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Abbreviation: GS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
glutamine synthetase
(1948 times)
Neurology
(317 times)
GFAP (153 times)
GDH (135 times)
NR (84 times)
1974 Effects of cytosine arabinoside on differential gene expression in embryonic neural retina. I. Accumulation of glutamine synthetase with suppression of macromolecular synthesis.
Gleason score
(866 times)
Urology
(293 times)
PCa (280 times)
PSA (246 times)
RP (188 times)
1990 [Correlation between histologic grading and prognosis of prostatic cancer--comparing the grading system of the Japanese general rules of prostatic cancer with Gleason's grading].
glycogen synthase
(389 times)
Biochemistry
(88 times)
GP (60 times)
GSK-3 (31 times)
G6P (28 times)
1977 Cardiac glycogen repletion after exercise: influence of synthase and glucose 6-phosphate.
genomic selection
(291 times)
Genetics
(115 times)
GWAS (40 times)
SNP (34 times)
QTL (27 times)
1990 DNA fingerprints applied to gene introgression in breeding programs.
Gitelman syndrome
(174 times)
Nephrology
(66 times)
NCC (21 times)
BS (20 times)
NCCT (18 times)
1994 Correction of hypokalemia with antialdosterone therapy in Gitelman's syndrome.
Granulocytic sarcoma
(170 times)
Neoplasms
(57 times)
AML (60 times)
CML (15 times)
MDS (8 times)
1986 Granulocytic sarcoma with an indolent course and destructive skeletal disease. Tumor characterization with immunologic markers, electron microscopy, cytochemistry, and cytogenetic studies.
general surgery
(157 times)
General Surgery
(106 times)
VS (12 times)
PS (9 times)
IM (8 times)
1988 Indications and complications of carotid endarterectomy as performed by four different surgical specialty groups.
glomerulosclerosis
(125 times)
Nephrology
(46 times)
BP (13 times)
IF (8 times)
SCr (8 times)
1975 Crescents in diabetic glomerulopathy. Incidence and clinical significance.
Gilbert's syndrome
(119 times)
Gastroenterology
(25 times)
UCB (13 times)
NA (9 times)
UGT1A1 (8 times)
1976 Abnormal hepatic transport of indocyanine green in Gilbert's syndrome.
10  gray-scale
(118 times)
Rheumatology
(82 times)
PD (87 times)
RA (56 times)
US (52 times)
2001 Discrimination of sonographically detected breast masses using frequency shift color Doppler imaging in combination with age and gray scale criteria.
11  grip strength
(116 times)
Geriatrics
(19 times)
TUG (11 times)
BMI (8 times)
CI (8 times)
1981 The assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis using a multivariate analysis.
12  ground state
(98 times)
Chemistry
(52 times)
ES (15 times)
TS (12 times)
DFT (7 times)
2001 Effect of para substituents on the rate of bond shift in arylcyclooctatetraenes.
13  gramicidin S
(92 times)
Biochemistry
(44 times)
NMR (3 times)
AMPs (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1976 Nutrition of Bacillus brevis ATCC 9999, the producer of gramicidin S.
14  gentamicin sulfate
(87 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(18 times)
PLGA (7 times)
PCL (5 times)
SEM (5 times)
1981 Survival of primates in lethal septic shock following delayed treatment with steroid.
15  gastroschisis
(80 times)
General Surgery
(61 times)
OC (6 times)
TPN (5 times)
AWD (4 times)
1994 Impairment of nutrient uptake in a rabbit model of gastroschisis.
16  gait speed
(72 times)
Geriatrics
(24 times)
TUG (16 times)
HGS (10 times)
CI (7 times)
1995 Gait speed and activities of daily living function in geriatric patients.
17  Gorlin syndrome
(70 times)
Medicine
(15 times)
BCCs (4 times)
MB (3 times)
NBCCS (3 times)
1991 The incidence of Gorlin syndrome in 173 consecutive cases of medulloblastoma.
18  glucosamine sulfate
(69 times)
Rheumatology
(19 times)
OA (34 times)
CS (16 times)
WOMAC (8 times)
0 Effects of Oral Glucosamine Sulfate on Osteoarthritis-Related Pain and Joint-Space Changes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
19  graft survival
(69 times)
Transplantation
(50 times)
PS (19 times)
DGF (6 times)
HR (6 times)
1977 HLA determination in renal transplantation with living donor.
20  Gensini score
(67 times)
Cardiology
(20 times)
CAD (38 times)
CAG (10 times)
OR (6 times)
1995 Relationship of cigarette smoking to the severity of coronary and thoracic aortic atherosclerosis.
21  gallstones
(66 times)
Gastroenterology
(32 times)
GB (15 times)
GBC (7 times)
LC (6 times)
1982 Clinical usefulness of serum cholylglycine determination in various liver diseases.
22  gold standard
(63 times)
Medicine
(8 times)
CI (4 times)
AUC (3 times)
CBCT (3 times)
1998 [Variability in the interpretation of thorax radiography in a primary care medical community and its reference radiologists].
