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Abbreviation: DR
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Long forms: 917

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
diabetic retinopathy
(4387 times)
Ophthalmology
(1385 times)
PDR (443 times)
DM (370 times)
NPDR (367 times)
0 [Diabetic retinopathy: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications].
dietary restriction
(677 times)
Geriatrics
(196 times)
AL (131 times)
ROS (26 times)
SD (18 times)
1988 Influences of aging and dietary restriction on serum thymosin alpha 1 levels in mice.
drug resistance
(299 times)
Physiology
(48 times)
DIO (98 times)
TB (54 times)
MDR (31 times)
1985 Hemodynamics of human arterial stenoses.
detection rate
(283 times)
Obstetrics
(111 times)
FPR (109 times)
NT (30 times)
PAPP-A (30 times)
1988 Preoperative staging of primary breast cancer. A multicentric study.
death receptor
(265 times)
Neoplasms
(88 times)
TRAIL (90 times)
TNF (28 times)
ROS (17 times)
1998 p53-dependent and -independent regulation of the death receptor KILLER/DR5 gene expression in response to genotoxic stress and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
dorsal raphe
(244 times)
Neurology
(94 times)
LC (53 times)
MR (23 times)
DA (19 times)
1979 Effects of midbrain raphe stimulation and lesion on EEG activity in rats.
digital radiography
(225 times)
Radiology
(87 times)
CR (55 times)
CT (17 times)
PACS (12 times)
1979 Digital radiograph of the chest using a computed tomography instrument.
dorsal raphe nucleus
(193 times)
Neurology
(90 times)
LC (23 times)
VTA (17 times)
CRF (13 times)
1976 Dorsal raphe stimulation produces inhibitory effect on trigeminal nucleus neurons.
direct repeat
(160 times)
Microbiology
(43 times)
RFLP (14 times)
IR (12 times)
RXR (12 times)
1989 Characterization of enhancer elements and their mutations in the long terminal repeat of feline endogenous RD-114 proviruses.
10  Dahl salt-resistant
(118 times)
Vascular Diseases
(66 times)
DS (105 times)
LV (8 times)
MAP (8 times)
1984 The effect of indomethacin on the duration of the hypotensive action of bradykinin in Dahl salt-resistant rats: role of cyclooxygenase inhibition.
11  distant recurrence
(112 times)
Neoplasms
(66 times)
LR (39 times)
OS (24 times)
CI (15 times)
1999 Predictive value of race in post-transplantation recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children.
12  delivery room
(99 times)
Pediatrics
(40 times)
NICU (19 times)
CPAP (11 times)
PPV (9 times)
1996 Can asphyxiated infants at risk for neonatal seizures be rapidly identified by current high-risk markers?
13  dopamine receptor
(96 times)
Neurology
(24 times)
DA (9 times)
PD (8 times)
NAc (5 times)
1994 Molecular biological perspectives in treating neuropsychiatric disorders with dopaminergic drugs.
14  dynamic range
(92 times)
Audiology
(25 times)
CI (10 times)
SNR (7 times)
CIMT (5 times)
1989 [Ultrasonographic diagnosis of mild fatty infiltration of the liver with the difference between liver and kidney echolevels].
15  dorsal root
(87 times)
Neurology
(45 times)
VR (21 times)
NMDA (9 times)
VLF (7 times)
1969 Reflex discharges into thoracic white rami elicited by somatic and visceral afferent excitation.
16  Dominican Republic
(82 times)
Public Health
(17 times)
HIV (4 times)
NYC (4 times)
EC (3 times)
1981 Acceptability of the contraceptive vaginal ring by rural and urban population in two Latin American countries.
17  diabetes-resistant
(79 times)
Endocrinology
(30 times)
DP (63 times)
BB (13 times)
IDDM (12 times)
1985 Lymphoid cells of BB/W diabetic rats are cytotoxic to islet beta cells in vitro.
18  delayed response
(70 times)
Neurology
(26 times)
DA (11 times)
DLPFC (9 times)
DMS (6 times)
1972 Cortical steady potential shifts and anodal polarization during delayed response performance.
19  diffuse reflectance
(68 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(16 times)
FTIR (8 times)
NIR (8 times)
SEM (7 times)
1998 Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc Tetra(3,4-pyridine)Porphyrazine Entrapped within the Supercages of Y-Zeolite.
