medicine
(4 times)
NDL (5 times)
NL (2 times)
AP (1 time)
2013 Side-to-side differences in the lower leg muscle-bone unit in male soccer players.
55  dorsolateral visual area
(7 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
MT (4 times)
DI (3 times)
DM (3 times)
1984 Cortical connections of the middle temporal visual area (MT) and the superior temporal cortex in owl monkeys.
56  dauer larvae
(6 times)
Biology
(3 times)
RH (1 time)
TAG (1 time)
2012 Low survivorship of dauer larva in the nematode Caenorhabditis japonica, a potential comparative system for a model organism, C. elegans.
57  Delta-like
(6 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(4 times)
DN3 (2 times)
AIA (1 time)
iPSCs (1 time)
2010 Context-dependent regulation of hematopoietic lineage choice by HEBAlt.
58  developmental level
(6 times)
Psychology
(4 times)
ASD (1 time)
ASI (1 time)
DQ (1 time)
1976 Perceptual development on the Rorschach.
59  difficult laryngoscopy
(6 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
AUC (2 times)
BMI (2 times)
DI (2 times)
2003 Increased body mass index per se is not a predictor of difficult laryngoscopy.
60  discharge letter
(6 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
GP (3 times)
DS (1 time)
GPs (1 time)
1994 [A short discharge letter with a copy to the patient--satisfactory for patients and practitioners].
61  distal motor latency
(6 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
CTS (2 times)
CV (2 times)
ADM (1 time)
1983 An experimental study of the combined effects of n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone.
62  double leg
(6 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
SL (5 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
BF (1 time)
2011 Differences in time-frequency representation of lower limbs myoelectric activity during single and double leg landing in male athletes.
63  drug levels
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
ADAb (1 time)
anti-TNF (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
1993 Effects of phencyclidine-type drugs in rats discriminating fentanyl from saline: pharmacological and behavioral characterization of intermediate levels of drug lever selection.
64  dry latex
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
ALP (1 time)
ALT (1 time)
AST (1 time)
2000 Preliminary studies on the analgesic activity of latex of Calotropris procera.
65  lung diffusing capacity
(6 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
VA (3 times)
CO (2 times)
Dm (2 times)
1991 Effect of lung volume and positional changes on pulmonary diffusing capacity and its components.
66  dark-light
(5 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(2 times)
EPM (2 times)
LD (2 times)
AAS (1 time)
2001 Strain differences in some immune parameters can be obscured by circadian variations and laboratory routines: studies of male C57BL/6J, Balb/c and CB6 F1 mice.
67  Definitive laparotomy
(5 times)
Traumatology
(2 times)
AL (1 time)
DC (1 time)
DCL (1 time)
1993 'Damage control': an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury.
68  demyelinating leukoencephalitis
(5 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
CDV (3 times)
IL (2 times)
TGF (2 times)
1999 Dominating interleukin-10 mRNA expression induction in cerebrospinal fluid cells of dogs with natural canine distemper virus induced demyelinating and non-demyelinating CNS lesions.
69  dioxane lignin
(5 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
MWL (3 times)
DFRC (2 times)
AL (1 time)
2000 Structural characterization of the lignin from the nodes and internodes of Arundo donax reed.
70  dorsal lumbotomy
(5 times)
Urology
(3 times)
DLEL (1 time)
FL (1 time)
IVU (1 time)
2009 Short stay pyeloplasty with transverse dorsal lumbotomy incision: our 10-year experience.
71  downlink
(5 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(1 time)
UL (3 times)
GSM (2 times)
PDE (2 times)
2012 Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.
72  driveline
(5 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
LVAD (2 times)
DLI (1 time)
DT (1 time)
2014 Modified HeartMate II driveline externalization technique significantly decreases incidence of infection and improves long-term survival.
73  drop landing
(5 times)
Sports Medicine
(4 times)
DJ (1 time)
DVJ (1 time)
FVJ (1 time)
2010 Does a drop landing represent a whole skill landing and is this moderated by fatigue?
74  drug loaded
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
BLK (3 times)
CAR (2 times)
CS (2 times)
2009 Polybutylcyanoacrylate magnetic nanoparticles as carriers of adriamycin.
75  drug loading capacity
(5 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
EE (5 times)
AFM (1 time)
CNs (1 time)
2007 Preparation and characteristic of vinorelbine bitartrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
76  drug loading efficiency
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
EE (5 times)
PTX (2 times)
AA (1 time)
2012 A novel strategy for encapsulating poorly soluble drug into nanostructured lipid carriers for intravenous administration.
77  durable wall lining
(5 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
IRS (2 times)
kdr (1 time)
LLIN (1 time)
2012 Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae, in Bomi County, Liberia, compromises malaria vector control.
