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Abbreviation: GA
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Long forms: 912

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
gestational age
(3962 times)
Pediatrics
(1114 times)
BW (603 times)
ROP (312 times)
BPD (263 times)
1978 Circumvallate placenta and intrauterine growth retardation.
general anesthesia
(1959 times)
Anesthesiology
(411 times)
LA (237 times)
SA (141 times)
RA (133 times)
1977 A comparison of general anesthesia and lumbar epidural analgesia for elective cesarean section.
genetic algorithm
(1905 times)
Medical Informatics
(270 times)
ANN (163 times)
PSO (142 times)
SVM (142 times)
1990 Genetic algorithms and evolution.
glutaraldehyde
(991 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(147 times)
SEM (62 times)
FTIR (51 times)
PVA (44 times)
1973 [Preparation of immunosorbents for viruses and rickettsia using glutaraldehyde (GA) and ethylchlorformate (EC)].
gallic acid
(936 times)
Chemistry
(142 times)
EGCG (67 times)
ROS (63 times)
CA (42 times)
1980 Effects of toxicants on T-cell subpopulations as determined by lymphokine activity.
glycyrrhetinic acid
(661 times)
Pharmacology
(163 times)
GL (94 times)
HCC (23 times)
ROS (19 times)
1979 Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on delta 4-5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductase in rat liver.
geographic atrophy
(638 times)
Ophthalmology
(420 times)
AMD (365 times)
RPE (115 times)
FAF (105 times)
1988 Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
glatiramer acetate
(541 times)
Neurology
(264 times)
MS (277 times)
RRMS (120 times)
EAE (46 times)
2000 Characterization of T cell lines derived from glatiramer-acetate-treated multiple sclerosis patients.
gibberellic acid
(512 times)
Botany
(213 times)
ABA (195 times)
IAA (59 times)
SA (38 times)
1964 [GIBBERELLIC ACID (GA) IN ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND IN THERAPEUTICS].
10  glycated albumin
(440 times)
Endocrinology
(108 times)
HbA1c (73 times)
FPG (38 times)
T2DM (31 times)
1984 Quantification of nonenzymically glycated albumin and total serum protein by affinity chromatography.
11  glycolic acid
(371 times)
Dermatology
(51 times)
GA I (26 times)
EG (25 times)
LA (17 times)
1967 Importance of galacturonic Acid in controlling the retting of flax.
12  geldanamycin
(340 times)
Biochemistry
(90 times)
Hsp90 (113 times)
17-AAG (23 times)
HSP (23 times)
1995 Progesterone receptor structure and function altered by geldanamycin, an hsp90-binding agent.
13  gum arabic
(291 times)
Chemistry
(50 times)
MD (30 times)
SEM (14 times)
FTIR (13 times)
1982 Subchronic effects of gum arabic (Acacia) in the rat.
14  gambogic acid
(284 times)
Neoplasms
(57 times)
ROS (17 times)
HA (8 times)
Hsp90 (7 times)
2004 Gambogic acid induces apoptosis and regulates expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 protein in human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells.
15  Golgi apparatus
(224 times)
Neurology
(48 times)
ER (56 times)
AD (18 times)
RER (18 times)
1978 Histochemical studies on the morphology of the Golgi apparatus and its relation to catecholamine biosynthesis in the locus coeruleus of Rhesus and crab-eating monkeys.
16  geriatric assessment
(215 times)
Neoplasms
(147 times)
IADL (20 times)
OS (17 times)
ADL (15 times)
1991 Medicare reimbursement for geriatric assessment: report of the American Geriatrics Society Ad Hoc Committee on Geriatrics Assessment.
17  granuloma annulare
(203 times)
Dermatology
(147 times)
NL (14 times)
AEGCG (5 times)
GGA (5 times)
1977 Granuloma annulare and sarcoidosis.
18  glycidamide
(114 times)
Toxicology
(56 times)
AA (96 times)
Hb (17 times)
AAMA (10 times)
1992 Linear versus nonlinear models for hemoglobin adduct formation by acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide: implications for risk estimation.
19  18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid
(111 times)
Biochemistry
(25 times)
GL (15 times)
ROS (8 times)
AR (4 times)
1991 Hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin to 18 beta-glycyrrhetyl monoglucuronide by lysosomal beta-D-glucuronidase of animal livers.