23  Gardner's syndrome
(61 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
FAP (15 times)
FPC (10 times)
ACR (2 times)
1981 Growth properties and susceptibility to viral transformation of skin fibroblasts from individuals at high genetic risk for colorectal cancer.
24  graphene sheets
(55 times)
Biotechnology
(14 times)
GO (11 times)
DA (6 times)
DPV (6 times)
2010 Nanocrystal growth on graphene with various degrees of oxidation.
25  Griscelli syndrome
(54 times)
Pediatrics
(11 times)
HLH (7 times)
CHS (6 times)
MLPH (3 times)
1993 Griscelli's syndrome: clinical features of three siblings.
26  gestational sac
(51 times)
Obstetrics
(18 times)
CRL (14 times)
CSP (8 times)
EP (7 times)
1984 Ultrasonic assessment of fetal growth in the nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta).
27  gastrocnemius-soleus
(50 times)
Physiology
(21 times)
EMG (5 times)
PBSt (5 times)
SU (4 times)
1973 The effect of stimulation of Golgi tendon organs and spindle receptors from hindlimb extensor muscles on supraspinal descending inhibitory mechanisms.
28  glucosinolate
(50 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
MeJA (5 times)
JA (4 times)
PEITC (2 times)
1990 Expression of Mammalian Metallothionein Suppresses Glucosinolate Synthesis in Brassica campestris.
29  genome sequencing
(46 times)
Genetics, Medical
(28 times)
ES (7 times)
NGS (4 times)
CMA (3 times)
2007 Complexity reduction of polymorphic sequences (CRoPS): a novel approach for large-scale polymorphism discovery in complex genomes.
30  gelatin sponge
(43 times)
Radiology
(7 times)
HCC (5 times)
MSCs (5 times)
NT-3 (5 times)
1987 Experimental study of hepatic artery embolization: evaluation of various embolic materials.
31  ginsenosides
(42 times)
Pharmacology
(12 times)
NO (7 times)
DEX (5 times)
TACE (4 times)
1990 Immunopotentiating effect of traditional Chinese drugs--ginsenoside and glycyrrhiza polysaccharide.
32  grass silage
(42 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(22 times)
MS (12 times)
DM (10 times)
CS (9 times)
1995 Feeding patterns of lactating cows of three different breeds fed hay, corn silage, and grass silage.
33  germline stem
(41 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(19 times)
SSCs (22 times)
ES (10 times)
SSC (7 times)
2006 Capillary morphogenesis gene (CMG)-1 is among the genes differentially expressed in mouse male germ line stem cells and embryonic stem cells.
34  Gliosarcoma
(40 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
GBM (19 times)
GB (4 times)
MRI (4 times)
1987 Contribution of histiocytic cells to sarcomatous development of the gliosarcoma. An immunohistochemical study.
35  grouper spleen
(37 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(35 times)
SGIV (24 times)
RGNNV (14 times)
FHM (5 times)
2008 Whole-genome transcriptional profiles of a novel marine fish iridovirus, Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in virus-infected grouper spleen cell cultures and in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephulus coioides.
36  gluten sensitivity
(36 times)
Gastroenterology
(8 times)
CD (18 times)
GFD (6 times)
IELs (5 times)
1992 Hepatic glucagon sensitivity and fasting glucose concentration in normal dogs.
37  glaucoma suspects
(33 times)
Ophthalmology
(27 times)
IOP (17 times)
SAP (8 times)
RNFL (7 times)
1999 Long-term changes in intraocular pressure after clear corneal phacoemulsification: normal patients versus glaucoma suspect and glaucoma patients.
38  gastrocnemius
(32 times)
Physiology
(14 times)
TA (11 times)
BF (7 times)
EMG (7 times)
1985 Effects of methyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, Ro 15-1788 and CGS 8216 on muscle tone in genetically spastic rats.
