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Abbreviation: GS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
glutamine synthetase
(2224 times)
Neurology
(333 times)
GDH (171 times)
GFAP (169 times)
NR (124 times)
1974 Effects of cytosine arabinoside on differential gene expression in embryonic neural retina. I. Accumulation of glutamine synthetase with suppression of macromolecular synthesis.
Gleason score
(1093 times)
Urology
(334 times)
PCa (399 times)
PSA (312 times)
RP (235 times)
1990 [Correlation between histologic grading and prognosis of prostatic cancer--comparing the grading system of the Japanese general rules of prostatic cancer with Gleason's grading].
genomic selection
(489 times)
Genetics
(163 times)
GWAS (71 times)
SNP (54 times)
MAS (40 times)
1990 DNA fingerprints applied to gene introgression in breeding programs.
glycogen synthase
(423 times)
Biochemistry
(91 times)
GP (65 times)
GSK-3 (33 times)
G6P (30 times)
1977 Cardiac glycogen repletion after exercise: influence of synthase and glucose 6-phosphate.
Gitelman syndrome
(235 times)
Nephrology
(74 times)
BS (26 times)
NCC (26 times)
NCCT (19 times)
1994 Correction of hypokalemia with antialdosterone therapy in Gitelman's syndrome.
general surgery
(214 times)
General Surgery
(148 times)
VS (16 times)
PS (14 times)
IM (12 times)
1988 Indications and complications of carotid endarterectomy as performed by four different surgical specialty groups.
grip strength
(197 times)
Geriatrics
(30 times)
BMI (16 times)
HR (13 times)
TUG (13 times)
1981 The assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis using a multivariate analysis.
Granulocytic sarcoma
(180 times)
Neoplasms
(58 times)
AML (67 times)
CML (17 times)
MDS (9 times)
1986 Granulocytic sarcoma with an indolent course and destructive skeletal disease. Tumor characterization with immunologic markers, electron microscopy, cytochemistry, and cytogenetic studies.
gray-scale
(157 times)
Rheumatology
(102 times)
PD (117 times)
RA (71 times)
US (70 times)
2001 Discrimination of sonographically detected breast masses using frequency shift color Doppler imaging in combination with age and gray scale criteria.
10  Gilbert's syndrome
(147 times)
Gastroenterology
(28 times)
UCB (16 times)
UGT1A1 (13 times)
NA (9 times)
1976 Abnormal hepatic transport of indocyanine green in Gilbert's syndrome.
11  gait speed
(143 times)
Geriatrics
(49 times)
TUG (33 times)
HGS (31 times)
BMI (15 times)
1995 Gait speed and activities of daily living function in geriatric patients.
12  glomerulosclerosis
(132 times)
Nephrology
(49 times)
BP (13 times)
eGFR (8 times)
IF (8 times)
1975 Crescents in diabetic glomerulopathy. Incidence and clinical significance.
13  Griscelli syndrome
(130 times)
Neoplasms
(23 times)
FAP (17 times)
FPC (10 times)
HLH (8 times)
1981 Growth properties and susceptibility to viral transformation of skin fibroblasts from individuals at high genetic risk for colorectal cancer.
14  ground state
(130 times)
Chemistry
(64 times)
ES (22 times)
TS (14 times)
DFT (10 times)
2001 Effect of para substituents on the rate of bond shift in arylcyclooctatetraenes.
15  genome sequencing
(127 times)
Genetics, Medical
(77 times)
ES (24 times)
CMA (7 times)
NGS (7 times)
2007 Complexity reduction of polymorphic sequences (CRoPS): a novel approach for large-scale polymorphism discovery in complex genomes.
16  gentamicin sulfate
(108 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(23 times)
PLGA (8 times)
PCL (7 times)
SEM (6 times)
1981 Survival of primates in lethal septic shock following delayed treatment with steroid.
17  Gensini score
(101 times)
Cardiology
(26 times)
CAD (59 times)
CAG (13 times)
OR (9 times)
1995 Relationship of cigarette smoking to the severity of coronary and thoracic aortic atherosclerosis.
18  gramicidin S
(97 times)
Biochemistry
(44 times)
AMPs (5 times)
CD (3 times)
NMR (3 times)
1976 Nutrition of Bacillus brevis ATCC 9999, the producer of gramicidin S.
19  Gorlin syndrome
(93 times)
Medicine
(16 times)
BCCs (5 times)
PML (4 times)
CVID (3 times)
1991 The incidence of Gorlin syndrome in 173 consecutive cases of medulloblastoma.
20  gold standard
(92 times)
Dentistry
(12 times)
AUC (5 times)
CBCT (5 times)
CI (5 times)
1998 [Variability in the interpretation of thorax radiography in a primary care medical community and its reference radiologists].
