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Abbreviation: GA
Appearance Frequency: 19779 time(s)
Long forms: 970

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
gestational age
(4445 times)
Pediatrics
(1234 times)
BW (693 times)
ROP (373 times)
BPD (294 times)
1978 Circumvallate placenta and intrauterine growth retardation.
general anesthesia
(2225 times)
Anesthesiology
(436 times)
LA (260 times)
RA (162 times)
SA (158 times)
1977 A comparison of general anesthesia and lumbar epidural analgesia for elective cesarean section.
genetic algorithm
(2219 times)
Medical Informatics
(305 times)
PSO (196 times)
ANN (186 times)
SVM (160 times)
1990 Genetic algorithms and evolution.
gallic acid
(1114 times)
Chemistry
(161 times)
EGCG (75 times)
ROS (74 times)
CA (57 times)
1980 Effects of toxicants on T-cell subpopulations as determined by lymphokine activity.
glutaraldehyde
(1068 times)
Biochemistry
(151 times)
SEM (68 times)
FTIR (54 times)
PVA (52 times)
1973 [Preparation of immunosorbents for viruses and rickettsia using glutaraldehyde (GA) and ethylchlorformate (EC)].
glycyrrhetinic acid
(749 times)
Pharmacology
(174 times)
GL (99 times)
HCC (25 times)
HMGB1 (23 times)
1979 Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on delta 4-5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductase in rat liver.
geographic atrophy
(707 times)
Ophthalmology
(445 times)
AMD (400 times)
RPE (125 times)
FAF (112 times)
1988 Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
gibberellic acid
(590 times)
Botany
(229 times)
ABA (226 times)
IAA (76 times)
JA (46 times)
1964 [GIBBERELLIC ACID (GA) IN ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND IN THERAPEUTICS].
glatiramer acetate
(565 times)
Neurology
(271 times)
MS (289 times)
RRMS (122 times)
EAE (50 times)
2000 Characterization of T cell lines derived from glatiramer-acetate-treated multiple sclerosis patients.
10  glycated albumin
(478 times)
Endocrinology
(111 times)
HbA1c (77 times)
FPG (40 times)
T2DM (35 times)
1984 Quantification of nonenzymically glycated albumin and total serum protein by affinity chromatography.
11  glycolic acid
(396 times)
Dermatology
(54 times)
EG (27 times)
GA I (26 times)
LA (19 times)
1967 Importance of galacturonic Acid in controlling the retting of flax.
12  gum arabic
(354 times)
Chemistry
(59 times)
MD (36 times)
SEM (15 times)
FTIR (14 times)
1982 Subchronic effects of gum arabic (Acacia) in the rat.
13  geldanamycin
(345 times)
Biochemistry
(92 times)
Hsp90 (114 times)
17-AAG (24 times)
HSP (24 times)
1995 Progesterone receptor structure and function altered by geldanamycin, an hsp90-binding agent.
14  gambogic acid
(311 times)
Pharmacology
(61 times)
ROS (19 times)
Hsp90 (9 times)
HA (8 times)
2004 Gambogic acid induces apoptosis and regulates expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 protein in human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells.
15  geriatric assessment
(262 times)
Neoplasms
(180 times)
IADL (23 times)
OS (21 times)
ADL (18 times)
1991 Medicare reimbursement for geriatric assessment: report of the American Geriatrics Society Ad Hoc Committee on Geriatrics Assessment.
16  Golgi apparatus
(238 times)
Neurology
(48 times)
ER (59 times)
AD (18 times)
RER (18 times)
1978 Histochemical studies on the morphology of the Golgi apparatus and its relation to catecholamine biosynthesis in the locus coeruleus of Rhesus and crab-eating monkeys.
17  granuloma annulare
(213 times)
Dermatology
(150 times)
NL (15 times)
DM (6 times)
AEGCG (5 times)
1977 Granuloma annulare and sarcoidosis.
18  18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid
(123 times)
Biochemistry
(27 times)
GL (16 times)
ROS (8 times)
AR (4 times)
1991 Hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin to 18 beta-glycyrrhetyl monoglucuronide by lysosomal beta-D-glucuronidase of animal livers.
19  glycidamide
(119 times)
Toxicology
(59 times)
AA (100 times)
Hb (17 times)
AAMA (10 times)
1992 Linear versus nonlinear models for hemoglobin adduct formation by acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide: implications for risk estimation.