39  genetic similarity
(32 times)
Genetics
(25 times)
PIC (8 times)
SSR (7 times)
AFLP (5 times)
1992 RFLP analyses of early-maturing European maize germ plasm : I. Genetic diversity among flint and dent inbreds.
40  good sleepers
(32 times)
Psychophysiology
(23 times)
PI (10 times)
INS (6 times)
Psy-I (4 times)
2006 Who is pre-occupied with sleep? A comparison of attention bias in people with psychophysiological insomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome and good sleepers using the induced change blindness paradigm.
41  generalized seizures
(29 times)
Neurology
(11 times)
FS (4 times)
DG (3 times)
PSA-NCAM (3 times)
1980 Facilitation of tungstic acid gel-induced cortical epilepsy in rats by depression of the reticular formation.
42  guggulsterone
(29 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
FXR (4 times)
COX-2 (3 times)
NF-kappaB (3 times)
2003 Guggulsterone is a farnesoid X receptor antagonist in coactivator association assays but acts to enhance transcription of bile salt export pump.
43  Gerchberg-Saxton
(27 times)
Ophthalmology
(22 times)
CGH (4 times)
STD (2 times)
AR (1 time)
1996 Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm applied in the fractional Fourier or the Fresnel domain.
44  gemcitabine plus S-1
(25 times)
Neoplasms
(19 times)
OS (7 times)
CI (6 times)
PFS (5 times)
2013 Retrospective study of gemcitabine plus S-1 versus gemcitabine alone in cases with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer.
45  Gymnema sylvestre
(25 times)
Complementary Therapies
(6 times)
CZ (2 times)
DM (2 times)
HFD (2 times)
1997 Suppression of glucose absorption by some fractions extracted from Gymnema sylvestre leaves.
46  genome size
(23 times)
Biology
(7 times)
ancGS (1 time)
ANPP (1 time)
C-S-R (1 time)
1995 Genome size and AT content in Anguilliformes.
47  Gleason sum
(23 times)
Urology
(12 times)
RP (13 times)
PSA (6 times)
PCa (5 times)
1997 Family history of prostate cancer in patients with localized prostate cancer: an independent predictor of treatment outcome.
48  gelastic seizures
(21 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
HH (12 times)
EEG (4 times)
MRI (4 times)
2000 Late-onset isolated gelastic epilepsy secondary to entrapment of the right temporal horn.
49  Gln synthetase
(21 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
Gln (6 times)
Glu (4 times)
ARE (3 times)
1994 Effect of isoniazid on glutathione biosynthesis and degradation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.
50  glucocorticosteroid
(21 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(4 times)
FP (3 times)
EAE (2 times)
EMT (2 times)
1990 Pancreatic enzyme synthesis and secretion are independently regulated by insulin and glucocorticosteroids.
51  1,3-beta-glucan synthase
(20 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(5 times)
BC (2 times)
CAS (2 times)
CS (1 time)
1985 Auxin and Fusicoccin Enhancement of beta-Glucan Synthase in Peas : An Intracellular Enzyme Activity Apparently Modulated by Proton Extrusion.
52  gait score
(20 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(15 times)
TD (4 times)
BW (2 times)
FPD (2 times)
2000 Effects of age and stocking density on leg weakness in broiler chickens.
53  gamma-secretase
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
APP (4 times)
AD (2 times)
BC (2 times)
2010 Gamma-secretase complexes regulate the responses of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to taxanes.
54  Goldenhar syndrome
(18 times)
Genetics, Medical
(6 times)
OAVD (3 times)
HFM (2 times)
OAV (2 times)
1983 Cranial defects in the Goldenhar syndrome.
55  Google Scholar
(18 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
WoS (9 times)
SR (3 times)
AATS (1 time)
2013 Is the coverage of Google Scholar enough to be used alone for systematic reviews.
56  giant slalom
(17 times)
Sports Medicine
(9 times)
SL (8 times)
HR (4 times)
COM (2 times)
1984 Energy cost of and energy sources for alpine skiing in top athletes.
57  growth stage
(17 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(2 times)
AUDPC (2 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
APX (1 time)
1998 Efficacy of Fungicide Treatments for Control of Common Rust and Northern Leaf Spot in Hybrid Corn Seed Production.
58  gene start
(15 times)
Virology
(12 times)
GE (10 times)
RSV (8 times)
Le (4 times)
1996 The structurally diverse intergenic regions of respiratory syncytial virus do not modulate sequential transcription by a dicistronic minigenome.
