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Abbreviation: IS
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Long forms: 1136

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
internal standard
(2124 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1202 times)
MRM (395 times)
LLOQ (253 times)
ESI (176 times)
1981 Gas/liquid chromatographic analysis of pemoline in biological fluids using electron capture detection.
ischemic stroke
(1593 times)
Neurology
(491 times)
CI (161 times)
ICH (157 times)
OR (127 times)
1986 Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease.
infarct size
(556 times)
Cardiology
(287 times)
AAR (87 times)
STEMI (71 times)
LV (53 times)
1976 [Precordial mapping and enzymatic analysis for estimating infarct size in man. A comparative study (author's transl)].
insertion sequence
(543 times)
Microbiology
(183 times)
ORFs (24 times)
RFLP (23 times)
PCR (21 times)
1975 Occurrence of insertion sequence (IS) regions on plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid as direct and inverted nucleotide sequence duplications.
immunosuppression
(429 times)
Transplantation
(146 times)
LT (35 times)
TAC (23 times)
MMF (20 times)
1976 Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. II. The nature of immunosuppressor cells in tumor-bearing hosts.
indoxyl sulfate
(338 times)
Nephrology
(93 times)
CKD (146 times)
PCS (98 times)
HD (29 times)
1988 Displacement by anionic drugs of endogenous ligands bound to albumin in uremic serum.
insulin sensitivity
(332 times)
Endocrinology
(125 times)
IR (60 times)
BMI (46 times)
OGTT (40 times)
1993 Metabolic predictors of obesity: cross-sectional versus longitudinal data.
immunological synapse
(254 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(98 times)
TCR (63 times)
APC (34 times)
APCs (24 times)
2001 Vav1/Rac-dependent actin cytoskeleton reorganization is required for lipid raft clustering in T cells.
idiopathic scoliosis
(237 times)
Orthopedics
(86 times)
CS (13 times)
SRS (6 times)
AIS (5 times)
1983 Abnormalities of aggregation, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and 14C serotonin release in platelets of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
10  infantile spasms
(219 times)
Neurology
(137 times)
ACTH (30 times)
EEG (23 times)
VGB (20 times)
1977 Genetic study of infantile spasm with hypsarrhythmia.
11  induced sputum
(209 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(85 times)
BAL (35 times)
COPD (17 times)
EBC (17 times)
1992 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: diagnostic yield of induced sputum and immunofluorescent stain with monoclonal antibodies.
12  ionic strength
(180 times)
Environmental Health
(108 times)
DLVO (20 times)
GO (10 times)
CCC (9 times)
1987 Phosphate inhibition of protein-polysilicic acid complex formation in vitro: a factor in preventing silica urolithiasis.
13  International Standard
(155 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(42 times)
WHO (46 times)
EDQM (27 times)
IU (22 times)
1975 [Glass, rubber and plastic material for production of the transfusion and infusion solutions equipment].
14  information systems
(118 times)
Medical Informatics
(73 times)
IT (9 times)
HIS (7 times)
PLS (5 times)
1982 Medical and administrative information modelling of a hospital university centre pneumology department.
15  insulin-sensitive
(110 times)
Endocrinology
(34 times)
IR (104 times)
BMI (9 times)
SSPG (7 times)
1996 Dissociation between insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and endothelial function in normal subjects.
16  inescapable shock
(80 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DRN (12 times)
ES (10 times)
LH (7 times)
1986 Interaction of Pavlovian conditioning with a zero operant contingency: chronic exposure to signaled inescapable shock maintains learned helplessness effects.
17  immune synapse
(72 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(23 times)
TCR (15 times)
APCs (7 times)
APC (6 times)
2002 Cutting edge: dynamic redistribution of tetraspanin CD81 at the central zone of the immune synapse in both T lymphocytes and APC.
18  inner segment
(69 times)
Ophthalmology
(37 times)
OS (49 times)
ONL (15 times)
SD-OCT (14 times)
1989 Functional and structural characteristics of photoreceptor cells rescued in RPE-cell grafted retinas of RCS dystrophic rats.
19  impedance spectroscopy
(66 times)
Chemistry
(17 times)
SEM (6 times)
XPS (5 times)
XRD (4 times)
1992 Impedance spectroscopy.
20  incentive spirometry
(60 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(17 times)
CABG (7 times)
IPPB (6 times)
CI (4 times)
1977 Intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) versus incentive spirometer (IS) therapy in the postoperative period.