20  gastric adenocarcinoma
(99 times)
Neoplasms
(37 times)
OS (18 times)
HR (6 times)
IHC (5 times)
2004 Biological markers in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and carcinoma: the value of a scoring system.
21  gouty arthritis
(82 times)
Medicine
(17 times)
MSU (25 times)
RA (19 times)
OA (13 times)
1984 Concentrations of prostaglandins D2, E2, F2 alpha, 6-keto-F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory joint disorders and osteoarthritis.
22  gastrocnemius
(76 times)
Physiology
(23 times)
TA (39 times)
RF (16 times)
BF (15 times)
1990 Turkey muscle growth and focal myopathy.
23  glucoamylase
(62 times)
Biotechnology
(28 times)
GOx (6 times)
aa (5 times)
CD (3 times)
1983 Organ culture of the small intestine of the suckling mouse in a serum-free medium.
24  general
(54 times)
General Surgery
(16 times)
LA (16 times)
SA (12 times)
RA (11 times)
1980 Comparison of the effects of spinal anaesthesia and general anaesthesia on postoperative oxygenation and perioperative mortality.
25  graphene aerogel
(53 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(16 times)
SPE (3 times)
GOLC (2 times)
Li-S (2 times)
2013 Self-assembled Fe₂O₃/graphene aerogel with high lithium storage performance.
26  ganoderic acid
(52 times)
Microbiology
(22 times)
ROS (7 times)
HS (6 times)
MeJA (4 times)
2002 Two-stage culture process for improved production of ganoderic acid by liquid fermentation of higher fungus Ganoderma lucidum.
27  glutaminase
(50 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
GDH (9 times)
GS (8 times)
Gln (4 times)
1988 Changes in glutamate-cycle enzyme mRNA levels in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy.
28  gait analysis
(46 times)
Rehabilitation
(12 times)
CP (9 times)
GPS (4 times)
PD (3 times)
1992 Effect of captopril on functional, physiological and biochemical outcome criteria in aged heart failure patients.
29  Georgia
(45 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
FL (6 times)
NC (6 times)
AZ (5 times)
1982 Geographic variation in Peromyscus leucopus: short-day induced reproductive regression and spontaneous recrudescence.
30  gyrate atrophy
(44 times)
Ophthalmology
(22 times)
OAT (27 times)
BCVA (5 times)
RPE (3 times)
1981 Systemic manifestations of gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina.
31  gentisic acid
(43 times)
Pharmacology
(16 times)
SA (20 times)
SUA (9 times)
ASA (7 times)
1981 Salicylate metabolite kinetics after several salicylates.
32  ginkgolide A
(41 times)
Pharmacology
(15 times)
GB (25 times)
BB (13 times)
GC (11 times)
1999 Inhibitory effects of ginkgolides on nitric oxide production in neonatal rat microglia in vitro.
33  group A
(39 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
GB (33 times)
GC (8 times)
BMI (2 times)
1984 [Coronary circulation in asymmetrical hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. On a new pathogenic hypothesis].
34  genomic alterations
(37 times)
Neoplasms
(28 times)
CGP (10 times)
ctDNA (7 times)
NGS (6 times)
1997 Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in breast hyperplasia. No obligate correlation of these genetic alterations with subsequent malignancy.
35  gum acacia
(37 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
CKD (10 times)
FTIR (3 times)
MD (3 times)
2002 Improved survival of Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 in spray-dried powders containing gum acacia.
36  gastric aspirate
(36 times)
Pediatrics
(9 times)
TB (16 times)
NPA (7 times)
IS (6 times)
1994 Value of examination of the gastric aspirate for the diagnosis of neonatal infection.
37  ginkgolic acid
(36 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
HSV-1 (4 times)
EMT (3 times)
SUMO (3 times)
2002 In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of alkylphenols from Ginkgo biloba L.
38  gestation
(30 times)
Pediatrics
(10 times)
BW (3 times)
PMA (3 times)
PNA (3 times)
1996 The cost of prematurity: a case-control study of twins vs singletons.
39  glutaric
(30 times)
Biochemistry
(10 times)
PAH (4 times)
GDD (3 times)
MMA (3 times)
1982 Plasma and brain levels of glutamate and pyroglutamate after oral monosodium glutamate to rats.
40  general aviation
(27 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(15 times)
NTSB (6 times)
FAA (2 times)
NEXRAD (2 times)
2002 Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.