59  generalization stimuli
(15 times)
Therapeutics
(5 times)
CS (6 times)
GAD (2 times)
vmPFC (2 times)
2004 Generalization of extinguished skin conductance responding in human fear conditioning.
60  generalized synchronization
(15 times)
Science
(9 times)
CS (2 times)
CC (1 time)
CGS (1 time)
2003 Complete synchronization and generalized synchronization of one-way coupled time-delay systems.
61  Gram stain
(15 times)
Microbiology
(5 times)
VAP (4 times)
BAL (3 times)
BC (2 times)
1984 Evaluation of Gonozyme, an enzyme immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of gonorrhea.
62  galactosialidosis
(14 times)
Molecular Biology
(6 times)
PPCA (8 times)
beta-Gal (1 time)
BMT (1 time)
1992 Characteristics of the beta-galactosidase-carboxypeptidase complex in GM1-gangliosidosis and beta-galactosialidosis fibroblasts.
63  genistein
(14 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
BPA (3 times)
DES (2 times)
DZ (2 times)
1992 Synergistic actions of epidermal growth factor-urogastrone and vasopressin in cultured aortic A-10 smooth muscle cells.
64  geriatric syndromes
(14 times)
Geriatrics
(7 times)
aHR (3 times)
CI (3 times)
CGA (2 times)
2009 Emergency department (ED) utilization and outcome of oldest old men presenting with geriatric syndromes in a veterans care home in Taiwan.
65  glucose-sensitive
(14 times)
Brain
(6 times)
LHA (10 times)
GIS (9 times)
GP (4 times)
1986 Feeding regulation by endogenous sugar acids through hypothalamic chemosensitive neurons.
66  guide sheath
(14 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(6 times)
EBUS (7 times)
TBB (5 times)
PPL (4 times)
2004 Endobronchial ultrasonography with guide-sheath for peripheral pulmonary lesions.
67  gene signatures
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
LN (2 times)
OS (2 times)
AE (1 time)
1997 An expression profile of genes in human retina and isolation of a complementary DNA for a novel rod photoreceptor protein.
68  GlideScope
(13 times)
Anesthesiology
(6 times)
DL (3 times)
AS (1 time)
AWS (1 time)
2005 Early clinical experience with a new videolaryngoscope (GlideScope) in 728 patients.
69  grape seed
(13 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(7 times)
CON (3 times)
LIN (3 times)
GT (2 times)
2009 Effect of organic acids and plant extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium in broth culture model and chicken meat systems.
70  glucosamine
(12 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
CS (3 times)
OA (3 times)
COX-2 (2 times)
2003 Glucosamine sulfate modulates the levels of aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase-3 synthesized by cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes.
71  glyphosate-susceptible
(12 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
GR (11 times)
AZ-R (1 time)
DAT (1 time)
2007 Transformation and segregation of GFP fluorescence and glyphosate resistance in horseweed (Conyza canadensis) hybrids.
72  Goodpasture syndrome
(12 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
anti-GBM (2 times)
GBM (2 times)
Ab (1 time)
1975 [A case of goodpasture-syndrome in legal medical practice (author's transl)].
73  generic substitution
(11 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
GPs (1 time)
ORs (1 time)
RDP (1 time)
2008 A pilot study on generic medicine substitution practices among community pharmacists in the State of Penang, Malaysia.
74  ginseng
(11 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
BRM (2 times)
GL (2 times)
PT (2 times)
1996 The proliferative responses of cow stripping milk and blood lymphocytes to pokeweed mitogen and ginseng in vitro.
75  global signal
(11 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
BOLD (3 times)
DMN (3 times)
GSR (3 times)
2013 Subject specific BOLD fMRI respiratory and cardiac response functions obtained from global signal.
76  glucose
(11 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
ACH (1 time)
ACI (1 time)
AIRg (1 time)
1975 Dynamics of tolbutamide, glucose, and insulin interrelationships following varying doses of intravenous tolbutamide in normal subjects.
77  glycine-serine
(11 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
FOP (3 times)
TGF-beta (2 times)
AMP (1 time)
1998 TGF-beta-signaling with small molecule FKBP12 antagonists that bind myristoylated FKBP12-TGF-beta type I receptor fusion proteins.
78  global survival
(10 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
CR (3 times)
CSS (2 times)
DFS (2 times)
1992 [Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma: a study of 25 cases].
79  guide sequence
(10 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
HCV (3 times)
IFN-gamma (2 times)
MHC-II (2 times)
2000 In vivo inhibition by a site-specific catalytic RNA subunit of RNase P designed against the BCR-ABL oncogenic products: a novel approach for cancer treatment.
