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Abbreviation: DRA
Appearance Frequency: 479 time(s)
Long forms: 112

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
dialysis-related amyloidosis
(143 times)
Nephrology
(65 times)
beta2m (38 times)
HD (22 times)
beta 2m (12 times)
1989 Specific imaging of dialysis-related amyloid deposits using 131I-beta-2-microglobulin.
downregulated in adenoma
(67 times)
Physiology
(29 times)
CLD (7 times)
PAT1 (7 times)
CFTR (6 times)
1996 The down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) gene encodes an intestine-specific membrane glycoprotein.
differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
(36 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(27 times)
NCR (8 times)
SIB (3 times)
DRO (2 times)
1980 Stereotyped behaviour, alternative behaviour and collateral effects: a comparison of four intervention procedures.
dorsal rim area
(23 times)
Biology
(10 times)
AOTU (2 times)
POL (2 times)
PS (2 times)
1989 Spectral and polarized light sensitivity of photoreceptors in the compound eye of the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus).
diastasis recti abdominis
(18 times)
Rehabilitation
(5 times)
IRD (6 times)
BMI (3 times)
CI (2 times)
2007 Prevalence of diastasis recti abdominis in a urogynecological patient population.
Deficit Reduction Act
(15 times)
Radiology
(6 times)
ABNs (1 time)
ASC (1 time)
BETOS (1 time)
2006 Medicare program; hospital outpatient prospective payment system and CY 2007 payment rates; CY 2007 update to the ambulatory surgical center covered procedures list; Medicare administrative contractors; and reporting hospital quality data for FY 2008 inpatient prospective payment system annual payment update program--HCAHPS survey, SCIP, and mortality. Final rule with comment period and final rule.
dextran-reactive antibodies
(12 times)
Transplantation
(5 times)
DIAR (5 times)
Abs (1 time)
AMR (1 time)
1976 Dextran-induced anaphylactoid reactions in man: role of dextran reactive antibodies.
distributed Raman amplification
(8 times)
Biophysics
(7 times)
ASE (1 time)
BOFDA (1 time)
BOTDA (1 time)
2004 40 GHz adiabatic compression of a modulator based dual frequency beat signal using Raman amplification in dispersion decreasing fiber.
deformation registration algorithm
(7 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
COV (2 times)
FT (2 times)
GLS (2 times)
2012 SU-E-J-85: Anthropomorphic Development for Intermodality Deformation Algorithms Validation.
10  differential regulation analysis
(6 times)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
DCEA (2 times)
DRGs (2 times)
BrAD-seq (1 time)
2003 Pain dynamics observed by functional magnetic resonance imaging: differential regression analysis technique.
11  distal radial artery
(6 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
TRA (2 times)
AS (1 time)
AVF (1 time)
2008 Flow interruption of the distal radial artery: treatment for finger ischemia in a matured radiocephalic AVF.
12  diastolic reflection area
(5 times)
Cardiovascular Diseases
(1 time)
DAI (2 times)
PWV (2 times)
RT (2 times)
2013 Evaluation of arterial stiffness for predicting future cardiovascular events in patients with ST segment elevation and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.
13  Dietary Risk Assessment
(5 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
ADI (2 times)
ARfD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1999 Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.
14  dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry
(5 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
DPA (4 times)
QCT (2 times)
DEXA (1 time)
1989 Quantitative dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry of the lumbar spine: in vivo comparison with dual-photon absorptiometry.
15  3,4-didehydroretinyl acetate
(4 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
DR (3 times)
MRDR (2 times)
VA (2 times)
1996 Refinement of the modified-relative-dose-response test as a method for assessing vitamin A status in a field setting: experience with Indonesian children.
16  dark-rim artifact
(4 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
CMR (2 times)
SNR (2 times)
bSSFP (1 time)
2012 Perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Comparison of an advanced, high-resolution and a standard sequence.
17  dielectric resonator antenna
(4 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(2 times)
DR (2 times)
ARBW (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2013 Dielectric resonator antenna for applications in nanophotonics.
18  direct reductive amination
(4 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
AH (1 time)
EDA (1 time)
2013 N-O bond as a glycosidic-bond surrogate: synthetic studies toward polyhydroxylated N-alkoxypiperidines.
19  Dementia Risk Assessment
(3 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
RMT (1 time)
2013 Internet-based screening for dementia risk.
20  DDBJ Read Archive
(2 times)
Biology
(1 time)
CIB-DDBJ (1 time)
DTA (1 time)
2010 Biological databases at DNA Data Bank of Japan in the era of next-generation sequencing technologies.
21  differential reinforcement
(2 times)
Mental Disorders
(1 time)
DNRA (1 time)
EO (1 time)
EXT (1 time)
2005 The effects of fixed-time and contingent schedules of negative reinforcement on compliance and aberrant behavior.
22  disk retention assay
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
CPC (2 times)
AUC (1 time)
CPH (1 time)
1997 Evaluation of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Containing Mouthwashes Using In Vitro Disk Retention and Ex Vivo Plaque Glycolysis Methods.
