A Search Service for Abbreviation / Long Form

■ Search Result - Abbreviation : KM

Search Conditions:
Search Keyword : KM
Search Method : Exact match.
Research Area:

Results:  
Abbreviation: KM
Appearance Frequency: 1149 time(s)
Long forms: 159

Display Settings:
[Display Entries]
Long Form, 100 entries
    (Appearance freq, Descending)
Long Form, all entries
[Entries Per Page]
 per page
Page Control
Page: of
Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Kaplan-Meier
(348 times)
Neoplasms
(76 times)
OS (55 times)
HR (36 times)
CI (34 times)
1978 Competing-risk analysis of leukemia and nonleukemia mortality in X-irradiated, male RF mice.
kanamycin
(165 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(30 times)
SM (42 times)
TC (21 times)
OFX (19 times)
1965 [EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN VIVO. 2. STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF KANAMYCIN (KM) AND ETHIONAMIDE (TH) RESISTANCE IN EXPERIMENTAL TUBERCULOSIS IN MICE].
knowledge management
(76 times)
Medical Informatics
(29 times)
CDS (2 times)
EHRs (2 times)
HCOs (2 times)
2001 Knowledge management: white knight or white elephant?
Kunming
(75 times)
Complementary Therapies
(9 times)
MDA (8 times)
SOD (6 times)
NO (4 times)
1985 [Forestomach carcinoma and hepatoma induced in mice and rats by N-3-methylbutyl-N-1-methylacetonylnitrosamine (MAMBNA)].
keratinized mucosa
(53 times)
Dentistry
(51 times)
PD (18 times)
BOP (12 times)
mPI (10 times)
2001 Long-term results of implants treated with guided bone regeneration: a 5-year prospective study.
Krushinsky-Molodkina
(40 times)
Neurology
(24 times)
AS (4 times)
AGS (3 times)
AE (1 time)
1982 [3H-1-glutamate binding with the synaptic membranes isolated from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Krushinskii-Molodkina strain rats].
Korean medicine
(36 times)
Complementary Therapies
(15 times)
CRIS (4 times)
WM (4 times)
CAM (3 times)
2009 Transcultural medicine: a multi-sited ethnography on the scientific-industrial networking of Korean medicine.
Kubelka-Munk
(29 times)
Ophthalmology
(11 times)
IAD (2 times)
IMC (2 times)
NIR (2 times)
1985 Optical properties of esthetic restorative materials and natural dentition.
k-means
(20 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(6 times)
MS (6 times)
FCM (5 times)
ADC (3 times)
1998 Determination of focal ischemic lesion volume in the rat brain using multispectral analysis.
10  Kun Ming
(16 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
MIC (2 times)
AAS (1 time)
BBP (1 time)
2003 The effects of different donor cells and passages on development of reconstructed embryos.
11  Ketac Molar
(15 times)
Dentistry
(11 times)
FIX (4 times)
CF (3 times)
DC (2 times)
1999 An in vitro investigation of a poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) based cement with four conventional glass-ionomer cements. Part 1: Flexural strength and fluoride release.
12  konjac mannan
(12 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(6 times)
GG (2 times)
BF (1 time)
BrdU (1 time)
1982 Effect of Konjac mannan on spontaneous liver tumorigenesis and fecal flora in C3H/He male mice.
13  kanamycin sulfate
(11 times)
Otolaryngology
(5 times)
ABR (2 times)
EA (2 times)
ES (2 times)
1981 Effects of calcitonin-induced hypocalcemia on the neuromuscular and cardiovascular depressive actions of kanamycin in anesthetized and conscious rats.
14  Klintrup-Makinen
(10 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
TSP (5 times)
CRC (3 times)
CSS (3 times)
2012 The relationships between cellular components of the peritumoural inflammatory response, clinicopathological characteristics and survival in patients with primary operable colorectal cancer.
15  kernel machine
(9 times)
Statistics as Topic
(4 times)
AFT (1 time)
CR (1 time)
EM (1 time)
2013 Kernel machine SNP-set testing under multiple candidate kernels.
16  kresoxim-methyl
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
AZ (2 times)
CAT (2 times)
SOD (2 times)
2010 Subnanomolar inhibitor of cytochrome bc1 complex designed by optimizing interaction with conformationally flexible residues.
17  kappa marker
(7 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
GM (7 times)
FcgammaR (5 times)
AU (1 time)
2014 IGKC and FcgammaR genotypes and humoral immunity to HER2 in breast cancer.
18  ketamine-midazolam
(6 times)
Zoology
(1 time)
TZ (2 times)
ED (1 time)
EFB (1 time)
2001 [Anesthesia of the New Zealand rabbit using the the combination of tiletamine-zolazepam and ketamine-midazolam with or without xylazine].
