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Abbreviation: DR
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Long forms: 818

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
diabetic retinopathy
(3203 times)
Ophthalmology
(1083 times)
PDR (322 times)
DM (276 times)
NPDR (257 times)
0 [Diabetic retinopathy: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications].
dietary restriction
(617 times)
Geriatrics
(186 times)
AL (125 times)
ROS (25 times)
SD (18 times)
1988 Influences of aging and dietary restriction on serum thymosin alpha 1 levels in mice.
drug resistance
(262 times)
Physiology
(48 times)
DIO (96 times)
TB (39 times)
MDR (25 times)
1985 Hemodynamics of human arterial stenoses.
death receptor
(243 times)
Neoplasms
(79 times)
TRAIL (84 times)
TNF (23 times)
ROS (16 times)
1998 p53-dependent and -independent regulation of the death receptor KILLER/DR5 gene expression in response to genotoxic stress and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
dorsal raphe
(227 times)
Neurology
(91 times)
LC (50 times)
MR (21 times)
DA (18 times)
1979 Effects of midbrain raphe stimulation and lesion on EEG activity in rats.
detection rate
(223 times)
Obstetrics
(98 times)
FPR (96 times)
NT (29 times)
PAPP-A (26 times)
1988 Preoperative staging of primary breast cancer. A multicentric study.
digital radiography
(194 times)
Radiology
(83 times)
CR (51 times)
CT (17 times)
PACS (12 times)
1979 Digital radiograph of the chest using a computed tomography instrument.
dorsal raphe nucleus
(180 times)
Neurology
(85 times)
LC (23 times)
VTA (17 times)
CRF (13 times)
1976 Dorsal raphe stimulation produces inhibitory effect on trigeminal nucleus neurons.
direct repeat
(148 times)
Microbiology
(41 times)
RFLP (14 times)
RXR (12 times)
IR (10 times)
1989 Characterization of enhancer elements and their mutations in the long terminal repeat of feline endogenous RD-114 proviruses.
10  Dahl salt-resistant
(116 times)
Vascular Diseases
(65 times)
DS (103 times)
LV (8 times)
MAP (8 times)
1984 The effect of indomethacin on the duration of the hypotensive action of bradykinin in Dahl salt-resistant rats: role of cyclooxygenase inhibition.
11  distant recurrence
(88 times)
Neoplasms
(55 times)
LR (31 times)
OS (19 times)
LRR (14 times)
1999 Predictive value of race in post-transplantation recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children.
12  dorsal root
(85 times)
Neurology
(43 times)
VR (20 times)
NMDA (9 times)
VLF (7 times)
1969 Reflex discharges into thoracic white rami elicited by somatic and visceral afferent excitation.
13  dopamine receptor
(82 times)
Neurology
(21 times)
DA (9 times)
PD (7 times)
IFN (4 times)
1994 Molecular biological perspectives in treating neuropsychiatric disorders with dopaminergic drugs.
14  diabetes-resistant
(79 times)
Endocrinology
(30 times)
DP (63 times)
BB (13 times)
IDDM (12 times)
1985 Lymphoid cells of BB/W diabetic rats are cytotoxic to islet beta cells in vitro.
15  delivery room
(76 times)
Pediatrics
(34 times)
NICU (12 times)
CPAP (9 times)
PPV (6 times)
1996 Can asphyxiated infants at risk for neonatal seizures be rapidly identified by current high-risk markers?
16  dynamic range
(74 times)
Audiology
(22 times)
CI (7 times)
SNR (6 times)
CIMT (5 times)
1989 [Ultrasonographic diagnosis of mild fatty infiltration of the liver with the difference between liver and kidney echolevels].
17  Dominican Republic
(63 times)
Public Health
(14 times)
HIV (4 times)
NYC (4 times)
EC (3 times)
1981 Acceptability of the contraceptive vaginal ring by rural and urban population in two Latin American countries.
18  diffuse reflectance
(57 times)
Chemistry
(15 times)
NIR (8 times)
AF (6 times)
FTIR (6 times)
1998 Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc Tetra(3,4-pyridine)Porphyrazine Entrapped within the Supercages of Y-Zeolite.