23  dorsal respiratory area
(2 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
ISRF (1 time)
KA (1 time)
PNA (1 time)
1984 Differentiation of two respiratory areas in the cat medulla using kainic acid.
24  dorsal root avulsion
(2 times)
Stem Cells
(1 time)
DRR (1 time)
hscNSPC (1 time)
NeuN (1 time)
2011 A comparative histological analysis of two models of nerve root avulsion injury in the adult rat.
25  double Rydberg anion
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
VEDEs (2 times)
EPT (1 time)
2007 OH(3) (-) and O(2)H(5) (-) double Rydberg anions: predictions and comparisons with NH(4) (-) and N(2)H(7) (-).
26  drug regulatory agencies
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2010 Determination of therapeutic equivalence of generic products of gentamicin in the neutropenic mouse thigh infection model.
27  Drug Regulatory Agency
(2 times)
Quality Assurance, Health Care
(1 time)
ISDB (1 time)
1983 Use of cimetidine; parallels and discrepancies between the views of drug regulatory agencies and practicing physicians.
28  dual radiation action
(2 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(1 time)
IGK (1 time)
LPL (1 time)
1986 Correlation of microdosimetric measurements with relative biological effectiveness from clinical experience for two neutron therapy beams.
29  dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus species
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
IL (1 time)
SIRT2 (1 time)
2013 Multi-allergen challenge stimulates steriod-resistant airway inflammation via NF-kappaB-mediated IL-8 expression.
30  dynamic rheological analysis
(2 times)
Polymers
(2 times)
DSC (2 times)
BMI (1 time)
FTIR (1 time)
2018 Designing and Preparation of Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Interface Adhesion.
31  Daily Routine and Autonomy
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
ASD (1 time)
FIFA (1 time)
2020 Full-information factor analysis of the Daily Routine and Autonomy (DRA) questionnaire among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.
32  Daily Routine and Autonomy questionnaire
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
ASD (1 time)
FIFA (1 time)
2020 Full-information factor analysis of the Daily Routine and Autonomy (DRA) questionnaire among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.
33  data from next-generation sequencers, the 'DDBJ Read Archive
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DDBJ (1 time)
RSS (1 time)
2010 DDBJ launches a new archive database with analytical tools for next-generation sequence data.
34  DDBJ Sequence Read Archive
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DOR (1 time)
2011 DDBJ progress report.
35  death receptor agonist
(1 time)
Biological Science Disciplines
(1 time)
CRC (1 time)
ELP (1 time)
2019 Genomically informed small-molecule drugs overcome resistance to a sustained-release formulation of an engineered death receptor agonist in patient-derived tumor models.
36  death registration area
(1 time)
Statistics as Topic
(1 time)
--- 1984 New estimates of child mortality in the United States at the turn of the century.
37  decellularized rat aorta
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
PCL (1 time)
RM (1 time)
RM-HTEV (1 time)
2019 Hybrid electrospun rapamycin-loaded small-diameter decellularized vascular grafts effectively inhibit intimal hyperplasia.
38  default retirement age
(1 time)
Nursing
(1 time)
--- 2010 Time to retire...or carry on nursing?
39  deformative RA
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
NDRA (1 time)
NK (1 time)
RA (1 time)
2019 High percentages and activity of synovial fluid NK cells present in patients with advanced stage active Rheumatoid Arthritis.
40  degree of reasoned action
(1 time)
Health Services
(1 time)
--- 2019 Degree of reasoned action predicts increased intentional control and reduced habitual control over health behaviors.
41  delayed reinforced alternation test
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
RLA (1 time)
SA (1 time)
VTE (1 time)
1985 Differential acquisition of a "working memory" task by the Roman strains of rats.
42  dementia-related agitation
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
--- 2008 Alternatives to atypical antipsychotics for the management of dementia-related agitation.
43  Demons Registration Algorithm
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
CLSM (1 time)
FFD (1 time)
2015 Tuning of a deformable image registration procedure for skin component mechanical properties assessment.
44  dentine resorption activity
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
CK (1 time)
Hcy (1 time)
OC (1 time)
2007 Stimulation of osteoclast activity by low B-vitamin concentrations.
45  destructive arthritis
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
ESR (1 time)
IL-1 (1 time)
IL-1ra (1 time)
2001 IL-1B and IL-1Ra gene polymorphisms and disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis: interaction with their plasma levels.