19  Kisman Masurel
(6 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
VGE (4 times)
DCS (2 times)
BF (1 time)
2003 The effect of breathing hyperoxic gas during simulated submarine escape on venous gas emboli and decompression illness.
20  knowledge mobilization
(6 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
CBOs (2 times)
KE (1 time)
PA (1 time)
2013 Examining the effectiveness of a knowledge mobilization initiative for disseminating the physical activity guidelines for people with spinal cord injury.
21  Kaplan-Meier method
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
ALL (1 time)
CGI-I (1 time)
CGI-S (1 time)
2003 Iliac artery stenting in patients with poor distal runoff: Influence of concomitant infrainguinal arterial reconstruction.
22  Kastle-Meyer
(5 times)
Jurisprudence
(4 times)
LMG (2 times)
AP (1 time)
AV17 (1 time)
2006 Use of a forensic technique to identify blood contamination of emergency department and ambulance trauma equipment.
23  kinetic method
(5 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(4 times)
CR (2 times)
AMB (1 time)
Arg (1 time)
2004 Isomeric discrimination of arginine-containing dipeptides using electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry and the kinetic method.
24  kaempferol
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
AT (1 time)
BS (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2014 Cytoprotective effect of kaempferol on paraquat-exposed BEAS-2B cells via modulating expression of MUC5AC.
25  Kardia Mobile
(4 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
ECG (2 times)
AF (1 time)
ELRs (1 time)
2018 Validation of a smartphone-based event recorder for arrhythmia detection.
26  kinetic parameters
(4 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
BfrA (1 time)
cLC-MS (1 time)
E. coli (1 time)
2005 Method development and measurements of endogenous serine/threonine Akt phosphorylation using capillary electrophoresis for systems biology.
27  Kubota's Medium
(4 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(2 times)
hBTSCs (2 times)
AhR (1 time)
DIM (1 time)
2011 Regulation of hepatic stem/progenitor phenotype by microenvironment stiffness in hydrogel models of the human liver stem cell niche.
28  kaempferitrin
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
AGEs (1 time)
DCFH-DA (1 time)
DN (1 time)
2013 Kaempferitrin induces apoptosis via intrinsic pathway in HeLa cells and exerts antitumor effects.
29  keratometry
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
KA (2 times)
BCDVA (1 time)
CCT (1 time)
2011 Correlation between refractive error, corneal power, and thickness in a large population with a wide range of ametropia.
30  Ketac Molar Easymix
(3 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
FS (2 times)
SEM (2 times)
AM (1 time)
2008 The influence of 30-day-old Streptococcus mutans biofilm on the surface of esthetic restorative materials--an in vitro study.
31  ketamine-medetomidine
(3 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
KD (1 time)
KX (1 time)
MB (1 time)
1998 Evaluation of Injectable Anesthetics for Major Surgical Procedures in Guinea Pigs.
32  kidney mass
(3 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BL (1 time)
BM (1 time)
1999 Relationships between kidney mass and body size in some Anseriformes.
33  Kitaura-Morokuma
(3 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CP (1 time)
NBO (1 time)
QTAIM (1 time)
2003 Energy decomposition in molecular complexes: implications for the treatment of polarization in molecular simulations.
34  KnowledgeMap
(3 times)
Medical Informatics
(2 times)
UMLS (2 times)
ROC (1 time)
2003 "Understanding" medical school curriculum content using KnowledgeMap.
35  Korean mistletoe
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
i.v (1 time)
NK (1 time)
2003 Antitumor activity of the Korean mistletoe lectin is attributed to activation of macrophages and NK cells.
36  Kunming mice
(3 times)
Virology
(1 time)
DH (1 time)
GBS (1 time)
THs (1 time)
2009 [Preliminary effects of alcohol and Curcuma longa upon CYP2E1 and hematotoxicity in benzene-induced mice].
37  A1-kidney midzone
(2 times)
Anatomy
(2 times)
mc (2 times)
CS (1 time)
FUR (1 time)
2015 Lower pole anatomy and mid-renal-zone classification applied to flexible ureteroscopy: experimental study using human three-dimensional endocasts.
38  k-means clustering
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
cLHS (1 time)
KS (1 time)
PLSR (1 time)
2013 Third-Order Incremental Dual-Basis Set Zero-Buffer Approach: An Accurate and Efficient Way To Obtain CCSD and CCSD(T) Energies.