21  immunoscintigraphy
(57 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(20 times)
CT (12 times)
CEA (9 times)
mAb (7 times)
1984 [Immunoscintigraphy with emission tomography in cancers of the thyroid].
22  inflammatory soup
(51 times)
Neurology
(29 times)
CGRP (8 times)
CM (5 times)
TNC (5 times)
1990 Low dose dopamine protects against hemorrhagic pancreatitis in cats.
23  international scale
(51 times)
Hematology
(20 times)
CML (28 times)
MMR (12 times)
MR (8 times)
2008 Desirable performance characteristics for BCR-ABL measurement on an international reporting scale to allow consistent interpretation of individual patient response and comparison of response rates between clinical trials.
24  immune system
(49 times)
Medicine
(6 times)
CNS (6 times)
LPS (4 times)
SNS (3 times)
1986 Sequential and parallel regulation of immune system reactivity.
25  intermediate segment
(48 times)
Chemistry
(10 times)
HS (9 times)
LS (9 times)
CT (4 times)
1986 Cortical potentials preceding voluntary movement: evidence for three periods of preparation in man.
26  initial segment
(45 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(13 times)
SD (14 times)
EDL (3 times)
TEA (3 times)
1973 An electrophysiological dissection of the hypothalamic regions which regulate the pre-ovulatory secretion of luteinizing hormone in the rat.
27  iron sucrose
(44 times)
Nephrology
(12 times)
FCM (19 times)
IDA (9 times)
Hb (7 times)
2005 Hypersensitivity reactions and deaths associated with intravenous iron preparations.
28  immobilization stress
(43 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
CS (4 times)
PS (4 times)
SWS (4 times)
1984 [Testicular endocrine function in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) during chronic emotional stress].
29  infraspinatus
(41 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(12 times)
SS (15 times)
BF (11 times)
PM (7 times)
1993 Quality attributes of major porcine muscles: A comparison with the Longissimus Lumborum.
30  intussusception
(35 times)
Pediatrics
(14 times)
RV (6 times)
CI (3 times)
ACE (2 times)
2003 Rotavirus vaccines--an update.
31  iron-sufficient
(33 times)
Pediatrics
(10 times)
ID (23 times)
IDA (11 times)
PNd (5 times)
1979 Inhibition of rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 system by cobaltous chloride and reversal of inhibition by iron in vivo.
32  isotonic saline
(32 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
HS (18 times)
CF (5 times)
CI (3 times)
1977 Effect of hypertonic urea and mannitol on distal nephron permeability.
33  insulin secretion
(31 times)
Endocrinology
(14 times)
IR (10 times)
IGT (4 times)
HOMA (3 times)
1997 [The influence of clinical presentation and metabolic control of insulin dependent diabetes in the evolution of residual insulin secretion. A prospective study at five years].
34  Insall-Salvati
(29 times)
Orthopedics
(20 times)
BP (19 times)
CD (12 times)
MIS (9 times)
1998 A comparison of three methods for measuring patella malalignment in children.
35  ischemic
(29 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
mRS (5 times)
HS (4 times)
ICH (4 times)
1977 Spatial and nonspatial influences on the TG-ST segment deflection of ischemia. Theoretical and experimental analysis in the pig.
36  isthmic spondylolisthesis
(26 times)
Orthopedics
(10 times)
PLIF (10 times)
VAS (10 times)
ODI (8 times)
2005 Long-term outcome in 132 consecutive patients after posterior internal fixation and fusion for Grade I and II isthmic spondylolisthesis.
37  immunosuppressive therapy
(25 times)
Hematology
(9 times)
SAA (11 times)
BMT (5 times)
AA (3 times)
1983 Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with sequential immunosuppression.
38  immunoreactive substance
(23 times)
Biochemistry
(17 times)
CGRP (9 times)
VIP (6 times)
ACTH (5 times)
2002 Hange-shashin-to raises levels of somatostatin, motilin, and gastrin in the plasma of healthy subjects.
39  implementation science
(22 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(5 times)
EPIS (2 times)
ATN (1 time)
CM (1 time)
2008 Behind the scenes in health care improvement: the complex structures and emergent strategies of Implementation Science.