20  gastric adenocarcinoma
(113 times)
Neoplasms
(41 times)
OS (20 times)
HR (6 times)
CT (5 times)
2004 Biological markers in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and carcinoma: the value of a scoring system.
21  gouty arthritis
(105 times)
Medicine
(19 times)
MSU (35 times)
RA (20 times)
OA (13 times)
1984 Concentrations of prostaglandins D2, E2, F2 alpha, 6-keto-F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory joint disorders and osteoarthritis.
22  gastrocnemius
(84 times)
Physiology
(23 times)
TA (43 times)
RF (16 times)
BF (15 times)
1990 Turkey muscle growth and focal myopathy.
23  glucoamylase
(66 times)
Biotechnology
(29 times)
GOx (8 times)
aa (5 times)
CD (3 times)
1983 Organ culture of the small intestine of the suckling mouse in a serum-free medium.
24  ganoderic acid
(64 times)
Microbiology
(25 times)
ROS (9 times)
HS (8 times)
WT (6 times)
2002 Two-stage culture process for improved production of ganoderic acid by liquid fermentation of higher fungus Ganoderma lucidum.
25  graphene aerogel
(63 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(17 times)
SPE (4 times)
MOF (3 times)
CV (2 times)
2013 Self-assembled Fe₂O₃/graphene aerogel with high lithium storage performance.
26  general
(56 times)
General Surgery
(17 times)
LA (18 times)
SA (12 times)
RA (11 times)
1980 Comparison of the effects of spinal anaesthesia and general anaesthesia on postoperative oxygenation and perioperative mortality.
27  glutaminase
(52 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
GDH (9 times)
GS (9 times)
Gln (4 times)
1988 Changes in glutamate-cycle enzyme mRNA levels in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy.
28  Georgia
(51 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
FL (7 times)
NC (7 times)
SC (7 times)
1982 Geographic variation in Peromyscus leucopus: short-day induced reproductive regression and spontaneous recrudescence.
29  gait analysis
(48 times)
Rehabilitation
(12 times)
CP (9 times)
GPS (4 times)
PD (3 times)
1992 Effect of captopril on functional, physiological and biochemical outcome criteria in aged heart failure patients.
30  gentisic acid
(47 times)
Pharmacology
(16 times)
SA (21 times)
SUA (9 times)
ASA (7 times)
1981 Salicylate metabolite kinetics after several salicylates.
31  gyrate atrophy
(45 times)
Ophthalmology
(22 times)
OAT (27 times)
BCVA (5 times)
RPE (3 times)
1981 Systemic manifestations of gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina.
32  genomic alterations
(44 times)
Neoplasms
(32 times)
CGP (13 times)
NGS (8 times)
ctDNA (7 times)
1997 Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in breast hyperplasia. No obligate correlation of these genetic alterations with subsequent malignancy.
33  ginkgolide A
(44 times)
Pharmacology
(16 times)
GB (26 times)
BB (14 times)
GC (12 times)
1999 Inhibitory effects of ginkgolides on nitric oxide production in neonatal rat microglia in vitro.
34  ginkgolic acid
(43 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
SUMO (5 times)
EMT (4 times)
HSV-1 (4 times)
2002 In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of alkylphenols from Ginkgo biloba L.
35  group A
(43 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
GB (35 times)
GC (9 times)
BMI (2 times)
1984 [Coronary circulation in asymmetrical hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. On a new pathogenic hypothesis].
36  gum acacia
(39 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
CKD (10 times)
FTIR (3 times)
MD (3 times)
2002 Improved survival of Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 in spray-dried powders containing gum acacia.
37  gastric aspirate
(37 times)
Pediatrics
(9 times)
TB (17 times)
NPA (7 times)
IS (6 times)
1994 Value of examination of the gastric aspirate for the diagnosis of neonatal infection.
38  gestation
(34 times)
Pediatrics
(12 times)
PNA (4 times)
BW (3 times)
PMA (3 times)
1996 The cost of prematurity: a case-control study of twins vs singletons.
39  glutaric
(31 times)
Biochemistry
(10 times)
PAH (4 times)
GDD (3 times)
MMA (3 times)
1982 Plasma and brain levels of glutamate and pyroglutamate after oral monosodium glutamate to rats.
40  general aviation
(29 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(15 times)
NTSB (7 times)
FAA (2 times)
HFACS (2 times)
2002 Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.