39  Kakitani and Mataga
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
MDS (2 times)
DAAO (1 time)
ES (1 time)
2012 Structural basis for the temperature-induced transition of D-amino acid oxidase from pig kidney revealed by molecular dynamic simulation and photo-induced electron transfer.
40  Kampo medicines
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AFP (1 time)
BMS (1 time)
HET (1 time)
2015 Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy.
41  Kane-Mele
(2 times)
Nanotechnology
(2 times)
BHZ (1 time)
QSH (1 time)
SOC (1 time)
2014 Stability of Z2 topological order in the presence of vacancy-induced impurity band.
42  Kaplan-Meier analysis
(2 times)
Medical Oncology
(1 time)
CBC (1 time)
CML-CP (1 time)
CRM (1 time)
2013 Study of imatinib treatment patterns and outcomes among US veteran patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia.
43  Kaplan-Meier curves
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
CIM (1 time)
Cox PH (1 time)
DeltaSUVmax (1 time)
2013 Serum vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease does not correlate with mortality--results from a 10-year prospective cohort study.
44  kappa light-chain marker
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
GM (2 times)
HCV (1 time)
HER2 (1 time)
2010 Genetic regulation of antibody responses to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer.
45  Ketac Molar Aplicap
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
CGICs (1 time)
FIXE (1 time)
FS (1 time)
2012 Coating glass-ionomer cements with a nanofilled resin.
46  ketamine and midazolam
(2 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
CI (1 time)
ED (1 time)
FN (1 time)
2018 Thiamylal Plus Pentazocine Shows Similar Efficacy as Ketamine Plus Midazolam for Painful Procedures in Children With Leukemia.
47  kinetic modeling
(2 times)
Nephrology
(1 time)
18F-FCho (1 time)
18F-FDG (1 time)
18F-FET (1 time)
1994 Simplified approach to calculation of V, G, and nPCR for monitoring hemodialysis patients.
48  kissing molars
(2 times)
Oral Health
(1 time)
--- 2012 A study of impacted love: kissing molars.
49  Kjeldahl method
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CM (1 time)
DC (1 time)
2002 Comparison of the Kjeldahl method and a combustion method for total nitrogen determination in animal feed.
50  known matching
(2 times)
Jurisprudence
(2 times)
KNM (2 times)
CCF (1 time)
CMC (1 time)
2016 Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.
51  kombucha mushroom
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
MN (1 time)
PHE (1 time)
2010 Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.
52  Krasnosel'skii-Mann
(2 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
HOTV (1 time)
KL (1 time)
PET (1 time)
2017 New generalized variable stepsizes of the CQ algorithm for solving the split feasibility problem.
53  Krushinsky-Molodkina inbred strain
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
CaMKII (1 time)
PND (1 time)
2005 [Remote effects of early postnatal pituitary hormone melatonin injection on audiogenic seizures in Krushinsky-Molodkina rats].
54  Kunming strain
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1986 [Transplantable mouse pancreatic acinar cancer cell line (MPC-83) and its characteristics].
55  Kuznetzov-Ma
(2 times)
Optics and Photonics
(1 time)
AB (1 time)
NLSE (1 time)
2012 Observation of Kuznetsov-Ma soliton dynamics in optical fibre.
56  K+ medium
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
C. elegans (1 time)
2019 Effects of ionic strength on physicochemical properties and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.
57  K-medium
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
C. elegans (1 time)
NGG (1 time)
NGM (1 time)
2017 A novel method for assessing the toxicity of silver nanoparticles in Caenorhabditis elegans.
58  KA or potassium methylsulfate
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
4-AP (1 time)
EGTA (1 time)
TEA (1 time)
1991 Ionic influences on the prolonged depolarization of turtle cones in situ.
59  Kahramaa
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
DBPs (1 time)
DPs (1 time)
THMs (1 time)
2016 Disinfection by-products of chlorine dioxide (chlorite, chlorate, and trihalomethanes): Occurrence in drinking water in Qatar.
60  Kakitani-Mataga
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
FBP (1 time)
FMN (1 time)
Iso (1 time)
2011 Simultaneous analyses of photoinduced electron transfer in the wild type and four single substitution isomers of the FMN binding protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Miyazaki F.
61  Kaleidoscope Model of Integrative Care
(1 time)
D.C (1 time)
2018 The Kaleidoscope Model of Integrative Healthcare as a collaborative paradigm for cardiology and chiropractic: a call to action.
62  Kanamycin A
(1 time)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(1 time)
FOM (1 time)
1985 [Effect of fosfomycin on auditory organs and its transfer to cochlear lymph following application of its solution into a middle ear cavity].