41  gastric atrophy
(22 times)
Gastroenterology
(13 times)
IM (10 times)
GC (7 times)
GIM (4 times)
1996 Lack of association between helicobacter pylori and gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia in elderly patients.
42  graphical analysis
(21 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(8 times)
PET (8 times)
BPI (4 times)
CBF (4 times)
1999 An alternative approach to estimation of the brain perfusion index for measurement of cerebral blood flow using technetium-99m compounds.
43  Gamblers Anonymous
(20 times)
Psychology
(10 times)
PG (2 times)
AA (1 time)
ASI (1 time)
1991 Examining the relationship between spousal involvement in Gam-Anon and relapse behaviors in pathological gamblers.
44  gastric accommodation
(20 times)
Gastroenterology
(15 times)
GE (7 times)
FD (5 times)
IGP (3 times)
2010 The Reproducibility of Tc-Pertechnetate Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for Measurement of Gastric Accommodation in Healthy Humans: Evaluation of the Test Results Performed at the Same Time and Different Time of the Day.
45  general anesthesia alone
(20 times)
Anesthesiology
(5 times)
EA (4 times)
SA (3 times)
ECG (2 times)
1989 Combined epidural and general anesthesia versus general anesthesia in patients having colon and rectal anastomoses.
46  gestational age at birth
(20 times)
Pediatrics
(8 times)
BW (5 times)
ROP (3 times)
BPD (2 times)
1984 Respiratory pauses in very low risk prematurely born infants reaching normal term. A comparison to full-term newborns.
47  global assessment
(20 times)
Rheumatology
(5 times)
OR (4 times)
EM (3 times)
PD (3 times)
1999 Interobserver variability among faculty in evaluations of residents' clinical skills.
48  gonial angle
(20 times)
Dentistry
(10 times)
MPA (4 times)
CBCT (2 times)
FH (2 times)
1991 The evaluation of horizontal reference planes of adult Chinese in natural head position.
49  gait asymmetry
(19 times)
Otolaryngology
(4 times)
PCI (7 times)
vHIT (4 times)
CV (3 times)
2005 Search-coil head-thrust and caloric tests in Meniere's disease.
50  glyoxylic acid
(19 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
PA (2 times)
2-ABT (1 time)
AChE (1 time)
1976 A methodological approach to rapid and sensitive monoamine histofluorescence using a modified glyoxylic acid technique: the SPG method.
51  gluten ataxia
(18 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CD (10 times)
DH (5 times)
NCGS (5 times)
2007 Gluten ataxia: passive transfer in a mouse model.
52  active gibberellin
(17 times)
Botany
(11 times)
ABA (4 times)
ET (2 times)
AMF (1 time)
1975 Red light induced production of gibberellin-like substances in homogenates of etiolated wheat leaves and in suspensions of intact etioplasts.
53  Gustilo-Anderson
(17 times)
Traumatology
(9 times)
CI (4 times)
ALT (1 time)
DRI (1 time)
2009 Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring in-hospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis of 4890 fractures.
54  group additivity
(15 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
MS-T (2 times)
RERs (2 times)
SS-HO (2 times)
1995 Growth activity in hyperplastic and neoplastic human thyroid determined by an immunohistochemical staining procedure using monoclonal antibody MIB-1.
55  glucosamine
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
CH (2 times)
PBA (2 times)
PEG (2 times)
1975 Genetic control of susceptibility to hydroxyproline in Drosophila.
56  glycosylasparaginase
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AGU (8 times)
AGA (1 time)
beta-AHA (1 time)
1995 Finnish-type aspartylglucosaminuria detected by oligonucleotide ligation assay.
57  graft arteriosclerosis
(13 times)
Transplantation
(4 times)
CMN (1 time)
ECs (1 time)
EMB (1 time)
1992 Morphology of graft arteriosclerosis in cardiac transplant recipients.
58  gymnemic acid
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
GAPDH (2 times)
GS (2 times)
IR (2 times)
1996 Taste in chimpanzee: I. The summated response to sweeteners and the effect of gymnemic acid.
59  Gardner-Arnstein
(12 times)
Virology
(6 times)
ST (9 times)
FeSV (7 times)
FeLV (5 times)
1980 Biochemical and immunological characterization of polyproteins coded for by the McDonough, Gardner-Arnstein, and Snyder-Theilen strains of feline sarcoma virus.
