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Abbreviation: IL
Appearance Frequency: 57253 time(s)
Long forms: 573

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
interleukin
(53394 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(10168 times)
TNF (9917 times)
IFN (5527 times)
LPS (4089 times)
1982 Cryopreserved human cultured T cells as responder cells for the quantitative measurement of interleukin-2: improvement of the assay.
ionic liquid
(1666 times)
Chemistry
(735 times)
MD (55 times)
SEM (43 times)
XRD (31 times)
2002 An ionic liquid coating for determination of sildenafil and UK-103,320 in human serum by capillary zone electrophoresis-ion trap mass spectrometry.
infralimbic
(218 times)
Neurology
(97 times)
PL (114 times)
mPFC (98 times)
PrL (35 times)
1987 The rat medial frontal cortex projects directly to autonomic regions of the brainstem.
infralimbic cortex
(124 times)
Neurology
(60 times)
PL (39 times)
mPFC (25 times)
BLA (19 times)
2000 U-69,593 microinjection in the infralimbic cortex reduces anxiety and enhances spontaneous alternation memory in mice.
intermediate lobe
(116 times)
Endocrinology
(48 times)
POMC (23 times)
AL (21 times)
alpha-MSH (14 times)
1979 Different effects of K+ and Ca++ on alpha-MSH and ACTH release from superfused neurointermediate lobe of the rat hypophysis.
increased levels of interleukin
(114 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(21 times)
TNF (17 times)
IFN (12 times)
TNF-alpha (12 times)
1994 Interleukin 6 is a prognostic indicator of outcome in severe intra-abdominal sepsis.
intralesional
(109 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
TF (12 times)
NO (9 times)
EL (8 times)
1979 Single versus double preoperative intralesional BCG in 13762 mammary adenocarcinoma.
insertion loss
(66 times)
Ophthalmology
(35 times)
ER (15 times)
PBS (8 times)
TE (7 times)
1983 Influence of physiological noise and the occlusion effect on the measurement of real-ear attenuation at threshold.
Intralipid
(66 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(12 times)
AA (7 times)
FFA (6 times)
CAPE (5 times)
1979 Alteration of the structure and function of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages by a soybean oil emulsion.
10  intraligand
(45 times)
Chemistry
(39 times)
MLCT (16 times)
LLCT (8 times)
DFT (5 times)
2001 Photophysics of diimine platinum(II) bis-acetylide complexes.
11  introgression line
(43 times)
Genetics
(14 times)
QTL (10 times)
RIL (4 times)
DArT (2 times)
1996 A genome-wide search for wild-species alleles that increase horticultural yield of processing tomatoes.
12  immediate loading
(41 times)
Dentistry
(32 times)
DL (13 times)
CL (3 times)
EL (3 times)
2004 Predicting osseointegration by means of implant primary stability.
13  injection laryngoplasty
(34 times)
Otolaryngology
(28 times)
UVFP (11 times)
MPT (6 times)
VHI (5 times)
2007 Operating room versus office-based injection laryngoplasty: a comparative analysis of reimbursement.
14  intestinal lymphangiectasia
(28 times)
Pediatrics
(7 times)
PLE (6 times)
MCT (3 times)
PIL (3 times)
1975 Intestinal lymphagiectasia: a reappraisal.
15  intromission latency
(28 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
ML (26 times)
EL (23 times)
IF (23 times)
2000 Precontact 50-kHz vocalizations in male rats during acquisition of sexual experience.
16  infundibular length
(20 times)
Urology
(14 times)
IW (15 times)
IPA (14 times)
RIRS (4 times)
1998 Lower-pole caliceal stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and flexible ureteroscopy: impact of radiographic spatial anatomy.
17  independent living
(19 times)
Rehabilitation
(7 times)
AL (3 times)
NH (3 times)
SCI (2 times)
1979 Independent living: from social movement to analytic paradigm.
18  information literacy
(19 times)
Libraries, Medical
(6 times)
EBP (3 times)
ACRL (2 times)
2BIC (1 time)
2006 Information literacy for speech-language pathologists: a key to evidence-based practice.
19  ipsilateral
(19 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
CL (19 times)
BL (2 times)
FA (2 times)
1992 Selectivity for temporal characteristics of sound and interaural time difference of auditory midbrain neurons in the grassfrog: a system theoretical approach.