40  interdaily stability
(22 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
RA (10 times)
AMP (4 times)
CI (2 times)
2002 Age-associated difference in circadian sleep-wake and rest-activity rhythms.
41  intercourse satisfaction
(20 times)
Urology
(12 times)
EF (18 times)
OS (15 times)
IIEF (13 times)
2002 [Effect of aging on male sexual function in 93 patients using international index of erectile function].
42  immediate spin
(19 times)
Hematology
(15 times)
IAT (5 times)
AHG (4 times)
DTT (2 times)
1985 A proposal for compatibility testing incorporating the manual hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene) test.
43  inherent structures
(19 times)
Biophysics
(13 times)
PEL (6 times)
HDA (3 times)
LDA (3 times)
2002 Potential energy landscape and mechanisms of diffusion in liquids.
44  insistence on sameness
(19 times)
Psychiatry
(12 times)
ASD (9 times)
RRBs (6 times)
RSM (6 times)
2003 Fine mapping of autistic disorder to chromosome 15q11-q13 by use of phenotypic subtypes.
45  intermittent suckling
(19 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(10 times)
CW (4 times)
CS (2 times)
CoM (1 time)
1995 Comparison of morning and afternoon feedings in very low birth weight infants.
46  immunosuppressive treatment
(18 times)
Transplantation
(6 times)
AChRAbs (1 time)
ACR (1 time)
ACTH (1 time)
1982 Immunosuppression and the additive effect of plasma exchange in treatment of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
47  imperative stimulus
(18 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
RT (10 times)
WS (6 times)
CNV (4 times)
1978 Within-subject covariation of reaction time and foreperiod cardiac deceleration: effects of respiration and imperative stimulus intensity.
48  iliosacral
(17 times)
Orthopedics
(8 times)
MIAP (5 times)
TBP (3 times)
TS (2 times)
2006 Trans-sacral fixation for failed posterior fixation of the pelvic ring.
49  implant shoulder
(17 times)
Dentistry
(16 times)
BC (6 times)
aJE (4 times)
CLB (3 times)
2007 Influence of platform switching on crestal bone changes at non-submerged titanium implants: a histomorphometrical study in dogs.
50  interoceptive sensitivity
(17 times)
Nervous System Diseases
(3 times)
IA (3 times)
MAIA (3 times)
IAc (2 times)
2014 How much time has passed? Ask your heart.
51  intestinal spirochetosis
(17 times)
Microbiology
(7 times)
AIS (1 time)
CRC (1 time)
HIV (1 time)
1995 Intestinal spirochetosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrastructural studies of two cases.
52  imperative signal
(16 times)
Brain
(5 times)
SAS (8 times)
WS (5 times)
RT (4 times)
1998 The use of advance information for motor preparation in Parkinson's disease: effects of cueing and compatibility between warning and imperative stimuli.
53  information services
(16 times)
Medical Informatics
(3 times)
DM (3 times)
API (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1975 Visual orientation and self-perceptions of children in an external-cue-relevant or cue-irrelevant task situation.
54  immunosuppressive drugs
(14 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
CNI (3 times)
CsA (2 times)
PE (2 times)
1984 Plasma exchange and immunosuppressive drug treatment in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.
55  implantation sites
(14 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(7 times)
NIS (3 times)
GD (2 times)
AEA (1 time)
1982 Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the implantation site of the rat.
56  immune serum
(13 times)
Cell Biology
(3 times)
Ab (1 time)
Ags (1 time)
AM (1 time)
1979 Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on the binding of preimmune and immune sera to herpes simplex virus-infected cells as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence.
57  immunosuppressive substance
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
IAP (2 times)
CEA (1 time)
PLP (1 time)
1982 [Clinical evaluation of the serum level of immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) and immunosuppressive substance (IS) in gastric cancer patients].
58  impulsive scattering
(13 times)
Chemistry
(13 times)
TD (12 times)
PFPE (5 times)
F-SAMs (4 times)
2005 Quantum state-resolved energy transfer dynamics at gas-liquid interfaces: IR laser studies of CO2 scattering from perfluorinated liquids.
