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Abbreviation: EC50
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
effective concentration 50
(58 times)
Environmental Health
(13 times)
LC50 (4 times)
MIC (4 times)
CT (3 times)
1985 Inhibition of rat ventricular automaticity by adenosine.
effective concentration for 50% inhibition
(33 times)
Parasitology
(4 times)
ACV (3 times)
CE (2 times)
HSV (2 times)
1995 Inhibition of the glycine decarboxylase multienzyme complex by the host-selective toxin victorin.
effective concentration producing 50% of the maximum response
(18 times)
Physiology
(8 times)
ACh (3 times)
Ang II (1 time)
ATP (1 time)
1987 Receptor-mediated effects of a PGH2 analogue (U 46619) on human platelets.
elicit 50% of the maximal response
(13 times)
Physiology
(7 times)
IBMX (2 times)
PDE (2 times)
TCDD (2 times)
1991 Effects of verapamil enantiomers and major metabolites on the cytotoxicity of vincristine and daunomycin in human lymphoma cell lines.
effective concentration for 50% inhibition of mycelial growth
(5 times)
EOs (1 time)
FD (1 time)
KSHB (1 time)
2012 Inhibitory Effects of Essential Oils for Controlling Phytophthora capsici.
effect concentration in 50% of test species
(4 times)
Anesthesiology
(2 times)
MLAC (2 times)
CI (1 time)
LC50 (1 time)
1995 Determination of the minimum local analgesic concentrations of epidural bupivacaine and lidocaine in labor.
effective concentration at which growth was inhibited by 50
(4 times)
SDHI (2 times)
DMI (1 time)
GSB (1 time)
2012 Baseline Sensitivity and Cross-Resistance to Succinate-Dehydrogenase-Inhibiting and Demethylation-Inhibiting Fungicides in Didymella bryoniae.
effective concentration of added Pb causing 50% inhibition
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
CEC (1 time)
ECEC (1 time)
SIN (1 time)
2006 Soil factors controlling the expression of copper toxicity to plants in a wide range of European soils.
eliciting a 50% growth reduction over 96 h
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
--- 2001 Effects of the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion on growth in five freshwater species of phytoplankton.
10  effective Cd concentration resulting in 50% reduction
(3 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
EGFP (1 time)
MBC (1 time)
2018 F240 of beta2-Tubulin Explains why Fusarium graminearum is Less Sensitive to Carbendazim than Botrytis cinerea.
11  concentration causing 50% relaxation
(2 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
alpha-hANP (1 time)
AP (1 time)
CN (1 time)
1987 Vasorelaxant and natriuretic activities of synthetic atrial peptides.
12  concentrations causing 50% reduction of cell viability
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
BTEX (1 time)
HD (1 time)
2013 Hanging drop: an in vitro air toxic exposure model using human lung cells in 2D and 3D structures.
13  EC50 than white subjects
(2 times)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
Emax (1 time)
1995 Racial differences in sensitivity to the negative chronotropic effects of propranolol in healthy men.
14  effect compartment concentration at 50% block
(2 times)
Anesthesiology
(2 times)
--- 1996 Pharmacokinetic origin of carbamazepine-induced resistance to vecuronium neuromuscular blockade in anesthetized patients.
15  effective concentration affecting 50% of population
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
--- 1991 Binding of cadmium by cyanobacterial growth media: free ion concentration as a toxicity index to the cyanobacterium Nostoc UAM 208.
16  effective concentration causing 50% reduction of CPE
(2 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
AOP (1 time)
CPE (1 time)
HIV (1 time)
1996 Effects of Toluene on Microbially-Mediated Processes Involved in the Soil Nitrogen Cycle
17  effective concentration causing 50% reduction of mycelial growth
(2 times)
DON (1 time)
FHB (1 time)
2006 Biological Significance of Mefenoxam Resistance in Phytophthora erythroseptica and Its Implications for the Management of Pink Rot of Potato.
18  effective concentration for 50% scavenging
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
DPPH (1 time)
ESR (1 time)
2007 Radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching activity of marine carotenoid fucoxanthin and its metabolites.