19  delayed response
(53 times)
Neurology
(26 times)
DA (11 times)
DLPFC (9 times)
DMS (6 times)
1972 Cortical steady potential shifts and anodal polarization during delayed response performance.
20  dietary records
(52 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(37 times)
FFQ (28 times)
ICC (5 times)
DHQ (4 times)
1998 Effect of additional questions about fat on the validity of fat estimates from a food frequency questionnaire. Study Group of MRS SWEA.
21  dose rate
(44 times)
Pharmacology
(17 times)
Raeq (4 times)
AGDE (3 times)
Hex (3 times)
1976 A quantitative study of metiamide, a histamine H2-antagonist, on the isolated whole rat stomach.
22  dose-response
(39 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
5-HT (3 times)
NE (3 times)
5-CT (2 times)
1975 The steepness of the dose-response curve in radiation therapy. Theoretical considerations and experimental results.
23  ductular reaction
(37 times)
Gastroenterology
(18 times)
HCC (6 times)
HPCs (6 times)
CK (4 times)
2007 Ductular reaction is helpful in defining early stromal invasion, small hepatocellular carcinomas, and dysplastic nodules.
24  dimensionality reduction
(35 times)
Medical Informatics
(15 times)
PCA (6 times)
KNN (2 times)
KPCA (2 times)
2006 Spectral embedding finds meaningful (relevant) structure in image and microarray data.
25  dorsal
(34 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
MR (7 times)
LH (4 times)
MnR (4 times)
1977 Characteristics in aggressive behavior induced by midbrain raphe lesions in rats.
26  dark-reared
(32 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
LR (8 times)
NR (6 times)
BD (2 times)
1978 The effect of visual deprivation in the rat on transfer effects after form discrimination training.
27  double-row
(30 times)
Orthopedics
(22 times)
SR (22 times)
SB (5 times)
ASES (4 times)
2009 A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing arthroscopic single- and double-row rotator cuff repair: magnetic resonance imaging and early clinical evaluation.
28  diet-restricted
(27 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
AL (12 times)
ZD (4 times)
AG (3 times)
1985 Factors of increase in serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in uremic rats.
29  delayed-release
(26 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
ER (8 times)
IR (6 times)
RA (3 times)
2002 Comparison of the bioavailability of unequal doses of divalproex sodium extended-release formulation relative to the delayed-release formulation in healthy volunteers.
30  direct radiography
(26 times)
Radiology
(18 times)
CR (20 times)
SFM (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1998 The development of a new direct digital extra-oral radiographic system prototype using a thin-film transistor panel.
31  dissociative recombination
(26 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
SECH (2 times)
CASSCF (1 time)
EMU (1 time)
2000 Dynamics of three-body breakup in dissociative recombination: H(2)O(+).
32  distal radius
(25 times)
Orthopedics
(12 times)
BMD (14 times)
LS (9 times)
FN (6 times)
1992 Low bone mass in hypogonadal males. Effect of testosterone substitution therapy, a densitometric study.
33  radial diffusivity
(25 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
FA (23 times)
DA (19 times)
DTI (16 times)
2007 Diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing white matter in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer disease: preliminary evidence of axonal degeneration in the temporal lobe.
34  diffusion reflection
(23 times)
Biophysics
(4 times)
GNRs (6 times)
GNR (4 times)
FLIM (3 times)
2003 Accurate wavelength measurements of a putative standard for near-infrared diffuse reflection spectrometry.
35  dielectric relaxation
(22 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
DESs (2 times)
ILs (2 times)
LiBr (2 times)
2000 Phase-fluorimetry study on dielectric relaxation of human serum albumin.
36  diagnostic radiology
(21 times)
Radiology
(14 times)
IR (6 times)
NM (6 times)
RT (4 times)
2010 Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry.
37  HLA-DR
(21 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(9 times)
DM (5 times)
BM (2 times)
gB (2 times)
1987 Mechanisms of HLA-DR antigen expression in phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells in man. Requirement of T cell recognition of self HLA-DR antigen expressed on the surface of monocytes.
38  delayed ratio
(18 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(6 times)
ER (10 times)
RI (6 times)
MIBI (3 times)
1985 [Delayed reaction and delayed alternation in the cat: common factors and differences].