20  interfacial layer
(16 times)
Nanotechnology
(6 times)
ALD (3 times)
Dit (2 times)
EOT (2 times)
1993 Cells of origin of the spinoparabrachial fibers in the rat: a study with fast blue and WGA-HRP.
21  Intravascular lymphomatosis
(16 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
CNS (3 times)
CSF (2 times)
AIDS (1 time)
1990 "Intravascular lymphomatosis" (angioendotheliomatosis): evidence for a T-cell origin in two cases.
22  infralimbic prefrontal cortex
(15 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
BLA (5 times)
PL (3 times)
BDNF (2 times)
2006 Enhancement of conditioned fear extinction by infusion of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol into the rat prefrontal cortex and amygdala.
23  interleukin-1beta
(15 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
TNF-alpha (3 times)
COX-2 (2 times)
CRP (2 times)
1993 Short- and long-term effects of perinatal interleukin-1 beta-application in rats.
24  intestinal lymphocytes
(15 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(6 times)
Imm (4 times)
bLF (3 times)
NAC (3 times)
2004 N-Acetyl-L-cysteine prevents exercise-induced intestinal lymphocyte apoptosis by maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and reducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization.
25  intracellular loop
(15 times)
Cell Biology
(3 times)
GABAA (2 times)
AC (1 time)
AQP0 (1 time)
1993 Antibodies to the human gamma 2 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA/benzodiazepine receptor.
26  inner layer
(14 times)
Biophysics
(3 times)
OL (4 times)
ALD (1 time)
BER (1 time)
1985 Pentastomid nymph from the brain of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). II. Morphology of the host response.
27  interference lithography
(14 times)
Ophthalmology
(9 times)
3DDW (1 time)
ChG (1 time)
EPS (1 time)
2012 Fabrication of two-dimensional superposed microstructure by interference lithography.
28  immunoliposomes
(13 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
MI (2 times)
PEG (2 times)
scFv (2 times)
1999 Targetability of novel immunoliposomes prepared by a new antibody conjugation technique.
29  Illinois
(11 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
NC (3 times)
CA (2 times)
KN (2 times)
1992 Plasma concentration of furosemide versus specific gravity of urine in predicting dose of administration in race horses.
30  indeterminate leprosy
(11 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
BT (5 times)
LL (4 times)
BL (3 times)
1988 Demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in skin biopsies from indeterminate leprosy cases.
31  instructor-led
(11 times)
Nursing
(6 times)
BLS (3 times)
CB (3 times)
SL (3 times)
2002 A comparison of computer-based and instructor-led training for long-term care staff.
32  ion leakage
(11 times)
Botany
(4 times)
MDA (9 times)
WT (7 times)
ABA (6 times)
2008 Inhibition of glutathione synthesis decreases chilling tolerance in Chorispora bungeana callus.
33  intermittent lighting
(10 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
CL (5 times)
FCP (1 time)
GH (1 time)
1985 The effect of intermittent lighting on growth, feed:gain ratio, and abdominal fat content of broiler chickens of various genotypes and sex.
34  ileum
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
DU (3 times)
BM (2 times)
dss (2 times)
1993 [Mechanisms involved in diversity of membrane excitability in smooth muscle cells].
35  implicit learning
(9 times)
Psychology
(4 times)
ERPs (2 times)
fMRI (2 times)
ADHD (1 time)
2000 Chunking processes in the learning of event sequences: electrophysiological indicators.
36  infant leukemia
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
AML (5 times)
ALL (4 times)
OR (4 times)
2008 High birth weight as an important risk factor for infant leukemia.
37  cytokines-interleukin
(8 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
AAA (1 time)
AKBR (1 time)
BALF (1 time)
1992 Interleukin-1: the principal osteolytic cytokine produced by keratocysts.
38  immunoblastic lymphoma
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
EBV (2 times)
AIDS (1 time)
AILD (1 time)
1982 Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy progressing to immunoblastic lymphoma with prominent gastric involvement.