19  effective concentration inhibiting wheat growth by 50
(2 times)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
AS (1 time)
CC50 (1 time)
GCV (1 time)
2004 Binary mixtures of (N-phosphonomethyl)-glycine with new aminophosphonates.
20  effective concentration that reduces mycelial growth by 50
(2 times)
SDHI (1 time)
2016 Sensitivity of Mycosphaerella pinodes to Pyraclostrobin Fungicide.
21  effective concentration that scavenged 50
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CPHs (1 time)
MPI (1 time)
UFs (1 time)
2014 Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.
22  effective concentration to cause 50% malformations
(2 times)
Biology
(1 time)
FETAX (1 time)
MCIG (1 time)
TI (1 time)
2005 Ethanol disrupts the formation of hypochord and dorsal aorta during the development of embryonic zebrafish.
23  effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
Cd (1 time)
DSE (1 time)
GST (1 time)
2015 Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.
24  effective concentrations of histamine causing 50% of maximum response
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 2000 Inhibitory effect of Carum copticum on histamine (H1) receptors of isolated guinea-pig tracheal chains.
25  effective concentrations reducing spore germination by 50
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
CLS (1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
QoI (1 time)
2004 Comparing the solid phase and saline extract Microtox assays for two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.
26  effective fungicide concentration to inhibit 50% of mycelial growth
(2 times)
IR (1 time)
MBC (1 time)
QoI (1 time)
2001 Resistance of Botryosphaeria dothidea from Pistachio to Iprodione.
27  emergence cough in 50
(2 times)
Geriatrics
(2 times)
Ce (2 times)
CI (2 times)
TCI (2 times)
2018 Sex-related differences in effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing anesthetic emergence cough in elderly patients.
28  estimated concentration that induced 50 % of the maximum response
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
EMAX (1 time)
OR (1 time)
PMA (1 time)
1997 Differential superoxide anion generation by equine eosinophils and neutrophils.
29  concentration causing 50% cell death
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CHO (1 time)
DT (1 time)
PA (1 time)
1995 Proteolytic activation of bacterial toxins by eukaryotic cells is performed by furin and by additional cellular proteases.
30  concentration causing 50% inhibition of the voltage
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
TALH (1 time)
1982 Effects of MK-196 and furosemide on rat medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle in vitro.
31  concentration causing 50% of maximal contraction
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1985 Effects of ergometrine on airway smooth muscle contractile responses.
32  concentration causing 50% of the maximal contractile response
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
EFS (1 time)
ES50 (1 time)
MCh (1 time)
1997 Effect of aspiration of milk on mechanisms of neural control in the airways of developing rabbits.
33  concentration causing 50% of the maximal initial rate
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
--- 2004 Potassium chloride supplementation diminishes platelet reactivity in humans.
34  concentrations causing 50% of the Emax
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 1992 Quantification of theophylline-induced eosinopenia and hypokalaemia in healthy volunteers.
35  conductivities causing 50% of growth inhibition
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
SW (1 time)
2017 Salinity induced effects on the growth rates and mycelia composition of basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.
36  E. andrei and F. candida by 50
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
TAS (1 time)
2018 Ecotoxicological impact of arsenic on earthworms and collembolans as affected by attributes of a highly weathered tropical soil.
37  each fungicide that reduced mycelial growth by 50
(1 time)
DMI (1 time)
SDHI (1 time)
2017 Sensitivity of Rhizoctonia solani to Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor and Demethylation Inhibitor Fungicides.
38  EC50 and lower responsiveness
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
AR (1 time)
1999 Trp64Arg mutation of beta3-adrenoceptor gene deteriorates lipolysis induced by beta3-adrenoceptor agonist in human omental adipocytes.
39  EC50 value of 887 muM compared to other isolates
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
MS (1 time)
NMR (1 time)
2010 Identification of a new natural vasorelaxatant compound, (+)-osbeckic acid, from rutin-free tartary buckwheat extract.