21  gastroschisis
(88 times)
Pediatrics
(65 times)
OC (8 times)
TPN (6 times)
AWD (5 times)
1994 Impairment of nutrient uptake in a rabbit model of gastroschisis.
22  graft survival
(87 times)
Transplantation
(63 times)
PS (24 times)
DGF (11 times)
LT (9 times)
1977 HLA determination in renal transplantation with living donor.
23  glucosamine sulfate
(81 times)
Rheumatology
(19 times)
OA (39 times)
CS (19 times)
WOMAC (8 times)
1991 Antiarthritic effects of glucosamine sulfate studied in animal models.
24  gallstones
(74 times)
Gastroenterology
(33 times)
GB (17 times)
GBC (7 times)
LC (6 times)
1982 Clinical usefulness of serum cholylglycine determination in various liver diseases.
25  graphene sheets
(70 times)
Biotechnology
(14 times)
GO (11 times)
DA (6 times)
DPV (6 times)
2010 Nanocrystal growth on graphene with various degrees of oxidation.
26  gestational sac
(62 times)
Obstetrics
(22 times)
CRL (16 times)
CSP (11 times)
EP (7 times)
1984 Ultrasonic assessment of fetal growth in the nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta).
27  glucosinolate
(58 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
JA (7 times)
MeJA (5 times)
SA (4 times)
1990 Expression of Mammalian Metallothionein Suppresses Glucosinolate Synthesis in Brassica campestris.
28  gelatin sponge
(54 times)
Radiology
(9 times)
MSCs (6 times)
TAE (6 times)
HCC (5 times)
1987 Experimental study of hepatic artery embolization: evaluation of various embolic materials.
29  grouper spleen
(53 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(46 times)
SGIV (31 times)
RGNNV (20 times)
IFN (9 times)
2008 Whole-genome transcriptional profiles of a novel marine fish iridovirus, Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in virus-infected grouper spleen cell cultures and in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephulus coioides.
30  gastrocnemius-soleus
(50 times)
Physiology
(21 times)
EMG (5 times)
PBSt (5 times)
SU (4 times)
1973 The effect of stimulation of Golgi tendon organs and spindle receptors from hindlimb extensor muscles on supraspinal descending inhibitory mechanisms.
31  ginsenosides
(50 times)
Pharmacology
(13 times)
NO (7 times)
DEX (5 times)
TACE (5 times)
1990 Immunopotentiating effect of traditional Chinese drugs--ginsenoside and glycyrrhiza polysaccharide.
32  Gliosarcoma
(49 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
GBM (20 times)
GB (5 times)
CNS (4 times)
1987 Contribution of histiocytic cells to sarcomatous development of the gliosarcoma. An immunohistochemical study.
33  grass silage
(48 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(22 times)
MS (15 times)
DM (13 times)
CS (9 times)
1995 Feeding patterns of lactating cows of three different breeds fed hay, corn silage, and grass silage.
34  germline stem
(46 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(19 times)
SSCs (22 times)
ES (10 times)
SSC (7 times)
2006 Capillary morphogenesis gene (CMG)-1 is among the genes differentially expressed in mouse male germ line stem cells and embryonic stem cells.
35  glaucoma suspects
(46 times)
Ophthalmology
(35 times)
IOP (20 times)
NTG (9 times)
RNFL (8 times)
1999 Long-term changes in intraocular pressure after clear corneal phacoemulsification: normal patients versus glaucoma suspect and glaucoma patients.
36  good sleepers
(42 times)
Psychophysiology
(26 times)
PI (10 times)
INS (7 times)
PS (5 times)
2006 Who is pre-occupied with sleep? A comparison of attention bias in people with psychophysiological insomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome and good sleepers using the induced change blindness paradigm.
37  gluten sensitivity
(41 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
CD (19 times)
GFD (8 times)
IELs (5 times)
1992 Hepatic glucagon sensitivity and fasting glucose concentration in normal dogs.
38  Gerchberg-Saxton
(40 times)
Ophthalmology
(32 times)
CGH (4 times)
DOE (2 times)
IM/DD (2 times)
1996 Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm applied in the fractional Fourier or the Fresnel domain.
