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Abbreviation: IR
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Long forms: 968

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
insulin resistance
(4582 times)
Endocrinology
(1035 times)
BMI (626 times)
HOMA-IR (601 times)
PCOS (451 times)
1982 Insulin resistance developing in children with IDDM.
immunoreactivity
(4138 times)
Neurology
(1550 times)
TH (280 times)
SP (255 times)
CGRP (253 times)
1975 Differential in vivo pulmonary degradation of prostaglandins E1, B1, and A1.
infrared
(3553 times)
Chemistry
(895 times)
NMR (197 times)
UV (174 times)
XRD (129 times)
1967 Chemical and physical properties of isomeric glyceryl monoethers.
ischemia-reperfusion
(2668 times)
General Surgery
(344 times)
MDA (230 times)
SOD (147 times)
ROS (131 times)
1988 Rate of reperfusion blood flow modulates reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.
ionizing radiation
(2632 times)
Neoplasms
(837 times)
DSBs (221 times)
ATM (156 times)
DSB (141 times)
1977 The values of alpha 2-macroglobulin in the serum of persons at work with x-rays.
insulin receptor
(1579 times)
Biochemistry
(369 times)
IRS-1 (166 times)
IGF-1R (112 times)
IRS (111 times)
1984 Insulin receptors in cultured human keratinocytes.
immediate-release
(810 times)
Pharmacology
(326 times)
ER (193 times)
CR (98 times)
SR (91 times)
1984 [Chronic asthma in children: comparison between a delayed-action theophylline preparation and a prompt-release aminophylline preparation].
incidence rate
(588 times)
Medicine
(59 times)
CI (126 times)
IRR (71 times)
HR (46 times)
1983 Estimation of incidence of human leukaemia subtypes in an urban African population.
infrared spectroscopy
(476 times)
Chemistry
(126 times)
XRD (120 times)
SEM (108 times)
DSC (76 times)
1975 Investigations into the determination of the cytotoxicity of quartz dust by physical methods.
10  inversion recovery
(344 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(159 times)
SE (72 times)
MR (57 times)
MRI (52 times)
1982 Clinical NMR imaging of the brain: 140 cases.
11  inverted repeat
(344 times)
Molecular Biology
(122 times)
LSC (46 times)
SSC (42 times)
cp (22 times)
1981 Physical characterization of Bacteroides fragilis R plasmid pBF4.
12  interventional radiology
(342 times)
Radiology
(190 times)
CT (16 times)
OR (9 times)
IC (7 times)
1994 Advances in interventional radiology in oncology.
13  iterative reconstruction
(285 times)
Radiology
(171 times)
FBP (174 times)
CT (89 times)
CNR (54 times)
2001 Scintimammography: better detection of small-sized lesions with tomoscintigraphic than planar images, a phantom study.
14  irradiation
(267 times)
Neoplasms
(84 times)
DSBs (16 times)
ROS (11 times)
ATM (9 times)
1981 Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland.
15  internal rotation
(229 times)
Sports Medicine
(93 times)
ER (159 times)
ROM (70 times)
ACL (16 times)
1994 Comparative measurements of anterior tibial translation using the KT-1000 knee arthrometer with the leg in neutral, internal rotation, and external rotation.
16  intermediate risk
(137 times)
Neoplasms
(64 times)
HR (85 times)
LR (53 times)
ALL (29 times)
1987 A population-based study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed from July 1981 through June 1985 in the five Nordic countries. Incidence, patient characteristics and treatment results.
17  implantation rate
(116 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(74 times)
CPR (41 times)
PR (37 times)
LBR (23 times)
1991 Embryo implantation rates in stimulated and hormonal replacement cycles: uterine versus tubal transfers.
18  internal
(112 times)
General Surgery
(22 times)
ER (45 times)
SR (11 times)
AAA (8 times)
1975 The growth characteristics of the metastatic Wistar/Furth Wilms' tumor model.
19  infrared spectrum
(103 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(26 times)
XRD (18 times)
MS (14 times)
NMR (14 times)
1987 Abuse of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco: I. Inhalation efficiency and pyrolysis products of methamphetamine.