40  EC50(: 1 nmol/l, n=16) and Tac
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
AVP (1 time)
CyA (1 time)
PLCbeta (1 time)
2000 Cyclosporin-A-induced effects on the free Ca2+ concentration in LLC-PK1-cells and their mechanisms.
41  EC50(GTPgammaS); D3 = 0.10 nM; D2/D3
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
PD (1 time)
2014 Structural modifications of neuroprotective anti-Parkinsonian (-)-N6-(2-(4-(biphenyl-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine (D-264): an effort toward the improvement of in vivo efficacy of the parent molecule.
42  EC50,u
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
--- 2007 Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of seven opioids in P-glycoprotein-competent mice: assessment of unbound brain EC50,u and correlation of in vitro, preclinical, and clinical data.
43  ecotoxicity allow one to calculate the chronic terrestrial HC50
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
HSAB (1 time)
LCA (1 time)
2007 Terrestrial ecotoxicity and effect factors of metals in life cycle assessment (LCA).
44  EDS treatment than the rat, with a 50% reduction rate
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
EDS (1 time)
1994 Effects of ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) on adult and immature rabbit Leydig cells: comparison with EDS-treated rat Leydig cells.
45  effect 50%-concentration
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
RCR (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
1998 Tacrolimus decreases in vitro oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria from rat forebrain.
46  effect by 50
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
HSV-2 (1 time)
2005 Acyclovir sensitivity of sequential herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates from the genital mucosa of immunocompetent women.
47  effect compartment at 50% block
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
NMBAs (1 time)
PK/PD (1 time)
1999 Do plasma concentrations obtained from early arterial blood sampling improve pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling?
48  Effect compartment concentrations corresponding to 50% inhibition of T1
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
HPLC-EC (1 time)
PK-PD (1 time)
2006 Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of rocuronium under stable nitrous oxide-fentanyl or nitrous oxide-sevoflurane anesthesia in children.
49  effect compartment related to 50% effect
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
IC50 (1 time)
NMDA (1 time)
PFC (1 time)
2006 Effect of thiopental sodium on N-methyl-D-aspartate-gated currents.
50  effect concentration at which 50% emergence was observed
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
SD (1 time)
2010 Results of an international ring test with the dung fly Musca autumnalis in support of a new OECD test guideline.
51  effect concentration causing 50% reduction in the number of juveniles
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
ERT (1 time)
2012 Enchytraeus crypticus as model species in soil ecotoxicology.
52  effect concentration of copper that immobilized 50% of the cladocerans
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DOC (1 time)
2005 Influence of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia.
53  effect concentrations at the 50 percent effect level
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
DGT (1 time)
DOC (1 time)
2019 Effect of Various Natural Dissolved Organic Carbon on Copper Lability and Toxicity to the Tropical Freshwater Microalga Chlorella sp.
54  effect site drug level to produce 50% of Emax
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
CNS (1 time)
DSS (1 time)
Emax (1 time)
1990 Simultaneous modeling of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of benzodiazepines. I: Lorazepam.
55  effect-site concentration of propofol (g/mL) associated with a 50% probability
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
--- 2019 Investigating propofol-sufentanil interaction using clinical endpoints and processed electroencephalography: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
56  effect-site concentration of propofol in 50
(1 time)
--- 2015 Effect-site concentration of propofol required for LMA-Supreme™ insertion with and without remifentanil: a randomized controlled trial.
57  effect-site concentration producing 50% respiratory depression
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
VE50 (1 time)
2000 The pharmacodynamic effect of a remifentanil bolus on ventilatory control.
58  effecting a 50% reduction in these parameters
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 1999 Assessment of lead toxicity to the marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, and to a heterogeneous population of microorganisms derived from the Pearl River in Jackson, Mississippi, USA.
59  effective (Ca2+)o which produced a 50% potentiation
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
Icat (1 time)
1998 Facilitatory effect of Ca2+ on the noradrenaline-evoked cation current in rabbit portal vein smooth muscle cells.
60  effective aldehyde concentration that depleted GSH by 50
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
ARL (1 time)
1999 Glutathione depletion in lung cells by low-molecular-weight aldehydes.
61  effective analgesic concentration of bupivacaine in 50
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 2016 Minimum Effective Concentration of Bupivacaine in Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block after Arthroscopic Knee Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.