39  gastrocnemius
(37 times)
Physiology
(14 times)
TA (14 times)
BF (8 times)
EMG (8 times)
1985 Effects of methyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, Ro 15-1788 and CGS 8216 on muscle tone in genetically spastic rats.
40  gemcitabine plus S-1
(36 times)
Neoplasms
(22 times)
OS (11 times)
CI (7 times)
GC (6 times)
2013 Retrospective study of gemcitabine plus S-1 versus gemcitabine alone in cases with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer.
41  Guggulsterone
(36 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
FXR (5 times)
COX-2 (3 times)
NF-kappaB (3 times)
2003 Guggulsterone is a farnesoid X receptor antagonist in coactivator association assays but acts to enhance transcription of bile salt export pump.
42  generalized seizures
(33 times)
Neurology
(11 times)
FS (5 times)
SE (5 times)
DG (3 times)
1980 Facilitation of tungstic acid gel-induced cortical epilepsy in rats by depression of the reticular formation.
43  genetic similarity
(32 times)
Genetics
(25 times)
PIC (8 times)
SSR (7 times)
AFLP (5 times)
1992 RFLP analyses of early-maturing European maize germ plasm : I. Genetic diversity among flint and dent inbreds.
44  genome size
(31 times)
Biology
(7 times)
ancGS (1 time)
ANPP (1 time)
C-S-R (1 time)
1995 Genome size and AT content in Anguilliformes.
45  Gymnema sylvestre
(30 times)
Complementary Therapies
(7 times)
T2DM (3 times)
CZ (2 times)
DM (2 times)
1997 Suppression of glucose absorption by some fractions extracted from Gymnema sylvestre leaves.
46  guide sheath
(27 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(8 times)
EBUS (12 times)
PPLs (10 times)
TBB (8 times)
2004 Endobronchial ultrasonography with guide-sheath for peripheral pulmonary lesions.
47  gait score
(26 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(21 times)
TD (6 times)
FPD (3 times)
BW (2 times)
1999 The effect of photoperiod:scotoperiod on leg weakness in broiler chickens.
48  Gln synthetase
(26 times)
Physiology
(7 times)
Gln (7 times)
Glu (4 times)
ARE (3 times)
1994 Effect of isoniazid on glutathione biosynthesis and degradation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.
49  gamma-secretase
(25 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
APP (7 times)
AD (5 times)
BC (2 times)
2010 Biological and clinical implications of nicastrin expression in invasive breast cancer.
50  Gleason sum
(25 times)
Urology
(12 times)
RP (14 times)
PSA (7 times)
PCa (6 times)
1997 Family history of prostate cancer in patients with localized prostate cancer: an independent predictor of treatment outcome.
51  Google Scholar
(25 times)
Medical Informatics
(4 times)
WoS (11 times)
SR (3 times)
IQR (2 times)
2013 Is the coverage of Google Scholar enough to be used alone for systematic reviews.
52  gelastic seizures
(24 times)
Neurology
(15 times)
HH (14 times)
SRT (5 times)
EEG (4 times)
2000 Late-onset isolated gelastic epilepsy secondary to entrapment of the right temporal horn.
53  1,3-beta-glucan synthase
(23 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(5 times)
BC (2 times)
CAS (2 times)
ANF (1 time)
1985 Auxin and Fusicoccin Enhancement of beta-Glucan Synthase in Peas : An Intracellular Enzyme Activity Apparently Modulated by Proton Extrusion.
54  glucocorticosteroids
(22 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(4 times)
FP (3 times)
EAE (2 times)
EMT (2 times)
1990 Pancreatic enzyme synthesis and secretion are independently regulated by insulin and glucocorticosteroids.
55  grape seed
(22 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(7 times)
CON (4 times)
GT (4 times)
LIN (3 times)
2010 Effect of organic acids and plant extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium in broth culture model and chicken meat systems.
56  geriatric syndromes
(21 times)
Geriatrics
(11 times)
aHR (3 times)
CGA (3 times)
CI (3 times)
2009 Emergency department (ED) utilization and outcome of oldest old men presenting with geriatric syndromes in a veterans care home in Taiwan.
57  giant slalom
(21 times)
Sports Medicine
(10 times)
SL (12 times)
HR (5 times)
SG (4 times)
1984 Energy cost of and energy sources for alpine skiing in top athletes.
58  Goldenhar syndrome
(21 times)
Genetics, Medical
(6 times)
OAVD (3 times)
HFM (2 times)
OAV (2 times)
1983 Cranial defects in the Goldenhar syndrome.
59  growth stage
(21 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(3 times)
AUDPC (2 times)
DM (2 times)
UAV (2 times)
1998 Efficacy of Fungicide Treatments for Control of Common Rust and Northern Leaf Spot in Hybrid Corn Seed Production.
60  gene significance
(20 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
WGCNA (15 times)
MM (9 times)
DEGs (7 times)
2015 Identification of candidate target genes forhuman peripheral arterial disease using weighted gene co‑expression network analysis.
