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Abbreviation: GA
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Long forms: 792

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
gestational age
(3204 times)
Pediatrics
(932 times)
BW (485 times)
ROP (255 times)
BPD (219 times)
1978 Circumvallate placenta and intrauterine growth retardation.
general anesthesia
(1508 times)
Anesthesiology
(357 times)
LA (197 times)
SA (102 times)
RA (97 times)
0 Does Local Soft Tissue Infiltration With a Liposomal Bupivacaine Cocktail Have a Synergistic Effect When Combined With Single-Shot Adductor Canal Peripheral Nerve Block in Knee Arthroplasty?
genetic algorithm
(1485 times)
Medical Informatics
(240 times)
ANN (117 times)
SVM (111 times)
PLS (94 times)
1990 Genetic algorithms and evolution.
glutaraldehyde
(869 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(134 times)
SEM (52 times)
FTIR (43 times)
PEI (37 times)
1973 [Preparation of immunosorbents for viruses and rickettsia using glutaraldehyde (GA) and ethylchlorformate (EC)].
gallic acid
(701 times)
Chemistry
(99 times)
EGCG (53 times)
ROS (53 times)
TA (33 times)
1980 Effects of toxicants on T-cell subpopulations as determined by lymphokine activity.
glycyrrhetinic acid
(525 times)
Pharmacology
(143 times)
GL (78 times)
HCC (16 times)
IL (15 times)
1979 Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on delta 4-5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductase in rat liver.
glatiramer acetate
(489 times)
Neurology
(252 times)
MS (254 times)
RRMS (108 times)
IFN-beta (65 times)
2000 Characterization of T cell lines derived from glatiramer-acetate-treated multiple sclerosis patients.
geographic atrophy
(480 times)
Ophthalmology
(340 times)
AMD (283 times)
RPE (93 times)
FAF (86 times)
1988 Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
gibberellic acid
(406 times)
Botany
(181 times)
ABA (154 times)
IAA (42 times)
SA (27 times)
1964 [GIBBERELLIC ACID (GA) IN ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND IN THERAPEUTICS].
10  glycated albumin
(362 times)
Endocrinology
(92 times)
HbA1c (55 times)
FPG (33 times)
T2DM (25 times)
1984 Quantification of nonenzymically glycated albumin and total serum protein by affinity chromatography.
11  geldanamycin
(329 times)
Biochemistry
(89 times)
Hsp90 (109 times)
HSP (23 times)
17-AAG (22 times)
1995 Progesterone receptor structure and function altered by geldanamycin, an hsp90-binding agent.
12  glycolic acid
(307 times)
Dermatology
(43 times)
EG (25 times)
GA I (24 times)
GCDH (14 times)
1967 Importance of galacturonic Acid in controlling the retting of flax.
13  gambogic acid
(243 times)
Pharmacology
(51 times)
ROS (13 times)
HA (8 times)
MM (5 times)
2004 Gambogic acid induces apoptosis and regulates expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 protein in human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells.
14  gum arabic
(204 times)
Chemistry
(40 times)
MD (14 times)
SEM (9 times)
CMC (8 times)
1982 Subchronic effects of gum arabic (Acacia) in the rat.
15  Golgi apparatus
(202 times)
Neurology
(47 times)
ER (47 times)
RER (18 times)
AD (16 times)
1978 Histochemical studies on the morphology of the Golgi apparatus and its relation to catecholamine biosynthesis in the locus coeruleus of Rhesus and crab-eating monkeys.
16  granuloma annulare
(179 times)
Dermatology
(136 times)
NL (12 times)
GGA (5 times)
AEGCG (4 times)
1977 Granuloma annulare and sarcoidosis.
17  geriatric assessment
(150 times)
Neoplasms
(97 times)
IADL (14 times)
OS (13 times)
ADL (12 times)
1991 Medicare reimbursement for geriatric assessment: report of the American Geriatrics Society Ad Hoc Committee on Geriatrics Assessment.
18  glycidamide
(105 times)
Toxicology
(51 times)
AA (88 times)
Hb (16 times)
AAMA (9 times)
1992 Linear versus nonlinear models for hemoglobin adduct formation by acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide: implications for risk estimation.