62  effective analyte concentration causing a 50% decrease in luminescence
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2008 Acute toxicity of thioarsenates to Vibrio fischeri.
63  effective antibody concentration for 50% viral neutralization
(1 time)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(1 time)
HIV-1 (1 time)
HIVIG (1 time)
mAbs (1 time)
1997 Synergistic neutralization of a chimeric SIV/HIV type 1 virus with combinations of human anti-HIV type 1 envelope monoclonal antibodies or hyperimmune globulins.
64  effective boceprevir-concentration inhibiting RAV growth by 50
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
HCV (1 time)
IFN (1 time)
2014 Clinical Implications of Detectable Baseline Hepatitis C Virus-Genotype 1 NS3/4A-Protease Variants on the Efficacy of Boceprevir Combined With Peginterferon/Ribavirin.
65  effective Ca++ concentration for 50 per cent activation
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
5,12 diHETEs (1 time)
5-HPETE and 5-HETE (1 time)
5-oxo-ETE (1 time)
1986 Modulation of the 5-lipoxygenase activity of MC-9 mast cells: activation by hydroperoxides.
66  effective concentration against 50% of tested nymphs
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
DEET (1 time)
RT50 (1 time)
2010 Repellent activity of DEET against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs submitted to different laboratory bioassays.
67  effective concentration associated with 50% reduction in growth
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
LC50s (1 time)
2013 Toxicity of four sulfonamide antibiotics to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca.
68  effective concentration at 50 % of maximum
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
Emax (1 time)
ORO (1 time)
2014 A population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling approach to support the clinical development of RBP-6000, a new, subcutaneously injectable, long-acting, sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine, for the treatment of opioid dependence.
69  effective concentration at 50% of the plateau value
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
BHR (1 time)
MDR (1 time)
1996 Effects of fluticasone propionate on methacholine dose-response curves in nonsmoking atopic asthmatics.
70  effective concentration at which 50% conidial germination was inhibited
(1 time)
ITS (1 time)
SHAM (1 time)
2012 First Report of the Soybean Frogeye Leaf Spot Fungus (Cercospora sojina) Resistant to Quinone Outside Inhibitor Fungicides in North America.
71  effective concentration at which the viability was reduced to 50
(1 time)
Anatomy
(1 time)
LECT (1 time)
1981 Development of a toxicity test system using primary rat liver cells.
72  effective concentration for 50% growth inhibition of the attached cells
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
--- 2001 Antifouling activities of octocorals on some marine microfoulers.
73  effective concentration for 50% helicase blockade
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1998 Anthracycline antibiotic blockade of SV40 T antigen helicase action.
74  effective concentration for 50% reduction in growth
(1 time)
CLA (1 time)
PDA (1 time)
TBZ (1 time)
2011 First Report of in vitro Fludioxonil-Resistant Isolates of Fusarium spp. Causing Potato Dry Rot in Michigan.
75  effective concentration necessary to induce 50% of maximal contraction
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
PGF2 alpha (1 time)
1989 In vitro reactivity of digital arteries and veins to vasoconstrictive mediators in healthy horses and in horses with early laminitis.
76  effective concentration of agonist to produce 50% of maximal response
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
BLA (1 time)
2005 Histaminergic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala.
77  effective concentration of DEET that repels 50% of ticks
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
DEET (1 time)
2016 Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).
78  effective concentration of drug for 50% of the increase
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
NK1R (1 time)
2005 GABA(A) receptor facilitation of neurokinin release from primary afferent terminals in the rat spinal cord.
79  effective concentration of mefenoxam providing 50% growth inhibition
(1 time)
--- 2011 Characterization of Phytophthora spp. on Floriculture Crops in North Carolina.
80  effective concentration of norepinephrine to cause a 50% maximal constriction
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
--- 2005 Decreased alpha-adrenergic constriction of renal preglomerular arteries occurs with age and is gender-specific in the rat.