20  interquartile range
(83 times)
Endocrinology
(9 times)
CI (8 times)
BMI (3 times)
OR (3 times)
1986 Functional capacity and treatment data from a community based study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
21  mid-infrared
(74 times)
Ophthalmology
(30 times)
FTIR (8 times)
PCA (5 times)
NIR (4 times)
1996 Quantitation of cefepime.2HCl dihydrate in cefepime.2HCl monohydrate by diffuse reflectance IR and powder X-ray diffraction techniques.
22  near-infrared
(74 times)
Ophthalmology
(13 times)
UV (8 times)
PSII (3 times)
QDs (3 times)
1991 Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman studies of calf gamma-crystallins in the lyophilized state and in solution.
23  information retrieval
(73 times)
Medical Informatics
(55 times)
NLP (9 times)
EHRs (4 times)
MAP (4 times)
1992 New role of a medical documentation system.
24  inferior rectus
(66 times)
Ophthalmology
(46 times)
SR (24 times)
MR (20 times)
LR (19 times)
1979 Horizontal canal input to cat extraocular motoneurons.
25  incomplete revascularization
(53 times)
Cardiology
(38 times)
CR (41 times)
PCI (15 times)
MVD (13 times)
1991 [Clinical evaluation of incomplete PTCA revascularization efficacy].
26  infrared radiation
(52 times)
Dermatology
(13 times)
UV (3 times)
ESI-MS (2 times)
IRA (2 times)
1982 Intensification of ultraviolet-induced dermal damage by infrared radiation.
27  intergenic region
(49 times)
Virology
(21 times)
ORFs (5 times)
TYLCV (4 times)
CAT (3 times)
1979 Construction of an M13 histidine-transducing phage: a single-stranded cloning vehicle with one EcoRI site.
28  intron retention
(43 times)
Genetics
(12 times)
AS (19 times)
ES (3 times)
HS (3 times)
2007 Sequence features responsible for intron retention in human.
29  imidazoline receptor
(37 times)
Pharmacology
(13 times)
Agm (5 times)
alpha2-AR (3 times)
APA (3 times)
1992 Isolation and characterization of imidazoline receptor protein from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.
30  intermediate
(35 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
HR (13 times)
HPA (6 times)
LR (6 times)
1992 Evaluation of elastic structural change in coronary atherosclerosis using scanning acoustic microscopy.
31  gamma-irradiation
(33 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
ATM (5 times)
PTX (4 times)
HR (3 times)
1998 Cytokine rescue of p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest is mediated by distinct Jak kinase signaling pathways.
32  infrared reflectance
(32 times)
Ophthalmology
(23 times)
SD-OCT (17 times)
FAF (13 times)
RPD (7 times)
1983 The assessment of smooth tracking dysfunction.
33  inadequate response
(27 times)
Rheumatology
(14 times)
RA (14 times)
MTX (5 times)
TNFi (5 times)
1995 Inadequate response to H2-receptor antagonists. Absence of parietal cell cAMP-stimulating autoantibodies.
34  immune reconstitution
(26 times)
Hematology
(9 times)
HCT (5 times)
NK (5 times)
CMV (4 times)
2001 Long-term clinical benefit after highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-1 infection, even in patients without immune reconstitution.
35  induced resistance
(23 times)
Botany
(7 times)
CR (4 times)
ABA (2 times)
Hx (2 times)
1992 In-vitro activities of 14-, 15- and 16-membered macrolides against gram-positive cocci.
36  irradiated
(23 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
CAPE (2 times)
MDA (2 times)
NI (2 times)
1985 Acceleration of neoplasms of reticular tissue with syngeneic thymic graft under renal capsule and gamma radiation.
37  idiopathic rhinitis
(22 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(12 times)
AR (7 times)
NHR (3 times)
SP (3 times)
2000 Idiopathic and allergic rhinitis show a similar inflammatory response
38  ionotropic receptors
(22 times)
Genetics
(7 times)
OR (13 times)
Gr (11 times)
OBP (7 times)
2010 Acid sensing by the Drosophila olfactory system.
39  index of reactivity
(21 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(16 times)
HDM (6 times)
SLIT (6 times)
AASS (2 times)
1995 Evaluation of a composite scoring system in conjunctival challenge with allergen: reproducibility and evolution during loratadine treatment.