20  dietary records
(63 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(40 times)
FFQ (31 times)
ICC (6 times)
BMI (5 times)
1998 Effect of additional questions about fat on the validity of fat estimates from a food frequency questionnaire. Study Group of MRS SWEA.
21  dimensionality reduction
(55 times)
Medical Informatics
(25 times)
PCA (7 times)
KNN (3 times)
KPCA (2 times)
2006 Spectral embedding finds meaningful (relevant) structure in image and microarray data.
22  ductular reaction
(54 times)
Gastroenterology
(23 times)
HPCs (9 times)
HCC (6 times)
CK (4 times)
2007 Ductular reaction is helpful in defining early stromal invasion, small hepatocellular carcinomas, and dysplastic nodules.
23  dose rate
(50 times)
Pharmacology
(17 times)
Raeq (4 times)
AGDE (3 times)
Hex (3 times)
1976 A quantitative study of metiamide, a histamine H2-antagonist, on the isolated whole rat stomach.
24  dose-response
(42 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
5-HT (3 times)
NE (3 times)
5-CT (2 times)
1975 The steepness of the dose-response curve in radiation therapy. Theoretical considerations and experimental results.
25  double-row
(40 times)
Orthopedics
(25 times)
SR (30 times)
SB (7 times)
ASES (5 times)
2009 A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing arthroscopic single- and double-row rotator cuff repair: magnetic resonance imaging and early clinical evaluation.
26  dorsal
(36 times)
Neurology
(13 times)
MR (7 times)
LH (4 times)
MnR (4 times)
1977 Characteristics in aggressive behavior induced by midbrain raphe lesions in rats.
27  dark-reared
(32 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
LR (8 times)
NR (6 times)
BD (2 times)
1978 The effect of visual deprivation in the rat on transfer effects after form discrimination training.
28  distal radius
(31 times)
Orthopedics
(12 times)
BMD (16 times)
LS (11 times)
FN (8 times)
1992 Low bone mass in hypogonadal males. Effect of testosterone substitution therapy, a densitometric study.
29  diagnostic radiology
(30 times)
Radiology
(21 times)
IR (12 times)
NM (7 times)
ACGME (4 times)
2010 Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry.
30  radial diffusivity
(30 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
FA (25 times)
DA (24 times)
MD (19 times)
2007 Diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing white matter in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer disease: preliminary evidence of axonal degeneration in the temporal lobe.
31  delayed-release
(28 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
ER (8 times)
IR (8 times)
BMD (3 times)
2002 Comparison of the bioavailability of unequal doses of divalproex sodium extended-release formulation relative to the delayed-release formulation in healthy volunteers.
32  discrimination ratio
(28 times)
Medicine
(8 times)
DG (4 times)
VGLUT1 (4 times)
CA1 (3 times)
1984 Age-dependent decrease of the passive Rb+ and K+ permeability of the nerve cell membranes in rat brain cortex as revealed by in vivo measurement of the Rb+ discrimination ratio.
33  diet-restricted
(27 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
AL (12 times)
ZD (4 times)
AG (3 times)
1985 Factors of increase in serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in uremic rats.
34  dissociative recombination
(27 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
SECH (2 times)
CASSCF (1 time)
EMU (1 time)
2000 Dynamics of three-body breakup in dissociative recombination: H(2)O(+).
35  direct radiography
(26 times)
Radiology
(18 times)
CR (20 times)
SFM (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1998 The development of a new direct digital extra-oral radiographic system prototype using a thin-film transistor panel.
36  dielectric relaxation
(24 times)
Chemistry
(18 times)
DESs (2 times)
ILs (2 times)
LiBr (2 times)
2000 Phase-fluorimetry study on dielectric relaxation of human serum albumin.
37  diffusion reflection
(24 times)
Biophysics
(4 times)
GNRs (6 times)
GNR (4 times)
FLIM (3 times)
2003 Accurate wavelength measurements of a putative standard for near-infrared diffuse reflection spectrometry.
38  doubly robust
(24 times)
Statistics as Topic
(16 times)
IPW (6 times)
PS (5 times)
ATE (3 times)
2005 Doubly robust estimation in missing data and causal inference models.
39  desmoplastic reaction
(23 times)
Pathology
(10 times)
CRC (6 times)
RFS (4 times)
CAFs (2 times)
2004 Type I collagen promotes the malignant phenotype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
40  HLA-DR
(21 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(9 times)
DM (5 times)
BM (2 times)
gB (2 times)
1987 Mechanisms of HLA-DR antigen expression in phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells in man. Requirement of T cell recognition of self HLA-DR antigen expressed on the surface of monocytes.
