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Abbreviation: KL
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Long forms: 101

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Kellgren-Lawrence
(560 times)
Orthopedics
(220 times)
OA (345 times)
WOMAC (72 times)
BMI (71 times)
1998 Familial aggregation of osteoarthritis: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.
kit ligand
(240 times)
Hematology
(97 times)
IL-3 (36 times)
GM-CSF (25 times)
TPO (21 times)
1991 Isolation of c-kit receptor-expressing cells from bone marrow, peripheral blood, and fetal liver: functional properties and composite antigenic profile.
Kullback-Leibler
(102 times)
Medical Informatics
(26 times)
EEG (6 times)
MI (6 times)
GMM (5 times)
2000 Differentiation of physiological states under sensory deprivation.
Klotho
(76 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
FGF23 (11 times)
GALNT3 (6 times)
HFTC (4 times)
2000 Molecular cloning and expression analyses of mouse betaklotho, which encodes a novel Klotho family protein.
Kraft lignin
(53 times)
Biochemistry
(10 times)
COD (4 times)
Lac (4 times)
MnP (4 times)
2007 Characterisation and optimisation of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degradation from pulp paper waste.
Karhunen-Loeve
(47 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(8 times)
PWLS (4 times)
SNR (4 times)
CT (3 times)
1979 A sinusoidal family of unitary transforms.
kernel length
(18 times)
Genetics
(5 times)
KW (12 times)
QTL (9 times)
TKW (7 times)
2003 Potential relationships between physical traits and male broiler breeder fertility.
Kellgren-Lawrence score
(16 times)
Rheumatology
(8 times)
OA (11 times)
CI (3 times)
OR (3 times)
2000 Radiographic progression of knee osteoarthritis in a Czech cohort.
Krebs von den Lungen
(14 times)
Dermatology
(3 times)
SP (6 times)
CT (3 times)
DM (2 times)
2005 Methotrexate-induced acute lung injury in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.
10  alpha-klotho
(13 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
FGF23 (7 times)
FGF (3 times)
FGFR (3 times)
2009 Initial FGF23-mediated signaling occurs in the distal convoluted tubule.
11  karyolysis
(12 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
MN (11 times)
BE (10 times)
KR (10 times)
2002 Micronucleus investigation of alcoholic patients with oral carcinomas.
12  Klason lignin
(10 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
ADL (4 times)
ADF (2 times)
ASL (2 times)
1992 Effect of white rot basidiomycetes on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of oat straw and alfalfa stems.
13  kidney length
(9 times)
Nephrology
(6 times)
AGA (3 times)
BW (3 times)
GA (3 times)
1980 Radiological kidney size in childhood.
14  kissing-loop
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
ED (4 times)
NC (4 times)
DIS (3 times)
2002 Requirements for RNA heterodimerization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 genomes.
15  Klotho gene
(8 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
SNPs (2 times)
AICAR (1 time)
AR (1 time)
2005 Association of polymorphisms of the androgen receptor and klotho genes with bone mineral density in Japanese women.
16  Kikuchi's lymphadenitis
(7 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
FNA (2 times)
CD (1 time)
HD (1 time)
1992 Kikuchi's lymphadenitis: report of a Yersinia enterocolitica-associated case and an overview of aetiology and clinical outcome.
17  Kuala Lumpur
(7 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AB (1 time)
BTEX (1 time)
CH (1 time)
2007 Complex patterns of the HIV-1 epidemic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: evidence for expansion of circulating recombinant form CRF33_01B and detection of multiple other recombinants.
18  kit-ligand/stem cell factor
(5 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
bFGF (1 time)
FSH (1 time)
KGF (1 time)
1997 Direct actions of kit-ligand on theca cell growth and differentiation during follicle development.
19  kaolin
(4 times)
Botany
(2 times)
BC (1 time)
CIP (1 time)
LC (1 time)
2017 [Preparation of Adsorption Ceramsite Derived from Sludge Biochar].
20  Kullback-Leibler divergence
(4 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
BCI (1 time)
BER (1 time)
CSP (1 time)
2010 Simulation of late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance studies.
21  Ketoprofen lysinate
(3 times)
Biocompatible Materials
(1 time)
CA (1 time)
CS (1 time)
DRcaps (1 time)
1987 Effectiveness and tolerability of ketoprofen lysine, once a day, in patients with rheumatic disorders.
22  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
(3 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
CM (2 times)
1990 Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in out-patients at two Malaysian and Thai dental schools.
23  K locus
(2 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
CPSs (1 time)
CRAB (1 time)
GC1 (1 time)
2016 K19 capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii is produced via a Wzy polymerase encoded in a small genomic island rather than the KL19 capsule gene cluster.