39  inferolateral
(8 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
SL (4 times)
AS (2 times)
NICM (2 times)
2001 Neuropsychological Outcome and the Extent of Resection in the Unilateral Temporal Lobectomy.
40  infralimbic region
(8 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
mPFC (4 times)
PL (2 times)
CHPG (1 time)
1991 Efferent projections of the infralimbic (area 25) region of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat: an anterograde tracer PHA-L study.
41  inlet load
(8 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
EC (5 times)
EBRT (4 times)
BTF (1 time)
2009 Control of methanol vapours in a biotrickling filter: performance analysis and experimental determination of partition coefficient.
42  Ionoluminescence
(8 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(4 times)
CL (3 times)
FTIR (1 time)
HIM (1 time)
2007 Some new trends in the ionoluminescence of minerals.
43  ipsilesional
(8 times)
Brain
(3 times)
CL (6 times)
NVU (4 times)
AAL (2 times)
2007 fMRI-vs-MEG evaluation of post-stroke interhemispheric asymmetries in primary sensorimotor hand areas.
44  iloprost
(7 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
HBO (3 times)
MDA (3 times)
SOD (3 times)
1990 The acute effect of the synthetic prostacyclin analogue iloprost in primary pulmonary hypertension.
45  Indolicidin
(7 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
PEI (3 times)
CPP (2 times)
MD (2 times)
2009 Coupling molecular dynamics simulations with experiments for the rational design of indolicidin-analogous antimicrobial peptides.
46  infralimbic area
(7 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
PL (4 times)
mPFC (3 times)
VTA (2 times)
1985 Efferent connections of the prelimbic (area 32) and the infralimbic (area 25) cortices: an anterograde tracing study in the cat.
47  inguinal ligament
(7 times)
Anatomy
(3 times)
LFCN (4 times)
ASIS (2 times)
CFA (2 times)
2008 Anatomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve related to inguinal ligament, adjacent bony landmarks, and femoral artery.
48  Instrumentation Laboratory
(7 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
APTT (1 time)
Cc (1 time)
CLCR (1 time)
1981 Determination of the oxygen dissociation curve and P50 of whole blood. An evaluation of the Hem-O-Scan and instrumentation of laboratory systems.
49  insulin lispro
(7 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
s.c (3 times)
HbA1c (2 times)
ID (2 times)
1998 Effects of a short-acting insulin analog (Insulin Lispro) versus regular insulin on lipid metabolism in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
50  ipsilateral lung
(7 times)
Radiotherapy
(4 times)
CL (4 times)
CB (3 times)
DVHs (2 times)
2004 Influence of calculation algorithm on dose distribution in irradiation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) collapsed cone versus pencil beam.
51  ileostomy
(6 times)
General Surgery
(4 times)
PSS (2 times)
QOL (2 times)
CS (1 time)
2000 Ileoanal pouch versus ileostomy: is there a difference in quality of life?
52  iliocostalis lumborum
(6 times)
Exercise Therapy
(4 times)
EMG (4 times)
RA (4 times)
IO (3 times)
2011 Electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during exercises with flexible and non-flexible poles.
53  indirect laryngoscopy
(6 times)
Otolaryngology
(3 times)
DL (4 times)
ACSD (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
1984 Laryngeal involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. A clinical, laryngoscopic, and computerized tomographic study.
54  inflammatory lesion
(6 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
NIL (4 times)
TL (4 times)
BPO (3 times)
2009 A North American study of adapalene-benzoyl peroxide combination gel in the treatment of acne.
55  internode length
(6 times)
Science
(2 times)
PH (3 times)
SL (2 times)
AD (1 time)
2004 Chronic nerve compression induces local demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of carpal tunnel syndrome.
56  intestinal length
(6 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
BW (2 times)
ETTs (2 times)
IW (2 times)
2005 Effect of early nutrition on intestine development of intrauterine growth retardation in rats and its correlation to leptin.
57  intracellular levels of interleukin
(6 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
IFN-gamma (2 times)
CALR (1 time)
DC-SIGN (1 time)
1996 Trypanosoma cruzi downregulates the production of interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 by activated human lymphocytes.