46  detectors mediating these responses: the 'Dorsal Rim Area
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
POL (1 time)
VPA (1 time)
2014 Differences in neural circuitry guiding behavioral responses to polarized light presented to either the dorsal or ventral retina in Drosophila.
47  Developmental Reading Assessment
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
OR (1 time)
PSSA (1 time)
2020 Impact of eyeglasses on academic performance in primary school children.
48  device retrieval and analysis
(1 time)
Ethics
(1 time)
--- 1995 But doctor, it's my hip!: the fate of failed medical devices.
49  diabetes risk appraisal
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
--- 2011 An innovative multiphased strategy to recruit underserved adults into a randomized trial of a community-based diabetes risk reduction program.
50  Diadochokinetic Rate Analysis
(1 time)
Speech-Language Pathology
(1 time)
DDK (1 time)
2009 Analysis of diadochokinesis in ataxic dysarthria using the motor speech profile program.
51  dialysis-related arthritis
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
IL (1 time)
OA (1 time)
RA (1 time)
1998 Involvement of interleukin-8 in dialysis-related arthritis.
52  Dialysis-related arthropathy
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
HD (1 time)
1993 Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
53  dialysis-related beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
--- 1996 Renal transplantation relieves the symptoms but does not reverse beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis.
54  diameter of retinal arteriole
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
AMD (1 time)
BCVA (1 time)
CMT (1 time)
2014 The effects of ranibizumab injections on fluorescein angiographic findings and visual acuity recovery in age-related macular degeneration.
55  diarrhoea anion exchanger
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CFTR (1 time)
CLD (1 time)
STAS (1 time)
2003 Acute regulation of the SLC26A3 congenital chloride diarrhoea anion exchanger (DRA) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
56  dietary restricted rats
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
--- 1985 Lifetime breeding studies in fully fed and dietary restricted female CFY Sprague-Dawley rats. 1. Effect of age, housing conditions and diet on fecundity.
57  different reinforcer rates for alternative behavior
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
--- 2016 Effects of signaled and unsignaled alternative reinforcement on persistence and relapse in children and pigeons.
58  differential reinforcement of compliance
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
--- 1996 Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and demand fading in the treatment of escape-maintained destructive behavior.
59  differential resonant accelerometers
(1 time)
Biosensing Techniques
(1 time)
MEMS (1 time)
2019 Die-Attach Structure of Silicon-on-Glass MEMS Devices Considering Asymmetric Packaging Stress and Thermal Stress.
60  differential resource allocation
(1 time)
Botany
(1 time)
AMF (1 time)
CH (1 time)
CL (1 time)
2015 Effects of flower dimorphism and light environment on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in a cleistogamous herb.
61  Diffused reflectance spectroscopic analysis
(1 time)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
FESEM (1 time)
PL (1 time)
XRD (1 time)
2016 Influence of Parametric Variations on Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanostructures for Hybrid Polymer/ZnO Based Photodetector.
62  digestive ripening agent
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DR (1 time)
NC (1 time)
TFT (1 time)
2018 Ligand-Solvent Compatibility: The Unsung Hero in the Digestive Ripening Story.
63  digital rotation angiography
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
AVMs (1 time)
DSA (1 time)
2011 Technique for targeting arteriovenous malformations using frameless image-guided robotic radiosurgery.
64  dinucleotide relative abundance
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
DRAD (1 time)
2007 Identification of prophages in bacterial genomes by dinucleotide relative abundance difference.
65  diphtheriae
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
CRISPR (1 time)
2007 Corynebacterium diphtheriae spoligotyping based on combined use of two CRISPR loci.
66  direct measurement of active renin
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
APA (1 time)
PAPY (1 time)
PRA (1 time)
2010 The aldosterone-renin ratio based on the plasma renin activity and the direct renin assay for diagnosing aldosterone-producing adenoma.
67  direct rosette assay
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
IIF (1 time)
1983 Isolation of Ia positive human leukocytes by a direct rosette assay.
68  directional-correlation weighted relative anisotropy
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
RA (1 time)
SNR (1 time)
2001 Improving relative anisotropy measurement using directional correlation of diffusion tensors.
69  Discrete Relaxation Algorithm
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
--- 1987 A parallel architecture for discrete relaxation algorithm.
70  Discriminant Residual Analysis
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
--- 2019 Discriminative Residual Analysis for Image Set Classification with Posture and Age Variations.
71  disease 'dialysis-related amyloidosis
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 2005 Towards an understanding of the structural molecular mechanism of beta(2)-microglobulin amyloid formation in vitro.
72  Disease risk analyses
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
CDV (1 time)
FIV (1 time)
2019 Assessing the health risks of reintroduction: The example of the Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis.