39  diazoresin
(18 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
LbL (5 times)
MB (3 times)
BSA (2 times)
2002 Multilayer films from phenolic resin-sodium dodecyl sulfate complex and polycations.
40  doubly robust
(18 times)
Statistics as Topic
(15 times)
IPW (3 times)
PS (3 times)
GEE (2 times)
2005 Doubly robust estimation in missing data and causal inference models.
41  daunorubicin
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
ADR (3 times)
DX (3 times)
6-MP (1 time)
1981 Studies in mice treated with ICRF-159 combined with daunorubicin or doxorubicin.
42  delivery rate
(17 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(13 times)
PR (5 times)
ART (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2002 Laser-assisted hatching of embryos is better than the chemical method for enhancing the pregnancy rate in women with advanced age.
43  dielectric resonator
(17 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(7 times)
EPR (4 times)
CMT (2 times)
CP (2 times)
1992 Cooled, ultrahigh Q, sapphire dielectric resonators for low-noise, microwave signal generation.
44  duration of response
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
ORR (8 times)
PFS (7 times)
TTP (7 times)
2000 Response criteria for NHL: importance of 'normal' lymph node size and correlations with response rates.
45  diet record
(15 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
FFQ (10 times)
BDHQ (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1997 Food consumption methods. Development, reproducibility and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for vitamin B6.
46  Discrimination ratio
(15 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
DG (4 times)
VGLUT1 (4 times)
CA1 (3 times)
1984 Age-dependent decrease of the passive Rb+ and K+ permeability of the nerve cell membranes in rat brain cortex as revealed by in vivo measurement of the Rb+ discrimination ratio.
47  dorsalis
(15 times)
Brain
(6 times)
PAG (4 times)
5-HTP (3 times)
LS (3 times)
1975 The effect of apomorphine on serotonin neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus and catecholamine nerve terminals in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Histofluorescence studies.
48  dark rearing
(14 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
BDNF (4 times)
EE (2 times)
MD (2 times)
1984 Influence of dark-rearing on the ontogenetic development of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Cichlidae, Teleostei): II. Effects on allometrical growth relations and differentiation of the optic tectum.
49  defense response
(14 times)
Molecular Biology
(6 times)
HR (2 times)
QTL (2 times)
BAC (1 time)
1975 Defensive responses to phobic stimuli.
50  delayed recall
(14 times)
Geriatrics
(4 times)
IR (6 times)
TR (4 times)
AD (3 times)
1997 Cross-validation of predicted Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised scores in a normative sample of 25- to 34-year-old patients.
51  desmoplastic reaction
(14 times)
Pathology
(5 times)
alpha-SMA (1 time)
CAFs (1 time)
CRC (1 time)
2004 Type I collagen promotes the malignant phenotype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
52  doxorubicin
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CKD (2 times)
CP (2 times)
AFP (1 time)
1990 [Intravital estimation of doxorubicin accumulation in various types of cell cultures].
53  dry-rolled
(12 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(11 times)
SF (9 times)
OM (2 times)
AAN (1 time)
1987 Site of protein digestion in steers fed sorghum grain diets. II. Effect of grain processing methods.
54  dead region
(11 times)
Audiology
(9 times)
PTCs (4 times)
TEN (3 times)
DLFs (1 time)
2005 Factors affecting psychophysical tuning curves for hearing-impaired subjects with high-frequency dead regions.
55  deltamethrin-resistant
(11 times)
Parasitology
(6 times)
DS (9 times)
qRT-PCR (4 times)
CDC (2 times)
2012 Functional characterization of an arrestin gene on insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens pallens.
56  derealization
(11 times)
Psychiatry
(5 times)
DP (11 times)
CDS (2 times)
CBT (1 time)
1994 The experimental induction of depersonalization and derealization in panic disorder and nonanxious subjects.
57  diagnostic ratios
(11 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
PAHs (3 times)
PM10 (2 times)
PMF (2 times)
1997 [Nontraditional methods for prevention of recurrent tuberculosis].