19  18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid
(93 times)
Biochemistry
(20 times)
GL (14 times)
ROS (4 times)
AR (3 times)
1991 Hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin to 18 beta-glycyrrhetyl monoglucuronide by lysosomal beta-D-glucuronidase of animal livers.
20  gastric adenocarcinoma
(74 times)
Neoplasms
(30 times)
OS (13 times)
HR (4 times)
IHC (4 times)
2004 Biological markers in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and carcinoma: the value of a scoring system.
21  gastrocnemius
(69 times)
Physiology
(23 times)
TA (38 times)
BF (15 times)
RF (15 times)
1990 Turkey muscle growth and focal myopathy.
22  glucoamylase
(55 times)
Biotechnology
(24 times)
aa (4 times)
GOx (4 times)
Con A (2 times)
1983 Organ culture of the small intestine of the suckling mouse in a serum-free medium.
23  gouty arthritis
(48 times)
Medicine
(13 times)
RA (17 times)
OA (13 times)
MSU (11 times)
1984 Concentrations of prostaglandins D2, E2, F2 alpha, 6-keto-F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory joint disorders and osteoarthritis.
24  general
(47 times)
General Surgery
(15 times)
LA (13 times)
RA (11 times)
SA (8 times)
1980 Comparison of the effects of spinal anaesthesia and general anaesthesia on postoperative oxygenation and perioperative mortality.
25  glutaminase
(47 times)
Physiology
(13 times)
GDH (9 times)
GS (7 times)
PEPCK (4 times)
1988 Changes in glutamate-cycle enzyme mRNA levels in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy.
26  gait analysis
(44 times)
Rehabilitation
(11 times)
CP (9 times)
GPS (3 times)
PD (3 times)
1992 Effect of captopril on functional, physiological and biochemical outcome criteria in aged heart failure patients.
27  ganoderic acid
(40 times)
Microbiology
(15 times)
HS (5 times)
HMGR (3 times)
MeJA (3 times)
2002 Two-stage culture process for improved production of ganoderic acid by liquid fermentation of higher fungus Ganoderma lucidum.
28  Georgia
(38 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
FL (6 times)
NC (6 times)
LA (5 times)
1982 Geographic variation in Peromyscus leucopus: short-day induced reproductive regression and spontaneous recrudescence.
29  graphene aerogel
(38 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(14 times)
GOLC (2 times)
MOF (2 times)
SPE (2 times)
2013 Self-assembled Fe₂O₃/graphene aerogel with high lithium storage performance.
30  gyrate atrophy
(38 times)
Ophthalmology
(19 times)
OAT (25 times)
BCVA (4 times)
RPE (3 times)
1981 Systemic manifestations of gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina.
31  ginkgolide A
(37 times)
Pharmacology
(14 times)
GB (24 times)
BB (12 times)
GC (10 times)
1998 Inhibitory effects of ginkgolides on nitric oxide production in neonatal rat microglia in vitro.
32  gentisic acid
(36 times)
Pharmacology
(16 times)
SA (20 times)
SUA (9 times)
ASA (6 times)
1981 Salicylate metabolite kinetics after several salicylates.
33  group A
(32 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
GB (27 times)
GC (7 times)
BMI (2 times)
1984 [Coronary circulation in asymmetrical hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. On a new pathogenic hypothesis].
34  gastric aspirate
(29 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
TB (11 times)
IS (5 times)
NPA (5 times)
0 Detection of the etiological agents of hospital-acquired pneumonia - validity and comparison of different types of biological sample collection: a prospective, observational study in intensive care patients.
35  glutaric
(29 times)
Biochemistry
(10 times)
PAH (4 times)
GDD (3 times)
MMA (3 times)
1982 Plasma and brain levels of glutamate and pyroglutamate after oral monosodium glutamate to rats.
36  gum acacia
(28 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
CKD (8 times)
FTIR (3 times)
CRF (2 times)
2002 Improved survival of Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 in spray-dried powders containing gum acacia.
37  genomic alterations
(27 times)
Neoplasms
(20 times)
CGP (7 times)
CRGA (5 times)
NGS (5 times)
1997 Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in breast hyperplasia. No obligate correlation of these genetic alterations with subsequent malignancy.
38  gestation
(26 times)
Pediatrics
(8 times)
NICU (3 times)
PMA (3 times)
PNA (3 times)
1996 The cost of prematurity: a case-control study of twins vs singletons.
39  general aviation
(23 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(12 times)
NTSB (5 times)
FAA (2 times)
NEXRAD (2 times)
2002 Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.