80  7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
NADPH (2 times)
ROS (2 times)
AGE (1 time)
2009 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose is a novel therapeutic agent against oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts in the diabetic kidney.
81  garden soil
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(8 times)
FA (6 times)
MDA (3 times)
BGA (2 times)
2003 Antifungal activity of some actinomycetes isolated from various habitats.
82  Gemini surfactants
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CAT (1 time)
CD (1 time)
CMC (1 time)
2003 In-lens cryo-high resolution scanning electron microscopy: methodologies for molecular imaging of self-assembled organic hydrogels.
83  gene set
(9 times)
Brain
(2 times)
BC (2 times)
DE (2 times)
IGEA (2 times)
2013 Soft truncation thresholding for gene set analysis of RNA-seq data: application to a vaccine study.
84  Glucosinolates
(9 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(3 times)
AGs (1 time)
AM (1 time)
BrGS (1 time)
2006 Glucosinolate and trichome defenses in a natural Arabidopsis lyrata population.
85  Geboes score
(8 times)
Gastroenterology
(7 times)
UC (6 times)
FC (3 times)
ICCs (2 times)
2015 Reproducibility of histological assessments of disease activity in UC.
86  gene significance
(8 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
WGCNA (7 times)
MM (4 times)
DEGs (2 times)
2015 Identification of candidate target genes forhuman peripheral arterial disease using weighted gene co‑expression network analysis.
87  GeneScan
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
HD (3 times)
PCR (3 times)
Ig (2 times)
2003 Molecular immunoglobulin/T- cell receptor clonality analysis in cutaneous lymphoproliferations. Experience with the BIOMED-2 standardized polymerase chain reaction protocol.
88  genome-wide selection
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
LD (2 times)
ABLUP (1 time)
ADG (1 time)
2010 Genome-wide selection by mixed model ridge regression and extensions based on geostatistical models.
89  global score
(8 times)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
AAG (1 time)
ACC (1 time)
AD (1 time)
1996 [Investigation of the actual conditions of hospital nurses working on three rotating shifts: questionnaire results of shift work schedules, feelings of sleep and fatigue, and depression].
90  glucansucrases
(8 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
LAB (4 times)
4,6-alpha-GTases (1 time)
4,6-alpha-GTs (1 time)
2003 Glucosylation of alpha-butyl- and alpha-octyl-D-glucopyranosides by dextransucrase and alternansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
91  glucosylsphingosine
(8 times)
Genetics, Medical
(3 times)
GC (7 times)
GCase (5 times)
nGD (3 times)
2003 Abnormal expression of the novel epidermal enzyme, glucosylceramide deacylase, and the accumulation of its enzymatic reaction product, glucosylsphingosine, in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis.
92  glyphosate-sensitive
(8 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
GR (7 times)
AAA (2 times)
BCAA (2 times)
2009 Influence of glyphosate, crop volunteer and root pathogens on glyphosate-resistant wheat under controlled environmental conditions.
93  Gosner stage
(8 times)
Toxicology
(5 times)
a.e (1 time)
GMC (1 time)
IMZT (1 time)
2007 Lethal and sublethal effects of chronic cadmium exposure on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles.
94  Gram-Schmidt
(8 times)
Optics and Photonics
(3 times)
HS (2 times)
IHS (2 times)
PAN (2 times)
2004 Robust neurofuzzy rule base knowledge extraction and estimation using subspace decomposition combined with regularization and D-optimality.
95  group size
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
5-HIAA (1 time)
AJCC (1 time)
BCS (1 time)
2001 Long-term resource variation and group size: a large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis.
96  growing season
(8 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
NGS (4 times)
TP (2 times)
BOD (1 time)
2005 Global application of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to wildlife forensics.
97  gummy smile
(8 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
GD (2 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
APE (1 time)
2010 Gummy smile and botulinum toxin: a new approach based on the gingival exposure area.
98  gene score
(7 times)
Obesity
(2 times)
CHD (3 times)
SNP (2 times)
SNPs (2 times)
2012 Pretreatment synovial transcriptional profile is associated with early and late clinical response in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rituximab.
99  generalized scleroderma
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
PR (3 times)
ANA (1 time)
HI (1 time)
1985 Dry hands in scleroderma. Including studies of sweat gland function in healthy individuals.
100  genomically stable
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
CIN (4 times)
MSI (3 times)
CI (2 times)
2017 Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-beta-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.