41  delayed ratio
(20 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(6 times)
ER (11 times)
RI (7 times)
MIBI (3 times)
1985 [Delayed reaction and delayed alternation in the cat: common factors and differences].
42  diazoresin
(20 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(8 times)
LbL (5 times)
HPLC (3 times)
MB (3 times)
2002 Multilayer films from phenolic resin-sodium dodecyl sulfate complex and polycations.
43  delivery rate
(19 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(15 times)
PR (7 times)
ART (5 times)
CI (3 times)
2002 Laser-assisted hatching of embryos is better than the chemical method for enhancing the pregnancy rate in women with advanced age.
44  daunorubicin
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
ADR (3 times)
DX (3 times)
6-MP (1 time)
1981 Studies in mice treated with ICRF-159 combined with daunorubicin or doxorubicin.
45  delayed recall
(18 times)
Geriatrics
(4 times)
IR (7 times)
AD (4 times)
MCI (4 times)
1997 Cross-validation of predicted Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised scores in a normative sample of 25- to 34-year-old patients.
46  dielectric resonator
(18 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(7 times)
EPR (4 times)
CMT (2 times)
CP (2 times)
1992 Cooled, ultrahigh Q, sapphire dielectric resonators for low-noise, microwave signal generation.
47  duration of response
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
ORR (8 times)
PFS (7 times)
TTP (7 times)
2000 Response criteria for NHL: importance of 'normal' lymph node size and correlations with response rates.
48  dark rearing
(15 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
BDNF (4 times)
EE (2 times)
iTBS (2 times)
1984 Influence of dark-rearing on the ontogenetic development of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Cichlidae, Teleostei): II. Effects on allometrical growth relations and differentiation of the optic tectum.
49  defense response
(15 times)
Molecular Biology
(6 times)
QTL (3 times)
HR (2 times)
BAC (1 time)
1975 Defensive responses to phobic stimuli.
50  derealization
(15 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
DP (15 times)
CDS (2 times)
CBT (1 time)
1994 The experimental induction of depersonalization and derealization in panic disorder and nonanxious subjects.
51  diet record
(15 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
FFQ (10 times)
BDHQ (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1997 Food consumption methods. Development, reproducibility and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for vitamin B6.
52  dorsalis
(15 times)
Brain
(6 times)
PAG (4 times)
5-HTP (3 times)
LS (3 times)
1975 The effect of apomorphine on serotonin neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus and catecholamine nerve terminals in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Histofluorescence studies.
53  doxorubicin
(15 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CKD (3 times)
CP (2 times)
AFP (1 time)
1990 [Intravital estimation of doxorubicin accumulation in various types of cell cultures].
54  dead reckoning
(14 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(12 times)
GPS (4 times)
EKF (3 times)
IMU (3 times)
2013 Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.
55  deltamethrin-resistant
(13 times)
Parasitology
(7 times)
DS (11 times)
qRT-PCR (4 times)
CDC (2 times)
2012 Functional characterization of an arrestin gene on insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens pallens.
56  diagnostic ratios
(13 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
PAHs (3 times)
PM10 (2 times)
PMF (2 times)
1997 [Nontraditional methods for prevention of recurrent tuberculosis].
57  distribution ratio
(13 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
ADC (2 times)
CNR (2 times)
DWI (2 times)
1979 Tissue resistance to insulin stimulation of amino acid uptake in acutely uremic rats.
58  dose reduction
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
OS (4 times)
PFS (3 times)
UC (3 times)
2008 Impact of preemptive warfarin dose reduction on anticoagulation after initiation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or levofloxacin.