40  ginkgolic acid
(21 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
SUMO (2 times)
ACC (1 time)
ACP (1 time)
2002 In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of alkylphenols from Ginkgo biloba L.
41  graphical analysis
(20 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(7 times)
PET (8 times)
BPI (4 times)
CBF (4 times)
1999 An alternative approach to estimation of the brain perfusion index for measurement of cerebral blood flow using technetium-99m compounds.
42  Gamblers Anonymous
(19 times)
Psychology
(9 times)
PG (2 times)
AA (1 time)
ASI (1 time)
1991 Examining the relationship between spousal involvement in Gam-Anon and relapse behaviors in pathological gamblers.
43  gastric atrophy
(19 times)
Gastroenterology
(10 times)
IM (8 times)
GC (7 times)
H. pylori (4 times)
1996 Lack of association between helicobacter pylori and gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia in elderly patients.
44  global assessment
(17 times)
Rheumatology
(5 times)
CI (2 times)
EM (2 times)
ES (2 times)
1999 Interobserver variability among faculty in evaluations of residents' clinical skills.
45  glyoxylic acid
(17 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
PA (2 times)
AChE (1 time)
AEM (1 time)
1976 A methodological approach to rapid and sensitive monoamine histofluorescence using a modified glyoxylic acid technique: the SPG method.
46  gonial angle
(17 times)
Dentistry
(9 times)
MPA (4 times)
CBCT (2 times)
FH (2 times)
1991 The evaluation of horizontal reference planes of adult Chinese in natural head position.
47  general anesthesia alone
(16 times)
Anesthesiology
(5 times)
EA (4 times)
SA (3 times)
ECG (2 times)
1989 Combined epidural and general anesthesia versus general anesthesia in patients having colon and rectal anastomoses.
48  active gibberellin
(14 times)
Botany
(8 times)
ABA (3 times)
ET (2 times)
AMF (1 time)
1975 Red light induced production of gibberellin-like substances in homogenates of etiolated wheat leaves and in suspensions of intact etioplasts.
49  gestational age at birth
(14 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
BW (5 times)
ROP (3 times)
BPD (2 times)
1984 Respiratory pauses in very low risk prematurely born infants reaching normal term. A comparison to full-term newborns.
50  gluten ataxia
(14 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CD (6 times)
DH (3 times)
GFD (3 times)
2007 Gluten ataxia: passive transfer in a mouse model.
51  gastric accommodation
(13 times)
Gastroenterology
(10 times)
GE (5 times)
FD (3 times)
IGP (2 times)
2010 The Reproducibility of Tc-Pertechnetate Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for Measurement of Gastric Accommodation in Healthy Humans: Evaluation of the Test Results Performed at the Same Time and Different Time of the Day.
52  glucosamine
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
CH (2 times)
PBA (2 times)
PEG (2 times)
1975 Genetic control of susceptibility to hydroxyproline in Drosophila.
53  glycosylasparaginase
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
AGU (8 times)
AGA (1 time)
beta-AHA (1 time)
1995 Finnish-type aspartylglucosaminuria detected by oligonucleotide ligation assay.
54  graft arteriosclerosis
(13 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
CMN (1 time)
ECs (1 time)
EMB (1 time)
1992 Morphology of graft arteriosclerosis in cardiac transplant recipients.
55  gymnemic acid
(13 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
GAPDH (2 times)
GS (2 times)
IR (2 times)
1996 Taste in chimpanzee: I. The summated response to sweeteners and the effect of gymnemic acid.
56  Gardner-Arnstein
(12 times)
Virology
(6 times)
ST (9 times)
FeSV (7 times)
FeLV (5 times)
1980 Biochemical and immunological characterization of polyproteins coded for by the McDonough, Gardner-Arnstein, and Snyder-Theilen strains of feline sarcoma virus.
57  group additivity
(12 times)
Chemistry
(11 times)
MS-T (2 times)
RERs (2 times)
SS-HO (2 times)
2005 Thermochemical properties, rotation barriers, and group additivity for unsaturated oxygenated hydrocarbons and radicals resulting from reaction of vinyl and phenyl radical systems with O2.