40  infrared absorption
(21 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
VCD (11 times)
DFT (4 times)
ROA (2 times)
1987 Determination of total body water by deuterium NMR.
41  inactive renin
(20 times)
Metabolism
(5 times)
AR (12 times)
PRA (5 times)
TR (5 times)
1980 Inactive renin and prostaglandin E2 production in hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism.
42  infrared absorption spectroscopy
(19 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
XRD (7 times)
SEM (5 times)
DSC (4 times)
1998 Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of physicochemical properties of different crystalline forms of ibuprofen.
43  inwardly rectifying
(19 times)
Physiology
(11 times)
OR (5 times)
4-AP (2 times)
DIDS (2 times)
1990 Membrane currents in hippocampal neurons.
44  isolated rearing
(19 times)
Brain
(8 times)
PPI (9 times)
MA (5 times)
SR (5 times)
2003 Serotonin fibre densities in subcortical areas: differential effects of isolated rearing and methamphetamine.
45  incomplete response
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
CR (13 times)
GCT (5 times)
OS (4 times)
1991 Salvage chemotherapy for patients with germ cell tumors. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience (1979-1989).
46  inflammatory response
(17 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
CPB (3 times)
CRP (2 times)
TA (2 times)
2001 Innate immunity and inflammation: a transcriptional paradigm.
47  infusion rate
(17 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
MR (6 times)
BG (4 times)
aa (1 time)
1986 Extremity amino acid metabolism during starvation and intravenous refeeding in humans.
48  inpatient rehabilitation
(17 times)
Rehabilitation
(6 times)
FIM (5 times)
LOS (3 times)
SCI (3 times)
2003 The relationship of Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Score to rehabilitative potential in patients suffering traumatic brain injury.
49  input resistance
(17 times)
Brain
(3 times)
GM (4 times)
HT (3 times)
RMP (3 times)
1996 Blockade of dopamine storage, but not of dopamine synthesis, prevents activation of a tolbutamide-sensitive K+ channel in the guinea-pig substantia nigra.
50  ischemia followed by reperfusion
(17 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
IPC (3 times)
MI (2 times)
A3R (1 time)
2002 Effect of ischemic preconditioning on hepatic microcirculation and function in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion injury.
51  identification rate
(16 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
FNR (9 times)
SLNB (8 times)
NAC (6 times)
2006 Meta-analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
52  immediate reconstruction
(16 times)
General Surgery
(9 times)
DR (2 times)
NAC (2 times)
NIWCs (2 times)
1996 [Expansion in breast surgery].
53  insulin resistance index
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
BMI (8 times)
HOMA (4 times)
FINS (3 times)
1999 Homeostasis model assessment as a clinical index of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.
54  infusion reactions
(15 times)
Rheumatology
(4 times)
IFX (2 times)
mCRC (2 times)
CIR (1 time)
2004 Human antichimeric antibody in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease receiving infliximab.
55  initiation region
(15 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
MAR (7 times)
DMs (2 times)
HSR (2 times)
1990 A sequence pattern that occurs at the transcription initiation region of yeast RNA polymerase II promoters.
56  incomplete repair
(14 times)
Radiology
(9 times)
NTCP (2 times)
CSI (1 time)
EBRT (1 time)
1985 An 'incomplete-repair' model for survival after fractionated and continuous irradiations.
57  inverted repeat regions
(14 times)
DNA, Mitochondrial
(6 times)
LSC (6 times)
SSC (6 times)
cp (3 times)
1994 Physical map of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium strain RK-1.
58  imagery rescripting
(13 times)
Therapeutics
(8 times)
IE (4 times)
PTSD (3 times)
SAD (3 times)
2012 Adding imagery rescripting during extinction leads to less ABA renewal.
59  injury rate
(13 times)
Sports Medicine
(11 times)
IRR (3 times)
NFL (3 times)
A-E (2 times)