59  decisional regret
(12 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
DC (3 times)
DRS (3 times)
AD (1 time)
2013 Decision regret in men undergoing dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
60  differential reflectance
(12 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
MAS (3 times)
AFM (1 time)
BB (1 time)
2006 Structure and growth of thin films of aniline on silver: nucleation and premelting of nanocrystallites, porosity, and crystallization.
61  dry-rolled
(12 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(11 times)
SF (9 times)
OM (2 times)
AAN (1 time)
1987 Site of protein digestion in steers fed sorghum grain diets. II. Effect of grain processing methods.
62  dead region
(11 times)
Audiology
(9 times)
PTCs (4 times)
TEN (3 times)
DLFs (1 time)
2005 Factors affecting psychophysical tuning curves for hearing-impaired subjects with high-frequency dead regions.
63  diameter reduction
(11 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
DSA (3 times)
ICA (3 times)
BA (2 times)
1985 Classification of carotid bifurcation disease using quantitative Doppler spectrum analysis.
64  Diaphragmatic rupture
(11 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ADR (1 time)
CIs (1 time)
DDDR (1 time)
2002 Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.
65  dark respiration
(10 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(4 times)
PS (3 times)
CELSS (2 times)
PR (2 times)
1984 The effect of light quality and gibberellic acid (GA3) on photosynthesis and respiration rates of pea seedlings.
66  deformable registration
(10 times)
Radiotherapy
(6 times)
CBCT (3 times)
pCT (3 times)
DSC (2 times)
2008 Comparison of 12 deformable registration strategies in adaptive radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck tumors.
67  direct revascularization
(10 times)
Vascular Diseases
(8 times)
IR (7 times)
CLI (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2012 Factors influencing wound healing of critical ischaemic foot after bypass surgery: is the angiosome important in selecting bypass target artery?
68  death rate
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
AG (2 times)
ATV (1 time)
ATVs (1 time)
1989 All terrain vehicles (ATVs). A recreational gamble.
69  dietary restraint
(9 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(6 times)
EA (2 times)
ED (2 times)
MD (2 times)
2008 Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women.
70  directly repeated
(9 times)
Microbiology
(3 times)
IR (2 times)
CoA (1 time)
CoR (1 time)
1991 A single-stranded region located downstream of the repeated sequence in the ori region of pSC101 is required for binding of the Rep protein in vitro.
71  disease relapse
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
OS (6 times)
cHL (2 times)
DFS (2 times)
1987 Patterns of disease in localized extranodal lymphomas.
72  double resonance
(9 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(5 times)
ECD (3 times)
IRMPD (2 times)
CAD (1 time)
2006 The effect of radical trap moieties on electron capture dissociation spectra of substance P.
73  down-regulation
(9 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(2 times)
UR (4 times)
LDF (2 times)
ART (1 time)
1983 Down-regulation of prostaglandin E receptors and homologous desensitization of isolated adipocytes.
74  downhill running
(9 times)
Sports Medicine
(6 times)
LR (4 times)
UR (3 times)
AVA (2 times)
2017 Delayed Onset Vascular Stiffening Induced by Eccentric Resistance Exercise and Downhill Running.
75  Drynariae Rhizoma
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
AD (1 time)
ALP (1 time)
BBB (1 time)
2003 Inhibition of Drynariae Rhizoma extracts on bone resorption mediated by processing of cathepsin K in cultured mouse osteoclasts.
76  delayed rectifier
(8 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
TEA (2 times)
TGF-beta (2 times)
4-AP (1 time)
1995 Single voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channels in the somata of rat motoneurones.
77  direct repeat sequence
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
PGRS (2 times)
RFLP (2 times)
ccr (1 time)
1996 Induction of c-Erb A-AP-1 interactions and c-Erb A transcriptional activity in myoblasts by RXR. Consequences for muscle differentiation.
78  dispersion of repolarization
(8 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
LQT (2 times)
VTs (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1999 Mechanism of arrhythmogenicity of the short-long cardiac sequence that precedes ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the long QT syndrome.
79  dummy run
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
QA (5 times)
ICR (2 times)
IMRT (2 times)
2008 EORTC 22972-26991/MRC BR10 trial: fractionated stereotactic boost following conventional radiotherapy of high grade gliomas. Clinical and quality-assurance results of the stereotactic boost arm.