61  genomically stable
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
CIN (10 times)
MSI (8 times)
EBV (6 times)
2016 Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-beta-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.
62  global signal
(20 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(7 times)
DMN (4 times)
fMRI (4 times)
GSR (4 times)
2013 Subject specific BOLD fMRI respiratory and cardiac response functions obtained from global signal.
63  genistein
(19 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
BPA (3 times)
AD (2 times)
DES (2 times)
1992 Synergistic actions of epidermal growth factor-urogastrone and vasopressin in cultured aortic A-10 smooth muscle cells.
64  generalized synchronization
(18 times)
Science
(10 times)
CS (2 times)
PS (2 times)
C P R (1 time)
2003 Complete synchronization and generalized synchronization of one-way coupled time-delay systems.
65  grid search
(18 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
PSO (8 times)
GA (6 times)
SVM (5 times)
2011 Optimal asymmetrical SVM using pattern search. A health care application.
66  gene signatures
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
OS (2 times)
pCR (2 times)
PFS (2 times)
1997 An expression profile of genes in human retina and isolation of a complementary DNA for a novel rod photoreceptor protein.
67  generalization stimuli
(17 times)
Therapeutics
(5 times)
CS (6 times)
vmPFC (3 times)
GAD (2 times)
2004 Generalization of extinguished skin conductance responding in human fear conditioning.
68  galactosialidosis
(16 times)
Molecular Biology
(6 times)
PPCA (8 times)
CNS (2 times)
NEU1 (2 times)
1992 Characteristics of the beta-galactosidase-carboxypeptidase complex in GM1-gangliosidosis and beta-galactosialidosis fibroblasts.
69  gastric schwannoma
(16 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
CT (5 times)
GIST (3 times)
ER (2 times)
2012 Small submucosal tumors of the stomach: differentiation of gastric schwannoma from gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CT.
70  glucosamine
(16 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
CS (4 times)
OA (4 times)
RCTs (3 times)
2003 Glucosamine sulfate modulates the levels of aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase-3 synthesized by cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes.
71  glyphosate-susceptible
(16 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
GR (14 times)
EPSPS (2 times)
AP (1 time)
2006 Transformation and segregation of GFP fluorescence and glyphosate resistance in horseweed (Conyza canadensis) hybrids.
72  Gram stain
(16 times)
Microbiology
(5 times)
VAP (4 times)
BAL (3 times)
BC (2 times)
1984 Evaluation of Gonozyme, an enzyme immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of gonorrhea.
73  gene start
(15 times)
Virology
(12 times)
GE (10 times)
RSV (8 times)
Le (4 times)
1996 The structurally diverse intergenic regions of respiratory syncytial virus do not modulate sequential transcription by a dicistronic minigenome.
74  glucose-sensitive
(15 times)
Brain
(6 times)
LHA (11 times)
GIS (9 times)
GP (4 times)
1986 Feeding regulation by endogenous sugar acids through hypothalamic chemosensitive neurons.
75  glymphatic system
(15 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
CSF (7 times)
AQP4 (4 times)
GBCA (3 times)
2018 Glymphatic Pathway of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Through the Brain: Overlooked and Misinterpreted.
76  Geboes score
(14 times)
Gastroenterology
(10 times)
UC (11 times)
FC (5 times)
RHI (5 times)
2014 Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC.
77  glycine-serine
(14 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
FOP (3 times)
TGF-beta (2 times)
AMP (1 time)
1998 TGF-beta-signaling with small molecule FKBP12 antagonists that bind myristoylated FKBP12-TGF-beta type I receptor fusion proteins.
78  Goodpasture syndrome
(14 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
anti-GBM (2 times)
GBM (2 times)
Ab (1 time)
1975 [A case of goodpasture-syndrome in legal medical practice (author's transl)].
79  gummy smile
(14 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
APE (2 times)
GD (2 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
2010 Gummy smile and botulinum toxin: a new approach based on the gingival exposure area.
80  generic substitution
(13 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
RPS (2 times)
GPs (1 time)
ORs (1 time)
2007 A pilot study on generic medicine substitution practices among community pharmacists in the State of Penang, Malaysia.