24  Kaixian-luohanmai
(2 times)
Genetics
(2 times)
CSph1b (1 time)
GISH (1 time)
2011 Comparison of homoeologous chromosome pairing between hybrids of wheat genotypes Chinese Spring ph1b and Kaixian-luohanmai with rye.
25  Kangchenjunga Landscape
(2 times)
NTFPs (1 time)
2019 Plant diversity of the Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalayas.
26  kavalactones
(2 times)
Toxicology
(1 time)
FK (1 time)
KRE (1 time)
PM (1 time)
2007 Effects of kava alkaloid, pipermethystine, and kavalactones on oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 in F-344 rats.
27  Kenz Lifecorder EX
(2 times)
Sports Medicine
(2 times)
AG (1 time)
ANOVA (1 time)
EE (1 time)
2008 Validation of the Kenz Lifecorder EX and ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for walking and running in adults.
28  knee loading
(2 times)
Metabolism
(1 time)
KSL (2 times)
EAM (1 time)
SL (1 time)
2010 Analgesic effect of raloxifene on back and knee pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and/or osteoarthritis.
29  knee-length
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
DVT (1 time)
TL (1 time)
2006 Knee versus thigh length graduated compression stockings for prevention of deep venous thrombosis: a systematic review.
30  kollicoat IR
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
DSC (2 times)
GL (1 time)
ODTs (1 time)
2014 Tenoxicam-kollicoat IR binary systems: physicochemical and biological evaluation.
31  Krzanowski and Lai
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AP (2 times)
CLR (2 times)
MIN (2 times)
2016 Investigating key genes associated with ovarian cancer by integrating affinity propagation clustering and mutual information network analysis.
32  Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz
(2 times)
Neural Networks (Computer)
(1 time)
ISVTA (1 time)
JADMMs (1 time)
MSpNM (1 time)
2019 Scalable Proximal Jacobian Iteration Method With Global Convergence Analysis for Nonconvex Unconstrained Composite Optimizations.
33  15-keto latanoprost
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
IOP (1 time)
2007 Effect of 15-keto latanoprost on intraocular pressure and aqueous humor dynamics in monkey eyes.
34  c-Kit(+) lineage(-)
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
G-CSF (1 time)
PBSCs (1 time)
SDF (1 time)
2007 The chemokine GRObeta mobilizes early hematopoietic stem cells characterized by enhanced homing and engraftment.
35  c-Kit(+)/Lin(-)
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
BMMNCs (1 time)
EPCs (1 time)
KSL (1 time)
2011 CD34+ cells represent highly functional endothelial progenitor cells in murine bone marrow.
36  combinations--kit ligand
(1 time)
Stem Cells
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
GM-CSF (1 time)
IL-3 (1 time)
2005 The rate of marrow recovery and extent of donor engraftment following transplantation of ex vivo-expanded bone marrow cells are independently influenced by the cytokines used for expansion.
37  Kadsura longipedunculata
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
5-HT1AR (1 time)
FST (1 time)
SEA (1 time)
2015 In silico Analysis and Experimental Validation of Lignan Extracts from Kadsura longipedunculata for Potential 5-HT1AR Agonists.
38  kaempferol
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
FN (1 time)
GN (1 time)
MN (1 time)
2015 Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study.
39  kagome lattice
(1 time)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
GQDs (1 time)
JNMs (1 time)
2019 Graphene Quantum Dots in the Game of Directing Polymer Self-Assembly to Exotic Kagome Lattice and Janus Nanostructures.
40  Kaiserslautern
(1 time)
Hospitals
(1 time)
EMS (1 time)
EPs (1 time)
HOM (1 time)
2008 Psychiatric emergencies in prehospital emergency medical systems: a prospective comparison of two urban settings.
41  kale leaf
(1 time)
Food Analysis
(1 time)
ABTS (1 time)
DPPH (1 time)
KB (1 time)
2015 Fluctuations in Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Green Vegetable Juices during Refrigerated Storage.
42  kale leaves
(1 time)
Food Analysis
(1 time)
KS (1 time)
SL (1 time)
SS (1 time)
2012 Comparison of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of building blocks in shinseoncho and kale green vegetable juices.
43  Kalmeyer-Laughlin
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CSL (1 time)
T breaking (1 time)
2014 Chiral spin liquid in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model.
44  kaolinite
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
Hm (1 time)
PFAAs (1 time)
PFHxA (1 time)
2014 Comparison of the sorption behaviors and mechanisms of perfluorosulfonates and perfluorocarboxylic acids on three kinds of clay minerals.
45  Karhunen Loeve Analysis
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
CE (1 time)
HRA (1 time)
2012 A statistical approach to the use of control entropy identifies differences in constraints of gait in highly trained versus untrained runners.
46  Karhunen-Loeve decomposition
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
PCA (1 time)
POD (1 time)
2006 Alternative approach to modal gait analysis through the Karhunen-Loeve decomposition: An application in the sagittal plane.