60  generalized anxiety
(12 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
HAMA (2 times)
SA (2 times)
SP (2 times)
1991 Parental representations of patients with panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder.
61  genetically altered
(12 times)
Laboratory Animal Science
(6 times)
BC (1 time)
ddPCR (1 time)
GeMo (1 time)
2006 Assessing the welfare of genetically altered mice.
62  Gallbladder agenesis
(11 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
MRCP (4 times)
HIDA (2 times)
US (2 times)
2010 Gallbladder agenesis and cystic duct absence in an adult patient diagnosed by magnetic resonance cholangiography: report of a case and review of the literature.
63  gallic
(11 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
CA (2 times)
PCA (2 times)
ATR-FTIR (1 time)
2005 Effect of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) tea on topoisomerase inhibition and oral carcinoma cell proliferation.
64  Genome Analyzer
(11 times)
Science
(5 times)
SNPs (2 times)
FLX (1 time)
MAF (1 time)
2009 Hybrid selection of discrete genomic intervals on custom-designed microarrays for massively parallel sequencing.
65  glomerular area
(11 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
GSI (3 times)
AL (2 times)
BUN (2 times)
1993 The early effects of dietary restriction on the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in Sprague-Dawley rats at 12 months.
66  glycoalbumin
(11 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
1,5-AG (4 times)
CGM (2 times)
HbA1c (2 times)
1988 Binding and transcytosis of glycoalbumin by the microvascular endothelium of the murine myocardium: evidence that glycoalbumin behaves as a bifunctional ligand.
67  Galangin
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
QU (3 times)
AC (1 time)
alpha-SMA (1 time)
2002 Effects of flavonoids on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 and L1210 leukemia cells.
68  gastric adenoma
(10 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
GC (4 times)
CG (2 times)
IM (2 times)
1994 Long-term follow-up study of patients with gastric adenomas with malignant transformation. An immunohistochemical and histochemical analysis.
69  gestational age at delivery
(10 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
BW (4 times)
BL (2 times)
SGA (2 times)
1998 Development of macronutrient composition of very preterm human milk.
70  granulocyte agglutination
(10 times)
Hematology
(4 times)
GIF (6 times)
LC (3 times)
GC (2 times)
1981 Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes.
71  guanine-adenine
(10 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
GG (4 times)
CI (2 times)
AA (1 time)
2004 Detection of guanine-adenine mismatches by surface plasmon resonance sensor carrying naphthyridine-azaquinolone hybrid on the surface.
72  gas-phase acidity
(9 times)
Chemistry
(8 times)
CEE (1 time)
DCE (1 time)
FTICR-MS (1 time)
2009 The ever-surprising chemistry of boron: enhanced acidity of phosphine.boranes.
73  gene amplification
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
IHC (5 times)
GCN (3 times)
FISH (2 times)
1991 The dynamics of gene amplification described as a multitype compartmental model and as a branching process.
74  geniposidic acid
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
CA (4 times)
AN (2 times)
AU (2 times)
1997 Comparisons of geniposidic acid and geniposide on antitumor and radioprotection after sublethal irradiation.
75  gomisin A
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
NO (5 times)
eNOS (4 times)
Ang II (2 times)
2007 Gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis induces endothelium-dependent and direct relaxation in rat thoracic aorta.
76  gonarthrosis
(9 times)
Therapeutics
(3 times)
OA (2 times)
ASG (1 time)
BC (1 time)
1994 Bone mineral distribution of the proximal tibia in gonarthrosis assessed in vivo by photon absorption.
77  graft area
(9 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
GD (2 times)
GL (2 times)
GW (2 times)
1984 Graft formation in Solanum pennellii (Solanaceae).
78  Granulocytic anaplasmosis
(9 times)
Communicable Diseases
(5 times)
PCR (3 times)
IFA (1 time)
LD (1 time)
2007 Differential exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent species in northern California.
79  gangliosides
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
BDNF (1 time)
CML (1 time)
CREAE (1 time)
1988 Characterization of the antinociceptive effects of a ganglioside derivative in rodents.
80  genioglossus advancement
(8 times)
Otolaryngology
(5 times)
OSA (6 times)
UPPP (4 times)
ESS (3 times)
2000 Fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy for airway monitoring after obstructive sleep apnea surgery.