59  integrating sphere
(13 times)
Science
(5 times)
BM (1 time)
CP (1 time)
CR (1 time)
2006 Comparative study of integrating cavity absorption meters.
60  ionspray
(13 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(10 times)
API (4 times)
APCI (2 times)
CE (2 times)
1999 Identification of heparin oligosaccharides by direct coupling of capillary electrophoresis/ionspray-mass spectrometry.
61  ischemia
(13 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
PCr (2 times)
AbetaPP (1 time)
AC (1 time)
1986 [Prevention of ischemic and re-oxygenation arrhythmias and heart fibrillation using the antioxidant ionol].
62  immunoscore
(12 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
OS (5 times)
PD-L1 (3 times)
TNM (3 times)
2015 The predictive value of centre tumour CD8⁺ T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with Immunoscore.
63  in situ
(12 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
PCR (2 times)
aNDF (1 time)
AS (1 time)
1988 Factors affecting the patency of infrainguinal bypass.
64  internal standardization
(12 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(8 times)
SA (4 times)
EC (3 times)
ICP-MS (2 times)
2004 Improved HPLC methodology for monitoring thiopurine metabolites in patients on thiopurine therapy.
65  interstitial
(12 times)
Brachytherapy
(3 times)
BT (4 times)
IC (4 times)
HR-CTV (2 times)
1992 Dendritic morphology of interstitial amacrine cells with monostratified dendrites in different-sized carp retinas.
66  interventricular septum
(12 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
LV (6 times)
LVFW (5 times)
MI (5 times)
1985 [Evaluation of the interventricular septum in left bundle branch block using basal echocardiography (M-mode) and myocardial stress scintigraphy (thallium-201)].
67  importance sampling
(11 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
AWGN (1 time)
BER (1 time)
CI (1 time)
2003 Estimation of population growth or decline in genetically monitored populations.
68  insertion element
(11 times)
Microbiology
(5 times)
anti-IS900 (1 time)
BLAST (1 time)
CD (1 time)
1983 Family of middle repetitive DNA sequences in the mouse genome with structural features of solitary retroviral long terminal repeats.
69  intervention school
(11 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
CS (4 times)
Al (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1997 Intensive care 1980-1995: change in patient characteristics, nursing workload and outcome.
70  iodized salt
(11 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(7 times)
DFS (4 times)
IDD (3 times)
ID (2 times)
2004 Rapid relapse of thyroid dysfunction and goiter in school-age children after discontinuation of salt iodization.
71  Icariside II
(10 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
AA (1 time)
CDK2 (1 time)
COX-2 (1 time)
2009 Cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 pathway mediates icariside II induced apoptosis in human PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
72  immunostaining
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
PVN (2 times)
ABI (1 time)
ACe (1 time)
1996 Expression of Fos protein in various rat brain areas following acute nicotine and diazepam.
73  inappropriate shocks
(10 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
ICD (3 times)
S-ICD (3 times)
AF (2 times)
2007 Long-term follow-up of primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in Brugada syndrome.
74  inner stripe
(10 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
OM (3 times)
OS (3 times)
CD (2 times)
1986 Quick isolation of rat medullary thick ascending limbs. Enzymatic and metabolic characterization.
75  insertion
(10 times)
Microbiology
(4 times)
Tn (2 times)
AMOVA (1 time)
bp (1 time)
1980 Insertion element IS102 resides in plasmid pSC101.
76  Insight Scale
(10 times)
Psychiatry
(7 times)
PANSS (2 times)
SUMD (2 times)
BACS (1 time)
1998 Compliance with neuroleptic medication in outpatients with schizophrenia; relationship to subjective response to neuroleptics; attitudes to medication and insight.
77  intercellular space
(10 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
GERD (4 times)
TEM (3 times)
LPR (2 times)
1995 Simultaneous measurements of Ca2+ in the intracellular stores and the cytosol of hepatocytes during hormone-induced Ca2+ oscillations.
78  interictal spikes
(10 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
APs (1 time)
ASD (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1985 Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on cardiac neural discharge and pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptogenic activity in the cat.