47  karyolitic
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
BMcyt (1 time)
BN (1 time)
KH (1 time)
2019 Results of buccal micronucleus cytome assay in pesticide-exposed and non-exposed group.
48  katanin-like
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
NAP (1 time)
2018 Microtubule Hyperacetylation Enhances KL1-Dependent Micronucleation under a Tau Deficiency in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
49  KD values in membranes
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
NECA (1 time)
1990 Characterization of adenosine A1 receptors in intact DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.
50  Keelung
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
MC (1 time)
2009 Antioxidative ability, dioscorin stability, and the quality of yam chips from various yam species as affected by processing method.
51  Kellgren-Lawrence arthritis grading scale
(1 time)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
BMI (1 time)
ROA (1 time)
SSM (1 time)
2016 Variations in Hip Shape Are Associated with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analyses of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.
52  Kellgren-Lawrence classification
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
EQ-5D (1 time)
OA (1 time)
THA (1 time)
2018 The Influence of Radiological Severity and Symptom Duration of Osteoarthritis on Postoperative Outcome After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Cohort Study.
53  Kellgren-Lawrence osteoarthritis score
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
--- 2013 Assessment of loading history of compartments in the knee using bone SPECT/CT: a study combining alignment and 99mTc-HDP tracer uptake/distribution patterns.
54  keloid
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
HS (1 time)
2009 Differential expression of cyclooxygenases in hypertrophic scar and keloid tissues.
55  keloid fibroblasts
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
PLGA (2 times)
alpha-SMA (1 time)
FB (1 time)
2018 Three-dimensional poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold containing autologous platelet-rich plasma supports keloid fibroblast growth and contributes to keloid formation in a nude mouse model.
56  keloid lesion
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
FB (1 time)
GAGs (1 time)
PGs (1 time)
2013 An ex vivo model employing keloid-derived cell-seeded collagen sponges for therapy development.
57  kenaf lignin
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
BG (1 time)
CBH (1 time)
2014 Differences in the adsorption of enzymes onto lignins from diverse types of lignocellulosic biomass and the underlying mechanism.
58  ketorolac
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
HA (1 time)
IA (1 time)
2019 Pharmacokinetics and four-week repeated-dose toxicity of hyaluronic acid and ketorolac combination following intra-articular administration in normal rats.
59  Kettering Loam
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AS (1 time)
2017 Avoidance, biomass and survival response of soil dwelling (endogeic) earthworms to OECD artificial soil: potential implications for earthworm ecotoxicology.
60  key-lock
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
CS (1 time)
CS/IF (1 time)
IF (1 time)
2008 Conformer selection and induced fit in flexible backbone protein-protein docking using computational and NMR ensembles.
61  Keynote lectures
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
--- 2008 Keynote lectures (KL).
62  kg(-1) lidocaine
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
--- 2010 Segmental dorsolumbar epidural analgesia via the caudal approach using multiple port catheters with ketamine or lidocaine or in combination in cattle.
63  kidney length-to-aorta diameter ratio
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2019 Evaluation of ultrasonographically determined ratios of kidney length to aorta diameter for assessment of kidney size in healthy young dogs.
64  kidney-liver
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
DGF (1 time)
EGF (1 time)
KO (1 time)
2013 Variations in initial renal transplant function by type of organ retrieval.
65  kidney‑liver perfusion
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
ATP (1 time)
LP (1 time)
STAT3 (1 time)
2019 Combined kidney‑liver perfusion enhances the proliferation effects of hypothermic perfusion on liver grafts via upregulation of IL‑6/Stat3 signaling.
66  killed vaccines
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
FL (1 time)
1978 A ten-year follow-up study on measles vaccination in Japan: evaluation of the efficacy analyzed on a computer system.
67  killing log value
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
--- 2008 [Comparative study of the resistance of bacteriophageT4, PhiX174D, MS2 and f2 to gamma radiation].
68  killing logarithm
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
PCE (1 time)
2008 Preparation and evaluation of novel solid chlorine dioxide-based disinfectant powder in single-pack.
69  kinase-like
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
--- 2000 A dual role for the kinase-like domain of the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 in interferon-alpha signaling.
70  kindled-like
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
GTCS (1 time)
1998 Seizure patterns of Mongolian gerbils subjected to a prolonged weekly test schedule: evidence for a kindling-like phenomenon in the adult population.
71  King and Lu method
(1 time)
Health Status Indicators
(1 time)
CSMFs (1 time)
HCE (1 time)
PCVA (1 time)
2011 Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards.
72  King-Lu
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CCC (1 time)
CSMF (1 time)
PCVA (1 time)
2014 Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods.
73  Kit receptor and its ligand
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 1998 Stage-specific expression of the Kit receptor and its ligand (KL) during male gametogenesis in the mouse: a Kit-KL interaction critical for meiosis.