73  dissection of the renal artery
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
--- 1989 [Spontaneous dissection of the renal artery].
74  distal rectal adenocarcinoma
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
APR (1 time)
1999 Sphincter-sparing treatment for distal rectal adenocarcinoma.
75  distance of the reflex arc
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
EMG (1 time)
GT (1 time)
PL (1 time)
2004 The reference values of the T-wave of the patellar tendon reflex in normal dogs.
76  distributed regression analysis
(1 time)
DDNs (1 time)
2018 A Query Workflow Design to Perform Automatable Distributed Regression Analysis in Large Distributed Data Networks.
77  disulfide radical anion
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
TEC (1 time)
2018 Amine Induced Retardation of the Radical-Mediated Thiol-Ene Reaction via the Formation of Metastable Disulfide Radical Anions.
78  diterpene resin acid
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
ABA (1 time)
EST (1 time)
GA (1 time)
2006 Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases in conifer genomes: discovery of members of the terpenoid oxygenase superfamily in spruce and pine.
79  divarication of recti abdominis
(1 time)
Musculoskeletal Diseases
(1 time)
ICCs (1 time)
IRD (1 time)
2018 Effects of posture and anatomical location on inter-recti distance measured using ultrasound imaging in parous women.
80  DNA reduction assay
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
HSV-1 (1 time)
PRA (1 time)
2013 Rapid susceptibility testing for herpes simplex virus type 1 using real-time PCR.
81  DNA repair activity
(1 time)
Embryology
(1 time)
ROS (1 time)
2010 DNA damage and repair in human oocytes and embryos: a review.
82  docking-based rank aggregation
(1 time)
Biomedical Research
(1 time)
PXR (1 time)
2015 Screening Ingredients from Herbs against Pregnane X Receptor in the Study of Inductive Herb-Drug Interactions: Combining Pharmacophore and Docking-Based Rank Aggregation.
83  Dopamine receptor agonists
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
PD (1 time)
2015 [A current view on dopamine receptor agonists in the treatment of Parkinson's disease].
84  dopamine receptor antagonists prochlorperazine/metoclopramide
(1 time)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
ED (1 time)
2019 ED treatment of migraine patients has changed.
85  dopamine-receptor antagonist
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
--- 1998 The natural history of tardive dystonia. A long-term follow-up study of 107 cases.
86  dorsal
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
ChAT (1 time)
ENsubP (1 time)
HH (1 time)
2014 Distribution of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres within intrinsic nerves at the level of the human heart hilum.
87  dorsal branch of the radial artery
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
RA (1 time)
2012 [Comparison of usefulness of the dorsal branch of the radial artery with the radial artery for arterial cannulation].
88  dorsal position
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
LRA (1 time)
2008 Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: lateral versus dorsal approach.
89  dorsal rim area of the eye
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
PRs (1 time)
wg (1 time)
2003 Homothorax switches function of Drosophila photoreceptors from color to polarized light sensors.
90  dose rates in air
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
--- 2003 Verification of external exposure assessment for the upper Techa riverside by luminescence measurements and Monte Carlo photon transport modeling.
91  double resonant antenna
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
SHG (1 time)
2012 Enhanced second-harmonic generation from double resonant plasmonic antennae.
92  double-running anti-torque suture
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
BKS (1 time)
DLKP (1 time)
GTS (1 time)
1997 [Live epikeratophakia and deep lamellar keratoplasty for I-III stage-specific surgical treatment of keratoconus].
93  down regulated in adenoma exchanger
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CLD (1 time)
PAT1 (1 time)
SLC26A3 (1 time)
2013 Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea.
94  DR amplitude
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
DC (1 time)
DR (1 time)
hh cyt c (1 time)
2013 Hydration-state change of horse heart cytochrome c corresponding to trifluoroacetic-acid-induced unfolding.
95  DR-alpha homologues
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
DRB (1 time)
MHC (1 time)
1992 Expression and characterization of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (OLA-DR) genes.
96  drag reducing agents
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DR (1 time)
EG (1 time)
2005 Co-solvent effects on drag reduction, rheological properties and micelle microstructures of cationic surfactants.
97  Drug Reaction Assessment
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
OR (1 time)
2018 The utility of drug reaction assessment trials for inhaled therapies in patients with chronic lung diseases.
98  drug regulatory authority
(1 time)
Technology, Pharmaceutical
(1 time)
HMs (1 time)
2019 A qualitative exploration of Bahrain and Kuwait herbal medicine registration systems: policy implementation and readiness to change.
99  drug-related admission
(1 time)
Internal Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1987 Drug-related admissions to a family medicine inpatient service.
100  drug-related hospital admissions
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 2018 Development of a standardized chart review method to identify drug-related hospital admissions in older people.