79  interrupted suture
(10 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
CS (7 times)
AVR (2 times)
CI (1 time)
1994 Astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty. Role of the suture technique.
80  ileal symbiont
(9 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(4 times)
PE (4 times)
PCR (2 times)
ELISA (1 time)
1993 Comparison of techniques for diagnosis of proliferative enteritis of swine.
81  indentation strength
(9 times)
Dentistry
(5 times)
IF (3 times)
PICN (2 times)
SCF (2 times)
1998 Comparison of three fracture toughness testing techniques using a dental glass and a dental ceramic.
82  inescapable
(9 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
ES (9 times)
mPFC (2 times)
ACTH (1 time)
1993 Reversal of learned helplessness by chronic lithium treatment at a prophylactic level.
83  initial slope
(9 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
AUC (3 times)
rCBF (3 times)
CBF (2 times)
1981 Noninvasive rCBF determination by 133XE-inhalation with the gamma camera and functional imaging of wash-in and wash-out. A new combined approach for rCBE measurements in patients with cerebrovascular disease.
84  intensity score
(9 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
PS (5 times)
IHC (3 times)
ER (2 times)
2004 Immunohistochemical assessment for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer: analysis for a cut-off point as the predictor for endocrine therapy.
85  interference screw
(9 times)
Orthopedics
(6 times)
ACL (4 times)
SA (3 times)
AP (1 time)
2011 The fixation strength of a novel ACL soft-tissue graft fixation device compared with conventional interference screws: a biomechanical study in vitro.
86  irregular spiking
(9 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
FS (4 times)
RS (3 times)
AD (2 times)
1998 Properties of bipolar VIPergic interneurons and their excitation by pyramidal neurons in the rat neocortex.
87  isomer shift
(9 times)
Chemistry
(6 times)
QS (4 times)
CDW (1 time)
CS (1 time)
2005 Addition of palladium and platinum tri-tert-butylphosphine groups to Re-Sn and Re-Ge bonds.
88  idiopathic syringomyelia
(8 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
S/C (2 times)
CIM (1 time)
CMI (1 time)
2009 Idiopathic syringomyelia: phase-contrast MR of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics at level of foramen magnum.
89  immunostimulatory
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(4 times)
LT (2 times)
ARTIs (1 time)
CENTRAL (1 time)
1988 [BRM in the treatment of cancer].
90  incudostapedial
(8 times)
Otolaryngology
(6 times)
CAA (1 time)
CT (1 time)
DTR (1 time)
2002 Surgical treatment of 52 cases of auditory ossicular malformations.
91  indeterminate sleep
(8 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
QS (7 times)
AS (5 times)
REM (2 times)
1981 [Waking-sleeping transition in the newborn baby and in infants before the age of 3 months (author's transl)].
92  inescapable stress
(8 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(4 times)
ES (2 times)
PTSD (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1994 Efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: an open trial.
93  inhaled steroids
(8 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
BDP (2 times)
LTRAs (2 times)
PFT (2 times)
1992 Dissociation of symptom scores and bronchial hyperreactivity: study in asthmatic children on long-term treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate.
94  inotropic score
(8 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
CPB (3 times)
AUC (2 times)
cTnI (2 times)
2008 Fenoldopam in newborn patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: controlled clinical trial.
95  Intimal sarcoma
(8 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
PDGFRA (3 times)
UPS (2 times)
AS (1 time)
2005 Undifferentiated intimal sarcoma of large systemic blood vessels: report of 14 cases with immunohistochemical profile and review of the literature.
96  Islamic State
(8 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
HAP (1 time)
PTSD (1 time)
2015 Vaccine Science Diplomacy: Expanding Capacity to Prevent Emerging and Neglected Tropical Diseases Arising from Islamic State (IS)--Held Territories.
97  iliac screw
(7 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
S2AI (4 times)
SVA (2 times)
VAS (2 times)
2012 Should symptomatic iliac screws be electively removed in adult spinal deformity patients fused to the sacrum?
98  inertial sensor
(7 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
RMSE (2 times)
TI (2 times)
AOC (1 time)
2009 Evaluation of clinical spasticity assessment in cerebral palsy using inertial sensors.
99  injection sclerotherapy
(7 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
RBL (2 times)
CF (1 time)
EC (1 time)
1991 Injection sclerotherapy-induced esophageal strictures. Risk factors and prognosis.
100  interpersonal sensitivity
(7 times)
Psychology
(4 times)
BSI (1 time)
CBI (1 time)
CVD (1 time)
2013 The interpersonally sensitive disposition and health: an integrative review.