58  diameter reduction
(11 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
DSA (3 times)
ICA (3 times)
BA (2 times)
1985 Classification of carotid bifurcation disease using quantitative Doppler spectrum analysis.
59  dark respiration
(10 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(4 times)
PS (3 times)
CELSS (2 times)
PR (2 times)
1984 The effect of light quality and gibberellic acid (GA3) on photosynthesis and respiration rates of pea seedlings.
60  death rate
(10 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
AG (2 times)
ATV (1 time)
ATVs (1 time)
1989 All terrain vehicles (ATVs). A recreational gamble.
61  deformable registration
(9 times)
Radiotherapy
(6 times)
CBCT (2 times)
DSC (2 times)
pCT (2 times)
2008 Comparison of 12 deformable registration strategies in adaptive radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck tumors.
62  Diaphragmatic rupture
(9 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ADR (1 time)
CIs (1 time)
DDDR (1 time)
2002 Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.
63  directly repeated
(9 times)
Microbiology
(3 times)
IR (2 times)
CoA (1 time)
CoR (1 time)
1991 A single-stranded region located downstream of the repeated sequence in the ori region of pSC101 is required for binding of the Rep protein in vitro.
64  double resonance
(9 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(5 times)
ECD (3 times)
IRMPD (2 times)
CAD (1 time)
2006 The effect of radical trap moieties on electron capture dissociation spectra of substance P.
65  dead reckoning
(8 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(7 times)
GPS (3 times)
EKF (1 time)
GDOP (1 time)
2013 Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.
66  dietary restraint
(8 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
EA (2 times)
MD (2 times)
24HR (1 time)
2008 Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women.
67  direct repeat sequence
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
PGRS (2 times)
RFLP (2 times)
ccr (1 time)
1996 Induction of c-Erb A-AP-1 interactions and c-Erb A transcriptional activity in myoblasts by RXR. Consequences for muscle differentiation.
68  discriminant ratio
(8 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
OGTT (2 times)
AD (1 time)
AIR (1 time)
1999 Discrimination, adjusted correlation, and equivalence of imprecise tests: application to glucose tolerance.
69  dose reduction
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
OS (2 times)
AEs (1 time)
CBCT (1 time)
2008 Impact of preemptive warfarin dose reduction on anticoagulation after initiation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or levofloxacin.
70  Drynariae Rhizoma
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
AD (1 time)
ALP (1 time)
BBB (1 time)
2003 Inhibition of Drynariae Rhizoma extracts on bone resorption mediated by processing of cathepsin K in cultured mouse osteoclasts.
71  dummy run
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
QA (5 times)
ICR (2 times)
IMRT (2 times)
2008 EORTC 22972-26991/MRC BR10 trial: fractionated stereotactic boost following conventional radiotherapy of high grade gliomas. Clinical and quality-assurance results of the stereotactic boost arm.
72  dynamic retinoscopy
(8 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
AA (3 times)
CI (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2003 The repeatability and validity of dynamic retinoscopy in assessing the accommodative response.
73  Dahl resistant
(7 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
DS (6 times)
HR (3 times)
DBP (2 times)
1983 Cardiac regression and blood pressure control in the Dahl rat treated with either enalapril maleate (MK 421, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or hydrochlorothiazide.
74  decay rate
(7 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
MDP (3 times)
CLP (1 time)
ER (1 time)
2000 The vibration analysis of obturator framework designs.
75  decisional regret
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
DC (2 times)
AD (1 time)
beta-TM (1 time)
2013 Decision regret in men undergoing dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
76  degradation rate
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ACE (1 time)
AChR (1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
1986 A protocol for estimation of cortisol plasma clearance in acid-exposed rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).
77  dehydroretinol
(7 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
DRA (3 times)
VA (3 times)
MRDR (2 times)
1987 Use of 3,4-didehydroretinol to assess vitamin A status in rats.
78  delayed rectifier
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
TEA (2 times)
TGF-beta (2 times)
4-AP (1 time)
1995 Single voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channels in the somata of rat motoneurones.
79  diabetic rats
(7 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
CR (4 times)
ASA (1 time)
BG (1 time)
1991 Effects of nifedipine on global myocardial ischemic injury in hearts from diabetic and age-matched control rats.
80  direct revascularisation
(7 times)
Vascular Diseases
(7 times)
IR (6 times)
CLI (3 times)
CI (2 times)
2012 Factors influencing wound healing of critical ischaemic foot after bypass surgery: is the angiosome important in selecting bypass target artery?