41  gastric atrophy
(27 times)
Gastroenterology
(13 times)
IM (13 times)
GC (8 times)
GIM (6 times)
1996 Lack of association between helicobacter pylori and gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia in elderly patients.
42  gestational age at birth
(23 times)
Pediatrics
(8 times)
BW (5 times)
ROP (3 times)
SGA (3 times)
1984 Respiratory pauses in very low risk prematurely born infants reaching normal term. A comparison to full-term newborns.
43  gait asymmetry
(22 times)
Otolaryngology
(4 times)
PCI (8 times)
vHIT (5 times)
CV (4 times)
2005 Search-coil head-thrust and caloric tests in Meniere's disease.
44  global assessment
(22 times)
Rheumatology
(5 times)
EM (5 times)
SLOE (5 times)
OR (4 times)
1999 Interobserver variability among faculty in evaluations of residents' clinical skills.
45  glyoxylic acid
(22 times)
Chemistry
(6 times)
PA (2 times)
2-ABT (1 time)
AChE (1 time)
1976 A methodological approach to rapid and sensitive monoamine histofluorescence using a modified glyoxylic acid technique: the SPG method.
46  gonial angle
(22 times)
Dentistry
(11 times)
MPA (4 times)
CBCT (3 times)
AP (2 times)
1991 The evaluation of horizontal reference planes of adult Chinese in natural head position.
47  gastric accommodation
(21 times)
Gastroenterology
(16 times)
GE (8 times)
FD (5 times)
IGP (3 times)
2010 The Reproducibility of Tc-Pertechnetate Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for Measurement of Gastric Accommodation in Healthy Humans: Evaluation of the Test Results Performed at the Same Time and Different Time of the Day.
48  graphical analysis
(21 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(8 times)
PET (8 times)
BPI (4 times)
CBF (4 times)
1999 An alternative approach to estimation of the brain perfusion index for measurement of cerebral blood flow using technetium-99m compounds.
49  Gamblers Anonymous
(20 times)
Psychology
(10 times)
PG (2 times)
AA (1 time)
ASI (1 time)
1991 Examining the relationship between spousal involvement in Gam-Anon and relapse behaviors in pathological gamblers.
50  general anesthesia alone
(20 times)
Anesthesiology
(5 times)
EA (4 times)
SA (3 times)
ECG (2 times)
1989 Combined epidural and general anesthesia versus general anesthesia in patients having colon and rectal anastomoses.
51  Gustilo-Anderson
(20 times)
Traumatology
(10 times)
CI (4 times)
HICs (2 times)
MICs (2 times)
2009 Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring in-hospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis of 4890 fractures.
52  active gibberellin
(19 times)
Botany
(11 times)
ABA (4 times)
SA (3 times)
ET (2 times)
1975 Red light induced production of gibberellin-like substances in homogenates of etiolated wheat leaves and in suspensions of intact etioplasts.
53  gluten ataxia
(19 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CD (10 times)
DH (5 times)
NCGS (5 times)
2007 Gluten ataxia: passive transfer in a mouse model.
54  Gallbladder agenesis
(15 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
MRCP (5 times)
US (3 times)
ERCP (2 times)
2010 Gallbladder agenesis and cystic duct absence in an adult patient diagnosed by magnetic resonance cholangiography: report of a case and review of the literature.
55  graft area
(15 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(3 times)
GD (3 times)
GL (3 times)
GW (3 times)
1984 Graft formation in Solanum pennellii (Solanaceae).
56  group additivity
(15 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
MS-T (2 times)
RERs (2 times)
SS-HO (2 times)
1995 Growth activity in hyperplastic and neoplastic human thyroid determined by an immunohistochemical staining procedure using monoclonal antibody MIB-1.
57  gymnemic acid
(15 times)
Biochemistry
(7 times)
GAPDH (2 times)
GS (2 times)
IR (2 times)
1996 Taste in chimpanzee: I. The summated response to sweeteners and the effect of gymnemic acid.
58  generalized anxiety
(14 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
SA (3 times)
HAMA (2 times)
SP (2 times)
1991 Parental representations of patients with panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder.
59  glucosamine
(14 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
CH (2 times)
PBA (2 times)
PEG (2 times)
1975 Genetic control of susceptibility to hydroxyproline in Drosophila.
60  gallic
(13 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
CA (2 times)
EA (2 times)
PCA (2 times)
2005 Effect of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) tea on topoisomerase inhibition and oral carcinoma cell proliferation.