58  Israel
(6 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
D-loop (1 time)
EJ (1 time)
GB (1 time)
2013 Purely in silico BCS classification: science based quality standards for the world's drugs.
59  Ivor-Lewis
(6 times)
General Surgery
(4 times)
AEG (2 times)
LTA (2 times)
IEBLD (1 time)
1998 Relationships between operative approaches and outcomes in esophageal cancer.
60  water-ionic liquid
(6 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
EXAFS (2 times)
SAXS (2 times)
LCMs (1 time)
2008 Application of the Bahe's pseudolattice theory to water-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) mixtures at 298.15K: Part II. Acidity scales.
61  ignition loss
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
TC (2 times)
AVS (1 time)
BMA (1 time)
2003 Determination of oxygen consumption for landfilled municipal solid wastes.
62  ileal
(5 times)
Science
(2 times)
aa (1 time)
AC (1 time)
app (1 time)
2001 Study of the optimum ideal protein level for weaned piglets.
63  index lesion
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
mpMRI (4 times)
csPCa (2 times)
PI-RADS (2 times)
2009 Five-year incidence of advanced neoplasia after initial colonoscopy in Japan: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.
64  indolent lymphoma
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
AL (2 times)
ACTL (1 time)
ASCT (1 time)
1995 Cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with B cell lymphomas.
65  inhibited LPS-mediated interleukin
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
LPS (3 times)
PBMCs (2 times)
TNF (2 times)
2007 Amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a novel phosphodiesterase 7 and 4 dual inhibitor, YM-393059.
66  initial lesions
(5 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
dmfs (2 times)
WHO (2 times)
DMFT (1 time)
2006 Effect of different diagnostic thresholds on dental caries calibration.
67  inspiratory loading
(5 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
CUFF (1 time)
DI (1 time)
EL (1 time)
1993 Effects of flow and resistive training on respiratory muscle endurance and strength.
68  interferometric lithography
(5 times)
Biocompatible Materials
(2 times)
GFP (1 time)
MNPs (1 time)
NIL (1 time)
2011 Nanostructures and functional materials fabricated by interferometric lithography.
69  inward leakage
(5 times)
Occupational Medicine
(4 times)
EHRs (2 times)
FFRs (2 times)
CV (1 time)
2005 Evaluation of particulate filtering respirators using inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing--Korean experience.
70  isoliensinine
(5 times)
Botany
(2 times)
CASMCs (2 times)
Ang II (1 time)
AP (1 time)
2005 Inhibitory effects of isoliensinine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
71  hyper-interleukin
(4 times)
Hematology
(3 times)
IgG4-RD (2 times)
HLH (1 time)
IFN (1 time)
1996 Hyper-interleukin (IL)-6-naemia in haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
72  IFN-gamma+interleukin
(4 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
TLRs (2 times)
BDCA (1 time)
HCV (1 time)
2010 Recognition by Toll-like receptor 2 induces antigen-presenting cell activation and Th1 programming during infection by Neospora caninum.
73  ilioinguinal
(4 times)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
IH (2 times)
HHS (1 time)
ISS (1 time)
2013 Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves cannot be selectively blocked by using ultrasound guidance: a volunteer study.
74  iliopsoas
(4 times)
Brain
(2 times)
MRI (2 times)
COP (1 time)
EMG (1 time)
2003 Foot-sole reflex receptive fields for human withdrawal reflexes in symmetrical standing position.
75  immunolabeling
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
PHN (2 times)
AD (1 time)
2011 Keratinocyte expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide beta: implications for neuropathic and inflammatory pain mechanisms.
76  incidental learning
(4 times)
Brain
(3 times)
AD (1 time)
RBANS (1 time)
2018 Incidental learning from the coding subtest of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.
77  inguinal lymphadenectomy
(4 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
VEIL (2 times)
L-VEIL (1 time)
LN (1 time)
2015 Video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy for lymph node metastasis from solid tumors.
78  intracranial lesion
(4 times)
Brain
(3 times)
mTBI (2 times)
TBI (2 times)
CT (1 time)
2009 Skull fracture, with or without clinical signs, in mTBI is an independent risk marker for neurosurgically relevant intracranial lesion: a cohort study.
79  intraepithelial lymphocytes
(4 times)
Anatomy
(2 times)
BN (1 time)
CD (1 time)
FFPE (1 time)
1976 Proliferative kinetics of large and small intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestine of the mouse.