58  gait asymmetry
(11 times)
Otolaryngology
(4 times)
PCI (3 times)
vHIT (3 times)
VOR (3 times)
2005 Search-coil head-thrust and caloric tests in Meniere's disease.
59  generalized anxiety
(11 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
HAMA (2 times)
SP (2 times)
AA (1 time)
1991 Parental representations of patients with panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder.
60  Genome Analyzer
(11 times)
Science
(5 times)
SNPs (2 times)
FLX (1 time)
MAF (1 time)
2009 Hybrid selection of discrete genomic intervals on custom-designed microarrays for massively parallel sequencing.
61  glomerular area
(11 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
GSI (3 times)
AL (2 times)
BUN (2 times)
1993 The early effects of dietary restriction on the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in Sprague-Dawley rats at 12 months.
62  gallic
(10 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
CA (2 times)
PCA (2 times)
ATR-FTIR (1 time)
2005 Effect of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) tea on topoisomerase inhibition and oral carcinoma cell proliferation.
63  glycoalbumin
(10 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
1,5-AG (4 times)
CGM (2 times)
HbA1c (2 times)
1988 Binding and transcytosis of glycoalbumin by the microvascular endothelium of the murine myocardium: evidence that glycoalbumin behaves as a bifunctional ligand.
64  granulocyte agglutination
(10 times)
Hematology
(4 times)
GIF (6 times)
LC (3 times)
GC (2 times)
1981 Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes.
65  Gallbladder agenesis
(9 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
HIDA (2 times)
MRCP (2 times)
CCA (1 time)
2009 Gallbladder agenesis and cystic duct absence in an adult patient diagnosed by magnetic resonance cholangiography: report of a case and review of the literature.
66  gas-phase acidity
(9 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
CEE (1 time)
DCE (1 time)
DFT (1 time)
2009 The ever-surprising chemistry of boron: enhanced acidity of phosphine.boranes.
67  gastric adenoma
(9 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
GC (3 times)
CG (2 times)
IM (2 times)
1994 Long-term follow-up study of patients with gastric adenomas with malignant transformation. An immunohistochemical and histochemical analysis.
68  gene amplification
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
IHC (5 times)
GCN (3 times)
FISH (2 times)
1991 The dynamics of gene amplification described as a multitype compartmental model and as a branching process.
69  general activity
(9 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
HR (2 times)
PS (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1977 A COMPREHENSIVE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS: A TEST OF TWENTY PUTATIVE FACTOR HYPOTHESES.
70  gomisin A
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
NO (5 times)
eNOS (4 times)
Ang II (2 times)
2007 Gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis induces endothelium-dependent and direct relaxation in rat thoracic aorta.
71  gonarthrosis
(9 times)
Therapeutics
(3 times)
OA (2 times)
ASG (1 time)
BC (1 time)
1994 Bone mineral distribution of the proximal tibia in gonarthrosis assessed in vivo by photon absorption.
72  graft area
(9 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
GD (3 times)
GL (3 times)
GW (3 times)
1984 Graft formation in Solanum pennellii (Solanaceae).
73  Granulocytic anaplasmosis
(9 times)
Communicable Diseases
(5 times)
PCR (3 times)
IFA (1 time)
LD (1 time)
2008 Differential exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent species in northern California.
74  guanine-adenine
(9 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
GG (3 times)
CI (2 times)
AD (1 time)
2004 Detection of guanine-adenine mismatches by surface plasmon resonance sensor carrying naphthyridine-azaquinolone hybrid on the surface.
75  Galangin
(8 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
QU (3 times)
AC (1 time)
AO (1 time)
2003 Effects of flavonoids on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 and L1210 leukemia cells.
76  genioglossus advancement
(8 times)
Otolaryngology
(5 times)
OSA (6 times)
UPPP (4 times)
ESS (3 times)
2000 Fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy for airway monitoring after obstructive sleep apnea surgery.
77  geniposidic acid
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
CA (3 times)
AN (2 times)
EC (2 times)
1997 Comparisons of geniposidic acid and geniposide on antitumor and radioprotection after sublethal irradiation.
78  Gustilo-Anderson
(8 times)
Traumatology
(6 times)
CI (2 times)
ICC (1 time)
LS (1 time)
2009 Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring in-hospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis of 4890 fractures.