81  effective concentration of remifentanil Ce in 50
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
Ce (1 time)
HR (1 time)
2015 Effect-site concentration of remifentanil for attenuating QTc interval prolongation following intubation in hypertensive female patients.
82  effective concentration required to induce 50% of the response
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1995 Striatal dopamine receptors and adenylyl cyclase activity in a rat model of alcohol addiction: effects of ethanol and lisuride treatment.
83  effective concentration required to inhibit 50% of egg hatching
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2019 In vitro anthelmintic activity and safety of different plant species against the ovine gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.
84  effective concentration required to inhibit sperm motility by 50
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
DMSO (1 time)
EG (1 time)
MET (1 time)
2018 The effects of cryoprotectants on sperm motility of the Chinese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.
85  effective concentration that caused 50% of Emax values
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
4-DAMP (1 time)
oxotremorine-M (1 time)
pFHHSiD (1 time)
2008 Muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in carbachol-induced contraction of mouse uterine smooth muscle.
86  effective concentration that inhibited 50% of conidial germination
(1 time)
QoIs (1 time)
2012 Strobilurin (QoI) Resistance in Populations of Erysiphe necator on Grapes in Michigan.
87  effective concentration that reduces the metabolic biodiversity by 50
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
PICT (1 time)
2004 Pollution-induced community tolerance of soil microbes in response to a zinc gradient.
88  effective concentration to decrease cell proliferation by 50
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
3-PPA (1 time)
BA (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2018 Chlorogenic Acid and Its Microbial Metabolites Exert Anti-Proliferative Effects, S-Phase Cell-Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Caco-2 Cells.
89  effective concentration to produce a 50% decrease in twitch height
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
--- 1983 Interactions of diisopropyl phenol (ICI 35868) with suxamethonium, vecuronium and pancuronium in vitro.
90  effective concentration values for 50% growth reduction
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
dw (1 time)
OD (1 time)
RG (1 time)
2018 Development of a high throughput optical density assay to determine fungicide sensitivity of oomycetes.
91  effective concentration where growth was reduced by 50
(1 time)
QoI (1 time)
2016 Resistance in Strawberry Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum from Florida to Quinone-Outside Inhibitor Fungicides.
92  effective concentration which decreased dV/dt max by 50
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
AP (1 time)
DD (1 time)
SA (1 time)
2013 [The involvement of lidocaine and tetrodotoxin-sensitive current in the generation of action potentials with low DV/DT max in the cells of the mouse sinoauricular region].
93  effective concentration which induces 50% platelet aggregation
(1 time)
Gastrointestinal Diseases
(1 time)
--- 2013 Platelet aggregation measurement for assessment of hemostasis failure mechanisms in patients with gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.
94  effective concentration which scavenges 50 % radical
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DPPH (1 time)
2014 Evaluation and comparison of radical scavenging properties of solvent extracts from Justicia adhatoda leaf using DPPH assay.
95  effective concentrations immobilizing 50
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AChE (1 time)
2015 Investigation of differences in sensitivity between 3 strains of Daphnia magna (crustacean Cladocera) exposed to malathion (organophosphorous pesticide).
96  effective concentrations immobilizing 50% of Daphnia magna
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2016 Acute and chronic ecotoxicity of carbaryl with a battery of aquatic bioassays.
97  effective concentrations of noradrenaline to cause 50% vasoconstriction
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
--- 2002 Effect of exposure to cigarette smoke on microvascular reactivity to noradrenaline in cremaster muscles in rats.
98  Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
1,2-DCA (1 time)
CAHs (1 time)
CF (1 time)
2014 Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.
99  effective concentrations required to inhibit 50
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
CcD (1 time)
CcEo (1 time)
EHT (1 time)
2015 Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.
100  effective concentrations that cause 50% inhibition of cell growth
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
MDR (1 time)
P-gp (1 time)
PsA (1 time)
1999 Psammaplin A, a natural phenolic compound, has inhibitory effect on human topoisomerase II and is cytotoxic to cancer cells.