80  dynamic retinoscopy
(8 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
AA (3 times)
CI (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2003 The repeatability and validity of dynamic retinoscopy in assessing the accommodative response.
81  Dahl resistant
(7 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
DS (6 times)
HR (3 times)
DBP (2 times)
1983 Cardiac regression and blood pressure control in the Dahl rat treated with either enalapril maleate (MK 421, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or hydrochlorothiazide.
82  decay rate
(7 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
MDP (3 times)
CLP (1 time)
ER (1 time)
2000 The vibration analysis of obturator framework designs.
83  degradation rate
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ACE (1 time)
AChR (1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
1986 A protocol for estimation of cortisol plasma clearance in acid-exposed rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).
84  dehydroretinol
(7 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
DRA (3 times)
VA (3 times)
MRDR (2 times)
1987 Use of 3,4-didehydroretinol to assess vitamin A status in rats.
85  denitrification rate
(7 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
TN (2 times)
ABFR (1 time)
COD (1 time)
2007 Organic carbon and nitrogen removal from a strong wastewater using a denitrifying suspended growth reactor and a horizontal-flow biofilm reactor.
86  diabetic rats
(7 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
CR (4 times)
ASA (1 time)
BG (1 time)
1991 Effects of nifedipine on global myocardial ischemic injury in hearts from diabetic and age-matched control rats.
87  disability rating
(7 times)
Rehabilitation
(3 times)
C/NC (1 time)
DI (1 time)
DLHS-4, 2012-2013 (1 time)
1977 Evoked brain potentials and disability in brain-damaged patients.
88  disposal rate
(7 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
DI (1 time)
TBS (1 time)
1978 Effect of propranolol on extrathyroidal metabolism of thyroxine and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine evaluated by noncompartmental kinetics.
89  diuretic response
(7 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
AHF (4 times)
ADHF (2 times)
HF (2 times)
1990 Alterations of glucose metabolism in chronic liver disease.
90  DR group
(7 times)
Ophthalmology
(4 times)
DM (3 times)
T2DM (2 times)
ACC (1 time)
2013 Anterior capsule contraction and flare intensity in the early stages after cataract surgery in eyes with diabetic retinopathy.
91  drag reduction
(7 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
cryo-TEM (2 times)
DHCs (1 time)
DRA (1 time)
2005 Co-solvent effects on drag reduction, rheological properties and micelle microstructures of cationic surfactants.
92  drug release
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CCD (2 times)
CCS (2 times)
DT (2 times)
2004 Microencapsulation of a hydrophilic drug into a hydrophobic matrix using a salting-out procedure. II. Effects of adsorbents on microsphere properties.
93  decerebrate rigidity
(6 times)
Neurosurgery
(4 times)
GCS (1 time)
MEPs (1 time)
TMS (1 time)
1981 Decerebrate rigidity in animals.
94  deep radial
(6 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
SR (3 times)
AHP (1 time)
ANC (1 time)
1979 Peripheral input pathways projecting to the motor cortex in the cat.
95  deep red
(6 times)
Biology
(2 times)
AIE (1 time)
CO (1 time)
CSA (1 time)
2004 A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora.
96  diazepam-resistant
(6 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(2 times)
DS (5 times)
BZ (2 times)
GABA (2 times)
1988 Genetic selection for benzodiazepine ataxia produces functional changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor chloride channel complex.
97  differential response
(6 times)
Pediatrics
(6 times)
CPS (2 times)
IR (2 times)
AR (1 time)
2010 Community-based child abuse prevention: outcomes associated with a differential response program in California.
98  Dipsaci Radix
(6 times)
Complementary Therapies
(3 times)
ESCs (1 time)
OP (1 time)
PBMCs (1 time)
2009 Effect of Dipsaci radix on hind limb muscle atrophy of sciatic nerve transected rats.
99  disease-related
(6 times)
Colonic Diseases
(1 time)
SEIQoL-DW (2 times)
AD (1 time)
BB (1 time)
2007 Candidate genes for quantitative resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea (Pisum sativum L.).
100  Diuretic resistance
(6 times)
Heart Failure
(2 times)
AHF (3 times)
HF (3 times)
CI (1 time)
2017 Markers of diuretic resistance in emergency department patients with acute heart failure.