61  glycosylasparaginase
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AGU (8 times)
AGA (1 time)
beta-AHA (1 time)
1995 Finnish-type aspartylglucosaminuria detected by oligonucleotide ligation assay.
62  graft arteriosclerosis
(13 times)
Transplantation
(4 times)
CMN (1 time)
ECs (1 time)
EMB (1 time)
1992 Morphology of graft arteriosclerosis in cardiac transplant recipients.
63  Gardner-Arnstein
(12 times)
Virology
(6 times)
ST (9 times)
FeSV (7 times)
FeLV (5 times)
1980 Biochemical and immunological characterization of polyproteins coded for by the McDonough, Gardner-Arnstein, and Snyder-Theilen strains of feline sarcoma virus.
64  genetically altered
(12 times)
Laboratory Animal Science
(6 times)
BC (1 time)
ddPCR (1 time)
GeMo (1 time)
2006 Assessing the welfare of genetically altered mice.
65  gomisin A
(12 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
NO (5 times)
eNOS (4 times)
ROS (3 times)
2007 Gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis induces endothelium-dependent and direct relaxation in rat thoracic aorta.
66  gadoxetic acid
(11 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
HCC (3 times)
MRI (3 times)
CI (2 times)
2016 Hepatic gadoxetic acid uptake as a measure of diffuse liver disease: Where are we?
67  Genome Analyzer
(11 times)
Science
(5 times)
SNPs (2 times)
FLX (1 time)
MAF (1 time)
2009 Hybrid selection of discrete genomic intervals on custom-designed microarrays for massively parallel sequencing.
68  gestational age at delivery
(11 times)
Endocrine System Diseases
(2 times)
BW (5 times)
SGA (3 times)
BL (2 times)
1998 Development of macronutrient composition of very preterm human milk.
69  glomerular area
(11 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
GSI (3 times)
AL (2 times)
BUN (2 times)
1993 The early effects of dietary restriction on the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in Sprague-Dawley rats at 12 months.
70  glycoalbumin
(11 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
1,5-AG (4 times)
CGM (2 times)
HbA1c (2 times)
1988 Binding and transcytosis of glycoalbumin by the microvascular endothelium of the murine myocardium: evidence that glycoalbumin behaves as a bifunctional ligand.
71  Galangin
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
QU (3 times)
AC (1 time)
alpha-SMA (1 time)
2002 Effects of flavonoids on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 and L1210 leukemia cells.
72  gastric adenoma
(10 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
GC (4 times)
CG (2 times)
IM (2 times)
1994 Long-term follow-up study of patients with gastric adenomas with malignant transformation. An immunohistochemical and histochemical analysis.
73  gelatin
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
AP (1 time)
BHA (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2011 Synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable and electroactive hydrogel based on aniline oligomer and gelatin.
74  geometric algebra
(10 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
EPR (3 times)
PIR (1 time)
SVP (1 time)
2011 Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup.
75  granulocyte agglutination
(10 times)
Hematology
(4 times)
GIF (6 times)
LC (3 times)
GC (2 times)
1981 Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes.
76  guanine-adenine
(10 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
GG (4 times)
CI (2 times)
AA (1 time)
2004 Detection of guanine-adenine mismatches by surface plasmon resonance sensor carrying naphthyridine-azaquinolone hybrid on the surface.
77  gas-phase acidity
(9 times)
Chemistry
(8 times)
CEE (1 time)
DCE (1 time)
FTICR-MS (1 time)
2009 The ever-surprising chemistry of boron: enhanced acidity of phosphine.boranes.
78  gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel
(9 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
PDAC (5 times)
OS (4 times)
PFS (3 times)
2019 Benefit of Gemcitabine/Nab-Paclitaxel Rescue of Patients With Borderline Resectable or Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma After Early Failure of FOLFIRINOX.