1989 Ammonia-induced injury in pure cultures and natural populations of coliform bacteria.
60  intrinsic religiosity
(13 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
OR (3 times)
ORA (3 times)
DUREL (2 times)
2003 Religiosity and mental health in southern, community-dwelling older adults.
61  infrared light
(12 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
RF (2 times)
VL (2 times)
AL (1 time)
1986 Comparison of amplification systems in a classroom.
62  intentional replantation
(12 times)
Dentistry
(10 times)
CBCT (1 time)
CSCTDs (1 time)
EMD (1 time)
1995 Intentional replantation: a case study.
63  illegitimate recombination
(11 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
HR (4 times)
bp (1 time)
DIR (1 time)
1999 Enhanced gene replacement in mycobacteria.
64  image registration
(11 times)
Biophysics
(3 times)
AMD (2 times)
IGRT (2 times)
AO (1 time)
2003 Attenuation correction of PET activation studies in the presence of task-related motion.
65  impedance ratio
(11 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(4 times)
EIT (5 times)
PA (4 times)
ARF (2 times)
1999 Evaluation of electrical impedance tomography in the measurement of PEEP-induced changes in lung volume.
66  implementation research
(11 times)
Public Health
(4 times)
PMTCT (2 times)
CNCD (1 time)
FHS (1 time)
2014 Prioritizing the PMTCT implementation research agenda in 3 African countries: INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch (INSPIRE).
67  indirect revascularization
(11 times)
Vascular Diseases
(10 times)
DR (9 times)
CLI (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2012 Factors influencing wound healing of critical ischaemic foot after bypass surgery: is the angiosome important in selecting bypass target artery?
68  intermediate response
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
NR (4 times)
HR (2 times)
beta-TI (1 time)
1986 [Factors modifying late bronchial response in the bronchial provocation test in asthmatic children].
69  inferior rectus muscle
(10 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
IO (4 times)
SR (4 times)
MR (3 times)
1988 Axonal trajectories of posterior canal-activated secondary vestibular neurons and their coactivation of extraocular and neck flexor motoneurons in the cat.
70  insulin release
(10 times)
Endocrinology
(6 times)
2-KIC (1 time)
aa (1 time)
ACh (1 time)
1979 The prostaglandins system and insulin release. Studies with the isolated perfused rat pancreas.
71  intracoronary radiation
(10 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
IA (6 times)
BI (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1999 Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model.
72  resistance index
(10 times)
Obstetrics
(2 times)
authors transl (1 time)
CVD (1 time)
DA-1 (1 time)
1980 [Measurement of carotid diastolic flow by ultrasonography using the Doppler effect, and its value in diagnosis (authors transl)].
73  hydroxylase-immunoreactive
(9 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
ARC (2 times)
BDNF (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
1997 Alterations in mystacial pad innervation in the aged rat.
74  incomplete resection
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CR (4 times)
OS (3 times)
CI (2 times)
1989 The improvement of systolic function of depressed left ventricle by external vibration at diastole.
75  insecticide-resistant
(9 times)
Genetics
(5 times)
IS (4 times)
5M2TU (1 time)
5P2TU (1 time)
1991 Variation of spontaneous and induced mitotic recombination in different Drosophila populations: a pilot study on the effects of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in six newly constructed tester strains.
76  internal repeat
(9 times)
Virology
(4 times)
EBV (3 times)
TR (3 times)
aa (1 time)
1985 Evidence that respiratory tract is major reservoir for Epstein-Barr virus.
77  inverted repeat sequences
(9 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
A/T (1 time)
DR (1 time)
EHV-1 (1 time)
1985 G inversion in bacteriophage Mu DNA is stimulated by a site within the invertase gene and a host factor.
78  iron replete
(9 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
ID (7 times)
IDA (4 times)
SF (2 times)
2004 Evaluation of serum ferritin in screening for iron deficiency in tuberculosis.
79  isotope ratio
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
AP (1 time)
BLL (1 time)
CDC (1 time)
1985 Evaluation of isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometry for the study of drug metabolism.
80  gamma-ionizing radiation
(8 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
ROS (3 times)
EMT (2 times)
3-MA (1 time)
2004 Modifications in cell cycle kinetics and in expression of G1 phase-regulating proteins in human amniotic cells after exposure to electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation.