81  dispersion of repolarization
(7 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
LQT (2 times)
VTs (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1999 Mechanism of arrhythmogenicity of the short-long cardiac sequence that precedes ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the long QT syndrome.
82  dispersion ratio
(7 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
ADC (2 times)
CNR (2 times)
DWI (2 times)
2006 Characterization of concentrated colloidal ceramics suspension: a new approach.
83  distant relapse
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
OS (4 times)
DFS (2 times)
LRR (2 times)
1987 Patterns of disease in localized extranodal lymphomas.
84  drug release
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CCD (2 times)
CCS (2 times)
DT (2 times)
2004 Microencapsulation of a hydrophilic drug into a hydrophobic matrix using a salting-out procedure. II. Effects of adsorbents on microsphere properties.
85  decerebrate rigidity
(6 times)
Neurosurgery
(4 times)
GCS (1 time)
MEPs (1 time)
TMS (1 time)
1981 Decerebrate rigidity in animals.
86  deep radial
(6 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
SR (3 times)
AHP (1 time)
ANC (1 time)
1979 Peripheral input pathways projecting to the motor cortex in the cat.
87  diazepam-resistant
(6 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(2 times)
DS (5 times)
BZ (2 times)
GABA (2 times)
1988 Genetic selection for benzodiazepine ataxia produces functional changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor chloride channel complex.
88  differential response
(6 times)
Pediatrics
(6 times)
CPS (2 times)
IR (2 times)
AR (1 time)
2010 Community-based child abuse prevention: outcomes associated with a differential response program in California.
89  Disability risk
(6 times)
Accidents, Traffic
(3 times)
AIS (3 times)
FIM (3 times)
MAIS (2 times)
1993 Disability pattern amongst leprosy cases in an urban area (Calcutta).
90  disposal rate
(6 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
--- 1978 Effect of propranolol on extrathyroidal metabolism of thyroxine and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine evaluated by noncompartmental kinetics.
91  down-regulation
(6 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
LDF (2 times)
UR (2 times)
CC (1 time)
1983 Down-regulation of prostaglandin E receptors and homologous desensitization of isolated adipocytes.
92  drag reduction
(6 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
cryo-TEM (2 times)
DHCs (1 time)
DRA (1 time)
2005 Co-solvent effects on drag reduction, rheological properties and micelle microstructures of cationic surfactants.
93  dune reed
(6 times)
Botany
(5 times)
SR (6 times)
SNP (3 times)
G6PDH (2 times)
2003 Up-regulation of glutathione metabolism and changes in redox status involved in adaptation of reed (Phragmites communis) ecotypes to drought-prone and saline habitats.
94  Dahl rats
(5 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
DS (5 times)
BDNF (1 time)
CHF (1 time)
1987 Endothelium-dependent vascular responses in normotensive and hypertensive Dahl rats.
95  deceleration rate
(5 times)
Internal Medicine
(1 time)
AR (1 time)
AT (1 time)
BP (1 time)
1994 Influence of positive end-expiratory pressure on right and left ventricular performance assessed by Doppler two-dimensional echocardiography.
96  delayed repair
(5 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
ER (3 times)
BTAI (2 times)
CDH (2 times)
1993 Delayed repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
97  diameter ratio
(5 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
BL (1 time)
CT (1 time)
CVP (1 time)
1999 [Simulation study on parent artery occlusion therapy for basilar head giant aneurysms: hemodynamic efficacy of additional bypass on enhancing aneurysmal thrombosis].
98  differential reflectance
(5 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
RCWA (1 time)
SAMs (1 time)
SHG (1 time)
2006 Structure and growth of thin films of aniline on silver: nucleation and premelting of nanocrystallites, porosity, and crystallization.
99  dimension reduction
(5 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
t-SNE (2 times)
ARIMA (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
2010 Exploring nonlinear feature space dimension reduction and data representation in breast Cadx with Laplacian eigenmaps and t-SNE.
100  Dioscoreae Rhizome
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
DHR (1 time)
DNR (1 time)
DSR (1 time)
2005 Reduction of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic rabbits by Dioscorea rhizome.