78  deformable liposomes
(4 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CL (3 times)
TEM (2 times)
DEL (1 time)
2010 Skin delivery of ferulic acid from different vesicular systems.
79  deltoid ligament
(4 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
AITFL (1 time)
AOFAS (1 time)
ATFL (1 time)
1996 [Lesions of the collateral ligaments of the ankle: diagnosis and follow-up with magnetic resonance and ultrasonography].
80  dendritic leucocytes
(4 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
DC (2 times)
FCS (1 time)
IDC (1 time)
1988 Lymph-borne dendritic leucocytes do not recirculate, but enter the lymph node paracortex to become interdigitating cells.
81  didactic lecture
(4 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
CRC (1 time)
ICBS (1 time)
OE (1 time)
1987 A comparison of the teaching effectiveness of the didactic lecture and the problem-oriented small group session: a prospective study.
82  differential learning
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
EEG (2 times)
CI (1 time)
2016 On the optimal degree of fluctuations in practice for motor learning.
83  diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis
(4 times)
Genetics, Medical
(2 times)
AS (4 times)
DL-AS (1 time)
1992 Alport syndrome and diffuse leiomyomatosis: deletions in the 5' end of the COL4A5 collagen gene.
84  diffusing capacity of the lung
(4 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(2 times)
CO (2 times)
VC (2 times)
BSA (1 time)
1975 [Obstructive pulmonary emphysema. Evolution of various parameters of pulmonary function and its correlation].
85  distal late
(4 times)
Embryology
(2 times)
PCT (2 times)
PST (2 times)
CS (1 time)
2015 The transcriptional coactivator Taz regulates proximodistal patterning of the pronephric tubule in zebrafish.
86  distal leg
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
PT (3 times)
IENFs (2 times)
ART (1 time)
2007 Correlates of epidermal nerve fiber densities in HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy.
87  distributed learning
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
ML (2 times)
2002 The role of open learning in nurse education. Does it have a place?
88  DiversiLab system
(4 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
PFGE (4 times)
CCs (1 time)
CDC (1 time)
2009 Comparison of typing results obtained for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with the DiversiLab system and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
89  dog-leg
(4 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
PA (4 times)
CI (1 time)
STD (1 time)
1997 External beam abdominal radiotherapy in patients with seminoma stage I: field type, testicular dose, and spermatogenesis.
90  donor leukocytes
(4 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
ACI (1 time)
CAST (1 time)
CsA (1 time)
1988 Induction of donor-specific unresponsiveness to rat cardiac allograft by donor leukocytes and cyclosporine.
91  dorsal lobe
(4 times)
Urology
(1 time)
VL (3 times)
aHF (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2007 Lobe identity in the Mongolian gerbil prostatic complex: a new rodent model for prostate study.
92  double liposomes
(4 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
AMOX (1 time)
CL (1 time)
ER (1 time)
2003 Potentiality of double liposomes containing salmon calcitonin as an oral dosage form.
93  double loop
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
SL (2 times)
AO (1 time)
DISL (1 time)
2007 Biomechanical comparison of dual interlocking single loop and double loop tension band techniques to the classic AO tension band technique for repair of olecranon osteotomies in dogs.
94  drug-likeness
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
OB (3 times)
ADME (1 time)
BBB (1 time)
2017 Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses.
95  drylot
(4 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(4 times)
ALF (2 times)
ALF-ALF (1 time)
CR (1 time)
1995 Growth and tissue accretion of lambs fed concentrate in drylot, grazed on alfalfa or ryegrass at weaning, or after backgrounding on ryegrass.
96  dynamic logic
(4 times)
Brain
(1 time)
CS (1 time)
fMRI (1 time)
NMFs (1 time)
2010 Neural mechanisms of the mind, Aristotle, Zadeh, and fMRI.
97  lateral diffusion coefficient
(4 times)
Parasitology
(2 times)
DMPC (1 time)
DPPC (1 time)
FRAP (1 time)
1990 Surface properties of membrane vesicles prepared from muscle cells of Ascaris suum.
98  dairy lipids
(3 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
DHA (2 times)
ARA (1 time)
Bal DL (1 time)
2016 Enriched dairy fat matrix diet prevents early life lipopolysaccharide-induced spatial memory impairment at adulthood.
99  Darrieus-Landau
(3 times)
Physics
(2 times)
--- 2011 Spectral formulation of turbulent flame speed with consideration of hydrodynamic instability.
100  daylight
(3 times)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(1 time)
MAL (2 times)
PDT (2 times)
AL (1 time)
2012 Effects of prior light exposure on early evening performance, subjective sleepiness, and hormonal secretion.