79  gene amplification
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
IHC (5 times)
GCN (3 times)
FISH (2 times)
1991 The dynamics of gene amplification described as a multitype compartmental model and as a branching process.
80  genetic advance
(9 times)
Food
(2 times)
GCV (2 times)
CV (1 time)
DPP (1 time)
2001 Variability, heritability and genetic advance in pheno-morphic and agronomic traits of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] germplasm from eight regions of Ethiopia.
81  genioglossus advancement
(9 times)
Otolaryngology
(5 times)
OSA (7 times)
MMA (4 times)
UPPP (4 times)
2000 Fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy for airway monitoring after obstructive sleep apnea surgery.
82  geniposidic acid
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
CA (4 times)
AN (2 times)
AU (2 times)
1997 Comparisons of geniposidic acid and geniposide on antitumor and radioprotection after sublethal irradiation.
83  geodesic anisotropy
(9 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
DTI (8 times)
FA (6 times)
MD (4 times)
2006 Fiber tract-oriented statistics for quantitative diffusion tensor MRI analysis.
84  Gibson assembly
(9 times)
Virology
(6 times)
AIO (1 time)
BGMV (1 time)
BiFC (1 time)
2014 Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.
85  Gold Anchor
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CT (3 times)
GM (3 times)
MRI (2 times)
2017 Comparison of MRI visualization between linearly placed iron-containing and non-iron-containing fiducial markers for prostate radiotherapy.
86  gonarthrosis
(9 times)
Therapeutics
(3 times)
OA (2 times)
ASG (1 time)
BC (1 time)
1994 Bone mineral distribution of the proximal tibia in gonarthrosis assessed in vivo by photon absorption.
87  Granulocytic anaplasmosis
(9 times)
Communicable Diseases
(5 times)
PCR (3 times)
IFA (1 time)
LD (1 time)
2007 Differential exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent species in northern California.
88  growth regulator gibberellin
(9 times)
Science
(3 times)
pkl (2 times)
CK (1 time)
FT (1 time)
1997 Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant.
89  guanidinium
(9 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
FA (3 times)
MA (3 times)
EA (2 times)
2016 Structure-Band Gap Relationships in Hexagonal Polytypes and Low-Dimensional Structures of Hybrid Tin Iodide Perovskites.
90  gangliosides
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
BDNF (1 time)
CML (1 time)
CREAE (1 time)
1988 Characterization of the antinociceptive effects of a ganglioside derivative in rodents.
91  Gelidium amansii
(8 times)
Food Analysis
(4 times)
HF (4 times)
Con (2 times)
TC (2 times)
2014 Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.
92  glufosinate-ammonium
(8 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
GLY (2 times)
AChE (1 time)
CbE (1 time)
2002 Glufosinate-ammonium reduces growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.
93  golden angle
(8 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(6 times)
CMT (1 time)
CT (1 time)
DCE (1 time)
2015 Self-gated tissue phase mapping using golden angle radial sparse SENSE.
94  graded activity
(8 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
LBP (4 times)
EXP (2 times)
RCTs (2 times)
2006 Substantial sick-leave costs savings due to a graded activity intervention for workers with non-specific sub-acute low back pain.
95  growth anomaly
(8 times)
Biology
(4 times)
BGC (1 time)
BrB (1 time)
CCWS (1 time)
2012 Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases.
96  L-glutamic acid and L-alanine
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
GT (5 times)
GAT (2 times)
Ir (2 times)
1971 Specific immune response genes of the guinea pig. 3. Linkage of the GA and GT immune response genes to histocompatibility genotypes in inbred guinea pigs.
97  gemistocytic astrocytoma
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
FA (2 times)
PA (2 times)
AIB (1 time)
1983 Regional blood-to-tissue transport in avian sarcoma virus (ASV)-induced brain tumors.
98  generalized anisotropy
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
FA (3 times)
SE (3 times)
GDTI (2 times)
2007 Elevating tensor rank increases anisotropy in brain areas associated with intra-voxel orientational heterogeneity (IVOH): a generalised DTI (GDTI) study.
99  genetic ancestry
(7 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
T1D (3 times)
eGFR (2 times)
AIMs (1 time)
2018 Self-reported color-race and genomic ancestry in an admixed population: A contribution of a nationwide survey in patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil.
100  globally amphiphilic
(7 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
non-GA (2 times)
AFM (1 time)
betaArg (1 time)
2009 Sequence-directed organization of beta-peptides in self-assembled monolayers.