81  geodesic anisotropy
(8 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
DTI (7 times)
FA (5 times)
MD (3 times)
2006 Fiber tract-oriented statistics for quantitative diffusion tensor MRI analysis.
82  geometric algebra
(8 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
EPR (3 times)
PIR (1 time)
SVP (1 time)
2011 Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup.
83  Gibson assembly
(8 times)
Virology
(6 times)
BGMV (1 time)
BRMV (1 time)
hEF1alpha (1 time)
2014 Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.
84  Gold Anchor
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CT (3 times)
GM (3 times)
MRI (2 times)
2017 Comparison of MRI visualization between linearly placed iron-containing and non-iron-containing fiducial markers for prostate radiotherapy.
85  graded activity
(8 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
LBP (4 times)
EXP (2 times)
RCTs (2 times)
2006 Substantial sick-leave costs savings due to a graded activity intervention for workers with non-specific sub-acute low back pain.
86  growth anomaly
(8 times)
Biology
(4 times)
BGC (1 time)
BrB (1 time)
CCWS (1 time)
2012 Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases.
87  L-glutamic acid and L-alanine
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
GT (5 times)
GAT (2 times)
Ir (2 times)
1971 Specific immune response genes of the guinea pig. 3. Linkage of the GA and GT immune response genes to histocompatibility genotypes in inbred guinea pigs.
88  gadoxetic acid
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
CLD (2 times)
eGFR (2 times)
HBP (2 times)
2016 Hepatic gadoxetic acid uptake as a measure of diffuse liver disease: Where are we?
89  gemistocytic astrocytoma
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
FA (2 times)
PA (2 times)
AIB (1 time)
1983 Regional blood-to-tissue transport in avian sarcoma virus (ASV)-induced brain tumors.
90  general advice
(7 times)
Food
(2 times)
CV (1 time)
DPP (1 time)
DT50FL (1 time)
2001 Variability, heritability and genetic advance in pheno-morphic and agronomic traits of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] germplasm from eight regions of Ethiopia.
91  generalized anisotropy
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
FA (3 times)
SE (3 times)
GDTI (2 times)
2007 Elevating tensor rank increases anisotropy in brain areas associated with intra-voxel orientational heterogeneity (IVOH): a generalised DTI (GDTI) study.
92  globally amphiphilic
(7 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
non-GA (2 times)
AFM (1 time)
betaArg (1 time)
2009 Sequence-directed organization of beta-peptides in self-assembled monolayers.
93  glufosinate-ammonium
(7 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
GLY (2 times)
AChE (1 time)
CbE (1 time)
2002 Glufosinate-ammonium reduces growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.
94  glutaric anhydride
(7 times)
Macromolecular Substances
(1 time)
FN (2 times)
DMA (1 time)
ECs (1 time)
1992 The acute toxicity, primary irritancy and skin sensitizing potential of glutaric anhydride.
95  glycine-alanine
(7 times)
Neurosciences
(2 times)
GR (5 times)
FTD (4 times)
GP (4 times)
2003 Inhibition of ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a Gly-Ala repeat.
96  glycoalkaloid
(7 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
GFS (1 time)
OAP (1 time)
PGR (1 time)
2001 Interactions of aphid herbivory and nitrogen availability on the total foliar glycoalkaloid content of potato plants.
97  golden angle
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(6 times)
CMT (1 time)
DCE (1 time)
FWMRI (1 time)
2015 Self-gated tissue phase mapping using golden angle radial sparse SENSE.
98  Gracilis arteries
(7 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
20-HETE (5 times)
17-ODYA (4 times)
CP450 (4 times)
2001 20-HETE modulates myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from hypertensive Dahl-SS rats.
99  growth regulator gibberellin
(7 times)
Science
(2 times)
pkl (2 times)
CK (1 time)
FT (1 time)
1997 Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant.
100  galanin
(6 times)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
AVP (1 time)
ChAT (1 time)
CNS (1 time)
1985 Immunohistochemical mapping of galanin-like neurons in the rat central nervous system.