80  intranodal lymphangiography
(4 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
PL (2 times)
TDE (2 times)
SCDs (1 time)
2012 Feasibility of ultrasound-guided intranodal lymphangiogram for thoracic duct embolization.
81  Ionic Liquids
(4 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
BT (1 time)
DEL (1 time)
MOFs (1 time)
2014 Ionic liquids supported on metal-organic frameworks: remarkable adsorbents for adsorptive desulfurization.
82  irrigated + fertilized
(4 times)
Botany
(4 times)
SNA (1 time)
STAR (1 time)
1996 Foliage, fine-root, woody-tissue and stand respiration in Pinus radiata in relation to nitrogen status.
83  isocitrate lyase
(4 times)
Botany
(2 times)
AC (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
ID (1 time)
1989 Determination of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities in a marine bivalve mollusk by a new method of assay.
84  isoload
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
IK (3 times)
EMG (1 time)
ICC (1 time)
2010 A new device to study isoload eccentric exercise.
85  IgE level and interleukin
(3 times)
Internal Medicine
(1 time)
OVA (2 times)
AD (1 time)
DC (1 time)
2004 [The mechanism and implication of costimulatory molecules in dendritic cells in the development of asthma].
86  ignitable liquid
(3 times)
Jurisprudence
(2 times)
FuRESs (1 time)
GC/MS (1 time)
ILRs (1 time)
2010 Detection and classification of ignitable liquid residues using a fluorescence-based vapor-sensitive microsphere array.
87  iliac
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
BCT (1 time)
BM (1 time)
CFT (1 time)
2014 A comparative assessment of culture and serology in the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.
88  iliocostalis
(3 times)
Musculoskeletal Diseases
(1 time)
AIS (1 time)
DMD (1 time)
ES (1 time)
2008 Magnetic resonance imaging of the erector spinae muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implication for scoliotic deformities.
89  imitation learning
(3 times)
Neural Networks (Computer)
(2 times)
RL (2 times)
DRL (1 time)
FCCA (1 time)
2017 Bridging the Gap Between Imitation Learning and Inverse Reinforcement Learning.
90  immediately
(3 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
PISF (2 times)
CL (1 time)
DL (1 time)
2008 Myeloperoxidase as a measure of polymorphonuclear leukocyte response in inflammatory status around immediately and delayed loaded dental implants: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
91  immobilized liquid
(3 times)
Biocompatible Materials
(1 time)
--- 2016 Immobilized liquid layers: A new approach to anti-adhesion surfaces for medical applications.
92  implant length
(3 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
BG (1 time)
BL (1 time)
CBCT (1 time)
2014 The effect of shape, length and diameter of implants on primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis.
93  implant level
(3 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
MBL (3 times)
AL (1 time)
AM (1 time)
2016 Bone Response and Soft Tissue Changes Around Implants With/Without Abutments Supporting Fixed Partial Dentures: Results From a 3-Year, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study.
94  increased lung interleukin
(3 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
EPO (2 times)
MIP (1 time)
TUNEL (1 time)
2001 Enteral feeding decreases gut apoptosis, permeability, and lung inflammation during murine endotoxemia.
95  individual learning
(3 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
CL (2 times)
AOE (1 time)
CLS (1 time)
2005 Cooperative learning effects on teamwork attitudes in clinical laboratory science students.
96  induction of labor
(3 times)
Obstetrics
(1 time)
BS (1 time)
CL (1 time)
CM (1 time)
1995 [Erythrocytic enzymatic systems and their antioxidative potential in pregnant women undergoing labor induction with intracervical PGE2].
97  infiltrating lobular
(3 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ID (2 times)
1993 Factors influencing survival in infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast.
98  infiltrating lymphocyte
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
AA (1 time)
BBD (1 time)
BrCa (1 time)
2000 Prognostic value of intratumoral natural killer cells in gastric carcinoma.
99  inflammasome, leading to interleukin
(3 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
NLRP3 (2 times)
COPD (1 time)
CREAT (1 time)
2014 Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex is not required for stress-induced death of pancreatic islets.
100  inflammasome-interleukin
(3 times)
Fetus
(1 time)
ASCVD (1 time)
CARD (1 time)
CIs (1 time)
2005 Risk of spontaneous preterm birth is associated with common proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms.