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Abbreviation: IR
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Long forms: 925

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
insulin resistance
(4127 times)
Endocrinology
(959 times)
BMI (574 times)
HOMA-IR (524 times)
PCOS (416 times)
1982 Insulin resistance developing in children with IDDM.
infrared
(3271 times)
Chemistry
(819 times)
NMR (180 times)
UV (163 times)
XRD (121 times)
1967 Chemical and physical properties of isomeric glyceryl monoethers.
immunoreactivity
(2763 times)
Neurology
(1070 times)
SP (212 times)
CGRP (209 times)
TH (189 times)
1975 Differential in vivo pulmonary degradation of prostaglandins E1, B1, and A1.
ischemia-reperfusion
(2458 times)
General Surgery
(334 times)
MDA (216 times)
SOD (134 times)
IPC (116 times)
1988 Rate of reperfusion blood flow modulates reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.
ionizing radiation
(2434 times)
Neoplasms
(788 times)
DSBs (209 times)
ATM (155 times)
DSB (130 times)
1977 The values of alpha 2-macroglobulin in the serum of persons at work with x-rays.
insulin receptor
(1505 times)
Biochemistry
(363 times)
IRS-1 (160 times)
IGF-IR (107 times)
IRS (106 times)
1984 Insulin receptors in cultured human keratinocytes.
immediate-release
(757 times)
Pharmacology
(313 times)
ER (174 times)
CR (94 times)
SR (87 times)
1984 [Chronic asthma in children: comparison between a delayed-action theophylline preparation and a prompt-release aminophylline preparation].
incidence rate
(517 times)
Medicine
(51 times)
CI (111 times)
IRR (61 times)
HR (41 times)
1983 Estimation of incidence of human leukaemia subtypes in an urban African population.
infrared spectroscopy
(431 times)
Chemistry
(118 times)
XRD (110 times)
SEM (98 times)
DSC (73 times)
1975 Investigations into the determination of the cytotoxicity of quartz dust by physical methods.
10  inversion recovery
(333 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(154 times)
SE (72 times)
MR (57 times)
MRI (51 times)
1982 Clinical NMR imaging of the brain: 140 cases.
11  inverted repeat
(326 times)
Molecular Biology
(120 times)
LSC (39 times)
SSC (37 times)
cp (18 times)
1981 Physical characterization of Bacteroides fragilis R plasmid pBF4.
12  interventional radiology
(295 times)
Radiology
(159 times)
CT (16 times)
OR (9 times)
IC (7 times)
1994 Advances in interventional radiology in oncology.
13  iterative reconstruction
(260 times)
Radiology
(155 times)
FBP (162 times)
CT (79 times)
CNR (50 times)
2001 Scintimammography: better detection of small-sized lesions with tomoscintigraphic than planar images, a phantom study.
14  irradiation
(243 times)
Neoplasms
(77 times)
DSBs (14 times)
ROS (9 times)
ATM (8 times)
1981 Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland.
15  internal rotation
(202 times)
Sports Medicine
(84 times)
ER (142 times)
ROM (55 times)
ACL (16 times)
1994 Comparative measurements of anterior tibial translation using the KT-1000 knee arthrometer with the leg in neutral, internal rotation, and external rotation.
16  intermediate risk
(123 times)
Neoplasms
(59 times)
HR (76 times)
LR (49 times)
ALL (26 times)
1987 A population-based study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed from July 1981 through June 1985 in the five Nordic countries. Incidence, patient characteristics and treatment results.
17  implantation rate
(106 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(71 times)
CPR (36 times)
PR (35 times)
IVF (21 times)
1991 Embryo implantation rates in stimulated and hormonal replacement cycles: uterine versus tubal transfers.
18  infrared spectra
(99 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(27 times)
XRD (17 times)
TEM (14 times)
MS (13 times)
1987 Abuse of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco: I. Inhalation efficiency and pyrolysis products of methamphetamine.
19  interquartile range
(79 times)
Endocrinology
(9 times)
CI (8 times)
BMI (3 times)
OR (3 times)
1986 Functional capacity and treatment data from a community based study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
20  information retrieval
(69 times)
Medical Informatics
(53 times)
NLP (8 times)
EHRs (4 times)
MAP (4 times)
1992 New role of a medical documentation system.
21  near-infrared
(67 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(11 times)
UV (8 times)
PSII (3 times)
EPR (2 times)
1991 Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman studies of calf gamma-crystallins in the lyophilized state and in solution.
22  mid-infrared
(66 times)
Ophthalmology
(25 times)
FTIR (7 times)
NIR (4 times)
PCA (4 times)
1996 Quantitation of cefepime.2HCl dihydrate in cefepime.2HCl monohydrate by diffuse reflectance IR and powder X-ray diffraction techniques.
23  inferior rectus
(60 times)
Ophthalmology
(42 times)
SR (22 times)
LR (19 times)
MR (19 times)
1979 Horizontal canal input to cat extraocular motoneurons.
24  infrarenal
(58 times)
General Surgery
(14 times)
SR (9 times)
AAA (8 times)
SC (7 times)
1975 The growth characteristics of the metastatic Wistar/Furth Wilms' tumor model.
25  internal
(49 times)
Sports Medicine
(19 times)
ER (45 times)
ROM (7 times)
ACL (4 times)
1993 Loading and deformation of the cat posterior knee joint capsule in axial and extension rotations.
26  infrared radiation
(47 times)
Dermatology
(12 times)
UV (3 times)
IRA (2 times)
MW (2 times)
1982 Intensification of ultraviolet-induced dermal damage by infrared radiation.
27  intergenic region
(47 times)
Virology
(21 times)
ORFs (5 times)
TYLCV (4 times)
CAT (3 times)
1979 Construction of an M13 histidine-transducing phage: a single-stranded cloning vehicle with one EcoRI site.
28  incomplete revascularization
(43 times)
Cardiology
(30 times)
CR (31 times)
PCI (14 times)
CI (10 times)
1991 [Clinical evaluation of incomplete PTCA revascularization efficacy].
29  imidazoline receptor
(36 times)
Pharmacology
(13 times)
Agm (5 times)
alpha2-AR (4 times)
APA (3 times)
1992 Isolation and characterization of imidazoline receptor protein from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.
30  intermediate
(34 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
HR (13 times)
HPA (6 times)
LR (6 times)
1992 Evaluation of elastic structural change in coronary atherosclerosis using scanning acoustic microscopy.
31  intron retention
(33 times)
Genetics
(12 times)
AS (14 times)
ES (2 times)
HS (2 times)
2007 Sequence features responsible for intron retention in human.
32  gamma-irradiation
(32 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
ATM (5 times)
PTX (4 times)
HR (3 times)
1998 Cytokine rescue of p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest is mediated by distinct Jak kinase signaling pathways.
33  infrared reflectance
(29 times)
Ophthalmology
(23 times)
SD-OCT (16 times)
FAF (12 times)
RPD (7 times)
1983 The assessment of smooth tracking dysfunction.
34  induced resistance
(23 times)
Botany
(7 times)
CR (4 times)
ABA (2 times)
Hx (2 times)
1992 In-vitro activities of 14-, 15- and 16-membered macrolides against gram-positive cocci.
35  idiopathic rhinitis
(22 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(12 times)
AR (7 times)
NHR (3 times)
SP (3 times)
2000 Idiopathic and allergic rhinitis show a similar inflammatory response
36  irradiated
(22 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
CAPE (2 times)
MDA (2 times)
NI (2 times)
1985 Acceleration of neoplasms of reticular tissue with syngeneic thymic graft under renal capsule and gamma radiation.
37  infrared absorption
(21 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
VCD (11 times)
DFT (4 times)
ROA (2 times)
1987 Determination of total body water by deuterium NMR.
38  inactive renin
(20 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
AR (12 times)
PRA (5 times)
TR (5 times)
1980 Inactive renin and prostaglandin E2 production in hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism.
39  index of reactivity
(20 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(15 times)
SLIT (6 times)
HDM (5 times)
APT (2 times)
1995 Evaluation of a composite scoring system in conjunctival challenge with allergen: reproducibility and evolution during loratadine treatment.
40  immune reconstitution
(19 times)
Hematology
(7 times)
CMV (4 times)
HSCT (4 times)
GVHD (3 times)
2001 Long-term clinical benefit after highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-1 infection, even in patients without immune reconstitution.
41  infrared absorption spectroscopy
(19 times)
Chemistry
(4 times)
XRD (7 times)
SEM (5 times)
DSC (4 times)
1998 Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of physicochemical properties of different crystalline forms of ibuprofen.
42  inwardly rectifying
(19 times)
Physiology
(11 times)
OR (5 times)
4-AP (2 times)
DIDS (2 times)
1990 Membrane currents in hippocampal neurons.
43  ionotropic receptors
(19 times)
Genetics
(6 times)
OR (11 times)
Gr (10 times)
OBP (6 times)
2010 Acid sensing by the Drosophila olfactory system.
44  inadequate response
(18 times)
Rheumatology
(9 times)
RA (11 times)
AEs (4 times)
TNFi (4 times)
1995 Inadequate response to H2-receptor antagonists. Absence of parietal cell cAMP-stimulating autoantibodies.
45  isolated rearing
(18 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
PPI (8 times)
MA (5 times)
DA (4 times)
2003 Serotonin fibre densities in subcortical areas: differential effects of isolated rearing and methamphetamine.
46  immediate reconstruction
(16 times)
General Surgery
(9 times)
DR (2 times)
NAC (2 times)
NIWCs (2 times)
1996 [Expansion in breast surgery].
47  incomplete response
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
CR (11 times)
GCT (5 times)
OS (3 times)
1991 Salvage chemotherapy for patients with germ cell tumors. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience (1979-1989).
48  inflammatory response
(16 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
CPB (3 times)
CRP (2 times)
TA (2 times)
2001 Innate immunity and inflammation: a transcriptional paradigm.
49  infusion rate
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
MR (5 times)
BG (4 times)
aa (1 time)
1986 Extremity amino acid metabolism during starvation and intravenous refeeding in humans.
50  insulin resistance index
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
BMI (8 times)
HOMA (4 times)
FINS (3 times)
1999 Homeostasis model assessment as a clinical index of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.
51  identification rate
(15 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
FNR (8 times)
SLNB (7 times)
NAC (6 times)
2006 Meta-analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
52  initiation region
(15 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
MAR (7 times)
DMs (2 times)
HSR (2 times)
1990 A sequence pattern that occurs at the transcription initiation region of yeast RNA polymerase II promoters.
53  input resistance
(15 times)
Brain
(3 times)
GM (3 times)
RMP (3 times)
AMPA (2 times)
1996 Blockade of dopamine storage, but not of dopamine synthesis, prevents activation of a tolbutamide-sensitive K+ channel in the guinea-pig substantia nigra.
54  ischemia followed by reperfusion
(15 times)
Biology
(2 times)
IPC (2 times)
MI (2 times)
A3R (1 time)
2002 Effect of ischemic preconditioning on hepatic microcirculation and function in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion injury.
55  inpatient rehabilitation
(14 times)
Rehabilitation
(6 times)
FIM (4 times)
LOS (3 times)
SDMM (3 times)
2003 The relationship of Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Score to rehabilitative potential in patients suffering traumatic brain injury.
56  incomplete repair
(13 times)
Radiology
(9 times)
EBRT (1 time)
IFI (1 time)
LPL (1 time)
1985 An 'incomplete-repair' model for survival after fractionated and continuous irradiations.
57  infusion reactions
(13 times)
Rheumatology
(4 times)
IFX (2 times)
mCRC (2 times)
CIR (1 time)
2004 Human antichimeric antibody in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease receiving infliximab.
58  inverted repeat regions
(13 times)
DNA, Mitochondrial
(6 times)
LSC (5 times)
SSC (5 times)
cp (3 times)
1994 Physical map of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium strain RK-1.
59  imagery rescripting
(12 times)
Therapeutics
(7 times)
IE (4 times)
PTSD (3 times)
SAD (2 times)
2012 Adding imagery rescripting during extinction leads to less ABA renewal.
60  illegitimate recombination
(11 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
HR (4 times)
bp (1 time)
DIR (1 time)
1999 Enhanced gene replacement in mycobacteria.
61  immediate response
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
NR (4 times)
HR (2 times)
beta-TI (1 time)
1986 [Factors modifying late bronchial response in the bronchial provocation test in asthmatic children].
62  infrared light
(11 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
RF (2 times)
VL (2 times)
AL (1 time)
1986 Comparison of amplification systems in a classroom.
63  injury rate
(11 times)
Sports Medicine
(9 times)
AE (3 times)
NFL (2 times)
AT (1 time)
1989 Ammonia-induced injury in pure cultures and natural populations of coliform bacteria.
64  impedance ratio
(10 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
EIT (5 times)
PA (3 times)
ARF (2 times)
1999 Evaluation of electrical impedance tomography in the measurement of PEEP-induced changes in lung volume.
65  inferior rectus muscle
(10 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
IO (4 times)
SR (4 times)
MR (3 times)
1988 Axonal trajectories of posterior canal-activated secondary vestibular neurons and their coactivation of extraocular and neck flexor motoneurons in the cat.
66  insulin release
(10 times)
Endocrinology
(6 times)
2-KIC (1 time)
aa (1 time)
ACh (1 time)
1979 The prostaglandins system and insulin release. Studies with the isolated perfused rat pancreas.
67  intracoronary radiation
(10 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
IA (6 times)
BI (3 times)
AA (2 times)
1999 Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model.
68  receptor-immunoreactive
(10 times)
Cell Biology
(4 times)
NOS (2 times)
AgRP (1 time)
ARC (1 time)
1998 Strychnine-sensitive stabilization of postsynaptic glycine receptor clusters.
69  resistance index
(10 times)
Obstetrics
(2 times)
authors transl (1 time)
CVD (1 time)
DA-1 (1 time)
1980 [Measurement of carotid diastolic flow by ultrasonography using the Doppler effect, and its value in diagnosis (authors transl)].
70  hydroxylase-immunoreactive
(9 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
ARC (2 times)
BDNF (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
1997 Alterations in mystacial pad innervation in the aged rat.
71  incomplete resection
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
CR (4 times)
OS (3 times)
CI (2 times)
1989 The improvement of systolic function of depressed left ventricle by external vibration at diastole.
72  indirect revascularization
(9 times)
Vascular Diseases
(8 times)
DR (8 times)
CI (3 times)
CLI (3 times)
2012 Factors influencing wound healing of critical ischaemic foot after bypass surgery: is the angiosome important in selecting bypass target artery?
73  intrinsic religiosity
(9 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
OR (3 times)
NOR (2 times)
ORA (2 times)
2003 Religiosity and mental health in southern, community-dwelling older adults.
74  inverted repeat sequences
(9 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
A/T (1 time)
DR (1 time)
EHV-1 (1 time)
1985 G inversion in bacteriophage Mu DNA is stimulated by a site within the invertase gene and a host factor.
75  isotope ratio
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
AP (1 time)
BLL (1 time)
CDC (1 time)
1985 Evaluation of isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometry for the study of drug metabolism.
76  immunoreactive cells
(8 times)
Histology
(2 times)
BPH (1 time)
CCK (1 time)
CREB (1 time)
1987 Plasma relaxin levels in pregnant and lactating dogs.
77  improvements in HOMA
(8 times)
Metabolism
(3 times)
FIRI (1 time)
IHCL (1 time)
MRI (1 time)
1991 Spurious surface finish improvement of the infrared extinction coefficient of alpha quartz.
78  infrared analysis
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
HPLC (4 times)
DSC (3 times)
SEM (3 times)
1993 Partial least-squares regression for routine analysis of urinary calculus composition with Fourier transform infrared analysis.
79  infrared ray
(8 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
E. coli (2 times)
ROS (2 times)
Asp (1 time)
1999 Labeled carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies excitable by infrared rays: a novel diagnostic method for micro cancers in the digestive tract.
80  intensity ratio
(8 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
MCMC (3 times)
AC (2 times)
IACT (2 times)
1993 Evaluating coronary reperfusion during acute myocardial infarction in a canine model by gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
81  intentional replantation
(8 times)
Dentistry
(8 times)
CBCT (1 time)
1995 Intentional replantation: a case study.
82  internal repeat
(8 times)
Virology
(4 times)
TR (3 times)
EBV (2 times)
aa (1 time)
1985 Evidence that respiratory tract is major reservoir for Epstein-Barr virus.
83  interstitial rejection
(8 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
VR (3 times)
ATN (1 time)
BC (1 time)
1982 Interstitial mononuclear cell populations in renal graft rejection. Identification by monoclonal antibodies in tissue sections.
84  gamma-ionizing radiation
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
ROS (3 times)
EMT (2 times)
3-MA (1 time)
2004 Modifications in cell cycle kinetics and in expression of G1 phase-regulating proteins in human amniotic cells after exposure to electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation.
85  image registration
(7 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
IGRT (2 times)
AO (1 time)
CAOS (1 time)
2003 Attenuation correction of PET activation studies in the presence of task-related motion.
86  immunosuppression reduction
(7 times)
Transplantation
(7 times)
PTLD (5 times)
EBV (2 times)
CNI (1 time)
2003 Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease: treatment and outcome in renal transplant recipients.
87  implant removal
(7 times)
Traumatology
(3 times)
CS (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
EV (1 time)
1992 Luteal function and reproductive response in suckled beef cows after metestrus administration of a norgestomet implant and injection of estradiol valerate with various dosages of injectable norgestomet.
88  implementation research
(7 times)
Health Services Research
(3 times)
FHS (1 time)
INSPIRE (1 time)
PMTCT (1 time)
2014 Prioritizing the PMTCT implementation research agenda in 3 African countries: INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch (INSPIRE).
89  improvement rate
(7 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
JOA (5 times)
MRI (2 times)
ACDF (1 time)
1995 Low back pain outcome measurement assessment in chiropractic teaching clinics: responsiveness and applicability of two functional disability questionnaires.
90  impulse radio
(7 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
UWB (3 times)
WBAN (2 times)
BANs (1 time)
2009 4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission.
91  increased risk
(7 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
SR (2 times)
ALL (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
1981 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Swedish children 1973-1978.
92  inhibitor-resistant
(7 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
SHV (2 times)
ESBL (1 time)
ESBLs (1 time)
1979 Detection of "alpha-type" inhibitors in the presence of low levels of specific influenza antibodies.
93  insecticide-resistant
(7 times)
Genetics
(5 times)
IS (3 times)
5M2TU (1 time)
5P2TU (1 time)
1991 Variation of spontaneous and induced mitotic recombination in different Drosophila populations: a pilot study on the effects of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in six newly constructed tester strains.
94  inspiratory resistance
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ER (2 times)
AI (1 time)
AN (1 time)
1982 The effects of inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis.
95  inwardly rectifying K+ current
(7 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
cAMP (1 time)
EGTA (1 time)
ELH (1 time)
1988 Mechanism of calcium-dependent inactivation of a potassium current in Aplysia neuron R15: interaction between calcium and cyclic AMP.
96  iron-replete
(7 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
ID (6 times)
IDA (3 times)
AA (1 time)
2004 Evaluation of serum ferritin in screening for iron deficiency in tuberculosis.
97  ischemic region
(7 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
9MPA (3 times)
FA (2 times)
BZ (1 time)
1988 Hyperkinesis without the Frank-Starling mechanism in a nonischemic region of acutely ischemic excised canine heart.
98  met-enkephalin-immunoreactivity
(7 times)
Pathology
(1 time)
CML (1 time)
CO (1 time)
LHRH (1 time)
1981 Enkephalins co-exist with oxytocin and vasopressin in nerve terminals of rat neurohypophysis.
99  beta-endorphin-immunoreactive
(6 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
alpha-MSH (1 time)
CCI (1 time)
CGRP (1 time)
1990 Stress-induced peptide release from rat intermediate pituitary. An ultrastructural analysis.
100  image reconstruction
(6 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
FBP (4 times)
ASIR (2 times)
ICC (2 times)
1999 Image restoration using the chiral Potts spin glass.