81  immunoreactive cells
(8 times)
Histology
(2 times)
BPH (1 time)
CCK (1 time)
CREB (1 time)
1987 Plasma relaxin levels in pregnant and lactating dogs.
82  improvements in HOMA
(8 times)
Metabolism
(3 times)
FIRI (1 time)
IHCL (1 time)
MRI (1 time)
1991 Spurious surface finish improvement of the infrared extinction coefficient of alpha quartz.
83  impulse radio
(8 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
UWB (4 times)
WBAN (2 times)
BANs (1 time)
2009 4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission.
84  infrared analysis
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
HPLC (4 times)
DSC (3 times)
SEM (3 times)
1993 Partial least-squares regression for routine analysis of urinary calculus composition with Fourier transform infrared analysis.
85  infrared ray
(8 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
E. coli (2 times)
ROS (2 times)
Asp (1 time)
1999 Labeled carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies excitable by infrared rays: a novel diagnostic method for micro cancers in the digestive tract.
86  integration region
(8 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
C/B (1 time)
DCLP (1 time)
FcgammaRs (1 time)
1998 The spatial region of integration for visual symmetry detection.
87  intensity ratio
(8 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
MCMC (3 times)
AC (2 times)
IACT (2 times)
1993 Evaluating coronary reperfusion during acute myocardial infarction in a canine model by gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
88  interstitial rejection
(8 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
VR (3 times)
ATN (1 time)
BC (1 time)
1982 Interstitial mononuclear cell populations in renal graft rejection. Identification by monoclonal antibodies in tissue sections.
89  ileal resection
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(5 times)
CD (4 times)
BAD (2 times)
Ab (1 time)
1978 Evidence for excessive absorption of oxalate by the colon in enteric hyperoxaluria.
90  image reconstruction
(7 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
FBP (5 times)
ASIR (2 times)
CT (2 times)
1999 Image restoration using the chiral Potts spin glass.
91  immediate recall
(7 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
DR (6 times)
AD (1 time)
ADAS-Jcog (1 time)
2000 APOE-epsilon4 is associated with memory decline in cognitively impaired elderly.
92  immunosuppression reduction
(7 times)
Transplantation
(7 times)
PTLD (5 times)
EBV (2 times)
CNI (1 time)
2003 Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease: treatment and outcome in renal transplant recipients.
93  implant removal
(7 times)
Traumatology
(3 times)
CS (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
EV (1 time)
1992 Luteal function and reproductive response in suckled beef cows after metestrus administration of a norgestomet implant and injection of estradiol valerate with various dosages of injectable norgestomet.
94  improvement rate
(7 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
JOA (5 times)
MRI (2 times)
ACAF (1 time)
1995 Low back pain outcome measurement assessment in chiropractic teaching clinics: responsiveness and applicability of two functional disability questionnaires.
95  increased
(7 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
CI (2 times)
ACC (1 time)
CBF (1 time)
2005 Changes in access, utilization, and quality of care after enrollment into a state child health insurance plan.
96  increased risk
(7 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
SR (2 times)
ALL (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
1981 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Swedish children 1973-1978.
97  inhibitor-resistant
(7 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
SHV (2 times)
ESBL (1 time)
ESBLs (1 time)
1979 Detection of "alpha-type" inhibitors in the presence of low levels of specific influenza antibodies.
98  inspiratory resistance
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ER (2 times)
AI (1 time)
AN (1 time)
1982 The effects of inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis.
99  interobserver reliability
(7 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
ICSD-R (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
ATS (1 time)
2003 Interobserver reliability of ICSD-R criteria for REM sleep behaviour disorder.
100  inwardly rectifying K+ current
(7 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
cAMP (1 time)
EGTA (1 time)
ELH (1 time)
1988 Mechanism of calcium-dependent inactivation of a potassium current in Aplysia neuron R15: interaction between calcium and cyclic AMP.