81  GlideScope
(13 times)
Anesthesiology
(6 times)
DL (3 times)
AS (1 time)
AWS (1 time)
2005 Early clinical experience with a new videolaryngoscope (GlideScope) in 728 patients.
82  Gemini surfactants
(12 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
CD (2 times)
CMC (2 times)
DLS (2 times)
2003 In-lens cryo-high resolution scanning electron microscopy: methodologies for molecular imaging of self-assembled organic hydrogels.
83  ginseng
(12 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
GL (3 times)
AG (2 times)
BRM (2 times)
1996 The proliferative responses of cow stripping milk and blood lymphocytes to pokeweed mitogen and ginseng in vitro.
84  glass slide
(12 times)
Pathology
(8 times)
DP (3 times)
WSI (3 times)
DS (2 times)
1996 Telepathology diagnosis by means of digital still images: an international validation study.
85  glucose
(12 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
a-SMA (1 time)
ACH (1 time)
ACI (1 time)
1975 Dynamics of tolbutamide, glucose, and insulin interrelationships following varying doses of intravenous tolbutamide in normal subjects.
86  global score
(11 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
AACs (1 time)
AAG (1 time)
ABCI (1 time)
1996 [Investigation of the actual conditions of hospital nurses working on three rotating shifts: questionnaire results of shift work schedules, feelings of sleep and fatigue, and depression].
87  global survival
(11 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
CR (3 times)
CSS (2 times)
DFS (2 times)
1992 [Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma: a study of 25 cases].
88  glucose starvation
(11 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
ER (3 times)
scRNA-seq (2 times)
2-DG (1 time)
2011 Glucose starvation boosts Entamoeba histolytica virulence.
89  Gram-Schmidt
(11 times)
Optics and Photonics
(3 times)
HS (2 times)
IHS (2 times)
PAN (2 times)
2004 Robust neurofuzzy rule base knowledge extraction and estimation using subspace decomposition combined with regularization and D-optimality.
90  guide sequence
(11 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
HCV (3 times)
IFN-gamma (2 times)
MHC-II (2 times)
2000 In vivo inhibition by a site-specific catalytic RNA subunit of RNase P designed against the BCR-ABL oncogenic products: a novel approach for cancer treatment.
91  garden soil
(10 times)
Environmental Health
(9 times)
FA (7 times)
MDA (3 times)
BGA (2 times)
2005 Fly-ash-induced oxidative stress and tolerance in Prosopis juliflora L. grown on different amended substrates.
92  genetic score
(10 times)
Genetic Phenomena
(3 times)
SNPs (3 times)
BMI (2 times)
OS (2 times)
2012 Individual and summed effects of high-risk genetic polymorphisms on recurrent cardiovascular events following ischemic heart disease.
93  Glucosinolates
(10 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(3 times)
AGs (1 time)
AM (1 time)
BrGS (1 time)
2006 Glucosinolate and trichome defenses in a natural Arabidopsis lyrata population.
94  glucosylsphingosine
(10 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
GC (7 times)
GCase (5 times)
AD (4 times)
2003 Abnormal expression of the novel epidermal enzyme, glucosylceramide deacylase, and the accumulation of its enzymatic reaction product, glucosylsphingosine, in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis.
95  glyphosate-sensitive
(10 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
GR (8 times)
AAA (2 times)
BCAA (2 times)
2008 Influence of glyphosate, crop volunteer and root pathogens on glyphosate-resistant wheat under controlled environmental conditions.
96  7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
NADPH (2 times)
ROS (2 times)
AGE (1 time)
2009 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose is a novel therapeutic agent against oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts in the diabetic kidney.
97  Gamble's solution
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
ALF (8 times)
PM (3 times)
CCA (2 times)
2001 Biological durability and oxidative potential of man-made vitreous fibres as compared to crocidolite asbestos fibres.
98  gangliosides
(9 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CP (1 time)
CTB (1 time)
GFAP (1 time)
1984 Studies on bioactive gangliosides: II. Requirement of ganglioside GD1a for prolonged GQ1b-driven nerve growth promotion in neuroblastoma cell lines.
99  gene set
(9 times)
Brain
(2 times)
BC (2 times)
DE (2 times)
IGEA (2 times)
2013 Soft truncation thresholding for gene set analysis of RNA-seq data: application to a vaccine study.
100  growing season
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
NGS (4 times)
TP (2 times)
BOD (1 time)
2005 Global application of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to wildlife forensics.