79  L-glutamic acid and L-alanine
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
GT (5 times)
GAT (2 times)
Ir (2 times)
1971 Specific immune response genes of the guinea pig. 3. Linkage of the GA and GT immune response genes to histocompatibility genotypes in inbred guinea pigs.
80  gangliosides
(7 times)
Drug Therapy
(2 times)
CML (1 time)
CREAE (1 time)
EAE (1 time)
1988 Characterization of the antinociceptive effects of a ganglioside derivative in rodents.
81  gemistocytic astrocytoma
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
FA (2 times)
PA (2 times)
AIB (1 time)
1983 Regional blood-to-tissue transport in avian sarcoma virus (ASV)-induced brain tumors.
82  generalized anisotropy
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
FA (3 times)
SE (3 times)
GDTI (2 times)
2007 Biexponential and diffusional kurtosis imaging, and generalised diffusion-tensor imaging (GDTI) with rank-4 tensors: a study in a group of healthy subjects.
83  genetically altered
(7 times)
Laboratory Animal Science
(5 times)
BC (1 time)
GeMo (1 time)
ID (1 time)
2006 Assessing the welfare of genetically altered mice.
84  geodesic anisotropy
(7 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
DTI (6 times)
FA (4 times)
MD (3 times)
2006 Fiber tract-oriented statistics for quantitative diffusion tensor MRI analysis.
85  geometric algebra
(7 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
EPR (3 times)
PIR (1 time)
SVP (1 time)
2011 Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup.
86  gestational age at delivery
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
BW (4 times)
BL (2 times)
AL (1 time)
1998 Development of macronutrient composition of very preterm human milk.
87  Gibson assembly
(7 times)
Virology
(5 times)
BGMV (1 time)
BRMV (1 time)
hEF-1alpha (1 time)
2015 Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.
88  glycoalkaloid
(7 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
GFS (1 time)
OAP (1 time)
PGR (1 time)
2001 Interactions of aphid herbivory and nitrogen availability on the total foliar glycoalkaloid content of potato plants.
89  Gracilis arteries
(7 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
20-HETE (5 times)
CP450 (5 times)
17-ODYA (4 times)
2001 20-HETE modulates myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from hypertensive Dahl-SS rats.
90  graded activity
(7 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
LBP (3 times)
EXP (2 times)
RCTs (2 times)
2007 Substantial sick-leave costs savings due to a graded activity intervention for workers with non-specific sub-acute low back pain.
91  growth anomaly
(7 times)
Biology
(3 times)
BGC (1 time)
BrB (1 time)
CCWS (1 time)
2012 Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases.
92  growth regulator gibberellin
(7 times)
Science
(2 times)
pkl (2 times)
CK (1 time)
FT (1 time)
1997 Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant.
93  galanin
(6 times)
Histocytochemistry
(1 time)
AVP (1 time)
ChAT (1 time)
CNS (1 time)
1985 Immunohistochemical mapping of galanin-like neurons in the rat central nervous system.
94  gelatin A
(6 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
BSA (3 times)
GB (2 times)
Ab (1 time)
2012 Condensation, complex coacervation, and overcharging during DNA-gelatin interactions in aqueous solutions.
95  Gelidium amansii
(6 times)
Food Analysis
(3 times)
HF (3 times)
Con (2 times)
TC (2 times)
2015 Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.
96  gibberellin A
(6 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
ABA (2 times)
CMV (1 time)
CPSs (1 time)
1996 Rice gibberellin-binding phosphoprotein structurally related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase.
97  globally amphiphilic
(6 times)
Chemistry
(6 times)
non-GA (2 times)
AFM (1 time)
CpHMD (1 time)
2009 Sequence-directed organization of beta-peptides in self-assembled monolayers.
98  Gold Anchor
(6 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CT (3 times)
GM (3 times)
MRI (2 times)
2017 Clinical Implications of a Novel, Iron-containing Fiducial Marker in Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: An Initial Experience.
99  granzyme A
(6 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
GB (3 times)
Bax (1 time)
Bcl-2 (1 time)
1992 Transfection of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte with an antisense granzyme A vector reduces lytic activity.
100  group treated with ATRA
(6 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
GS (8 times)
ATRA (6 times)
SHO (6 times)
2009 Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on renal expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in rats with glomerulosclerosis.