74  Klamath
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
MD (1 time)
ST (1 time)
WT (1 time)
1980 Developmental variation in amylase allozyme activity associated with chromosome inversions in Drosophila persimilis.
75  Klason insoluble lignin
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
EX (1 time)
GA (1 time)
HC (1 time)
2018 Temporal decomposition sampling and chemical characterization of eucalyptus harvest residues using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric methods.
76  Klebsiella sp
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
FLA (1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
PHE (1 time)
2019 Biodegradation potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by immobilized Klebsiella sp. in soil washing effluent.
77  Klotho protein
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
MITF (1 time)
RPE (1 time)
VEGF (1 time)
2013 Klotho regulates retinal pigment epithelial functions and protects against oxidative stress.
78  KLVFF
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
2020 Tau/Abeta chimera peptides: Evaluating the dual function of metal coordination and membrane interaction in one sequence.
79  knee length graduated compression stockings
(1 time)
Health Services Research
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
DVT (1 time)
GCS (1 time)
2012 Knee length versus thigh length graduated compression stockings for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in postoperative surgical patients.
80  kneeling lunge
(1 time)
Physical Fitness
(1 time)
CONTR (1 time)
ES (1 time)
SMR (1 time)
2018 Effect of Varying Self-myofascial Release Duration on Subsequent Athletic Performance.
81  knees are lower than hips
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
KH (1 time)
SUB (1 time)
2017 Sitting position affects performance in cross-country sit-skiing.
82  knees below the hips
(1 time)
Biomechanical Phenomena
(1 time)
KH (1 time)
2018 Shoulder and Lower Back Joint Reaction Forces in Seated Double Poling.
83  knotless
(1 time)
KT (1 time)
2019 Rotator Cuff Repair With Knotless Technique IsQuicker and More Cost-Effective Than KnottedTechnique.
84  known load
(1 time)
Physical Fitness
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
RPEs (1 time)
UL (1 time)
2018 Effect of Bench Press Load Knowledge on Repetitions, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Attentional Focus.
85  Koflet lozenges
(1 time)
KS (1 time)
2014 Ameliorative effect of Koflet formulations against pyridine-induced pharyngitis in rats.
86  Kohn-Luttinger
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
TBG (1 time)
VHS (1 time)
2019 Kohn-Luttinger Superconductivity in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.
87  koilocytosis
(1 time)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(1 time)
AC (1 time)
CIS (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1994 Detection of human papillomavirus types in cervical lesions of patients from Taiwan by the polymerase chain reaction.
88  Kollegal Local
(1 time)
Botany
(1 time)
AQPs (1 time)
DS (1 time)
Pn (1 time)
2017 Genotypic variation in tolerance to drought stress is highly coordinated with hydraulic conductivity-photosynthesis interplay and aquaporin expression in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.).
89  Kolmogorov complexity
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
KLM (1 time)
2014 A complexity measure based method for studying the dependance of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity.
90  Komurcuoda Landfill
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2005 Landfill leachate management in Istanbul: applications and alternatives.
91  Kondo Fermi liquid
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2008 Universal behavior in heavy-electron materials.
92  Kontiolampi, Joensuu, Finland water
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BaP (1 time)
BCFs (1 time)
DOM (1 time)
2001 Effects of water hardness and dissolved organic material on bioavailability of selected organic chemicals.
93  Kornyshev-Leikin
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
--- 2010 Charge renormalization of helical macromolecules.
94  Kozachenko-Leonenko
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
MI (1 time)
OPA (1 time)
OVI (1 time)
2014 Mutual information concept for evaluation of separation quality in hyphenated chromatographic measurements.
95  Krauzlis-Lisberger
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
MST (1 time)
PD (1 time)
1995 A 'tachometer' feedback model of smooth pursuit eye movements.
96  Kud Luang
(1 time)
Tropical Medicine
(1 time)
B.t.i (1 time)
KS (1 time)
1999 Comparison of isozyme patterns of Aedes aegypti populations collected from pre- and post-Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis treatment sites in Thailand.
97  Kullback and Leibler's
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
MSP (1 time)
2006 Extraction of the midsagittal plane from morphological neuroimages using the Kullback-Leibler's measure.
98  Kullback-Liebler entropy H
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
CM (1 time)
NM (1 time)
NPCs (1 time)
2013 Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information.
99  Kutch lichen
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
DL (1 time)
2020 Bacterial line of defense in Dirinaria lichen from two different ecosystems: First genomic insights of its mycobiont Dirinaria sp. GBRC AP01.
100  kyphosis-lordosis
(1 time)
Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
(1 time)
AT (1 time)
LB (1 time)
LBP (1 time)
2015 Quantification of Lumbar Stability During Wall Plank-and-Roll Activity Using Inertial Sensors.