63  kanamycin/capreomycin-based
(1 time)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(1 time)
ART (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DR (1 time)
2018 Risk of Nephrotoxicity in Patients With Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treated With Kanamycin/Capreomycin With or Without Concomitant Use of Tenofovir-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy.
64  Kangaroo Method
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
RMS (2 times)
IMIP (1 time)
sEMG (1 time)
2013 Effect of the kangaroo position on the electromyographic activity of preterm children: a follow-up study.
65  Kangaroo Mother Method
(1 time)
Nursing
(1 time)
--- 2005 [Living the mother-child-family triad in the Kangaroo Method].
66  Kansas-Manhattan
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ED (1 time)
i.t (1 time)
NDV (1 time)
1985 Virus isolation from tracheal explant cultures and oropharyngeal swabs in attempts to detect persistent Newcastle disease virus infections in chickens.
67  Kaplan Meier-plotter
(1 time)
Genetic Phenomena
(1 time)
DEGs (1 time)
GEO (1 time)
GEPIA (1 time)
2018 Identification of Candidate Biomarkers Correlated With the Pathogenesis and Prognosis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer via Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.
68  Kaplan-Meier distance of survival curves
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
MR (1 time)
PR (1 time)
2006 Association between split selection instability and predictive error in survival trees.
69  Kaplan-Meier estimation
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
LOD (1 time)
MLE (1 time)
QMRA (1 time)
2018 Methods for Handling Left-Censored Data in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment.
70  Karakal males
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
ABT (1 time)
CF (1 time)
KF (1 time)
2008 Nutrition consumption of female combat recruits in army basic training.
71  Kashiramori
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
FS (1 time)
IZ (1 time)
SU (1 time)
2017 Behavior of 137Cs in ponds in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.
72  Kassam-Monroy
(1 time)
Neurosurgical Procedures
(1 time)
DTI (1 time)
SLF (1 time)
Vr (1 time)
2019 Microsurgical Anatomy of the Vertical Rami of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus: An Intraparietal Sulcus Dissection Study.
73  Kazak Medicine
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CMM (1 time)
UM (1 time)
2016 Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.
74  KBF-611 and its deacetylated metabolite
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 2009 Simultaneous determination of a new antituberculosis agent KBF-611 and its de-acetylated metabolite in mouse and rabbit plasma by HPLC.
75  Kcat and apparent Michaelis-Menten constant
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
alpha-CT (1 time)
CTAB (1 time)
IL (1 time)
2014 Improved activity of alpha-chymotrypsin in mixed micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ionic liquids: a kinetic study resorting to sequential injection analysis.
76  Keaw-Morakot
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
AR (1 time)
CB (1 time)
FA (1 time)
2014 Studies of fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties, and crystallization behavior of mango kernel fats from various Thai varieties.
77  Keisuke Matsusaki
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
CART (1 time)
2016 [A New Treatment Strategy-Novel Cell-Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion System(KM-CART)for Massive Malignant Ascites].
78  Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko
(1 time)
Aerospace Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2017 One-Year Mission on ISS Is a Step Towards Interplanetary Missions.
79  keloidal morphea
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
MP (1 time)
NM (1 time)
SSc (1 time)
2013 Nodular morphea (NM): report of a case of concurrent NM and morphea profunda associated with limited type systemic sclerosis, and overview and definition for NM.
80  kendomycin
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
--- 2014 Interactions of the natural product kendomycin and the 20S proteasome.
81  Kendrick mass
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
DOM (1 time)
ESI-FTICR-MS (1 time)
KMD (1 time)
2018 Effect of silver sulfide nanoparticles on photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter in surface water.
82  keratinocyte medium
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
NM (1 time)
2010 [Experimental study on culturing dermal papillae cells with keratinocyte medium].
83  Keratins extracted from Merino wool
(1 time)
Biomimetics
(1 time)
KH (1 time)
2015 Keratins extracted from Merino wool and Brown Alpaca fibres: thermal, mechanical and biological properties of PLLA based biocomposites.
84  keratometry value
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
MECRS (1 time)
MPA (1 time)
2018 Improving accuracy of corneal power measurement with partial coherence interferometry after corneal refractive surgery using a multivariate polynomial approach.
85  Ketac Molar Quick
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
AM (1 time)
FS (1 time)
2005 Influence of dietary solvents on strength of nanofill and ormocer composites.
86  ketamine combined with medetomidine
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2010 The effect of daily repeated sedation using ketamine or ketamine combined with medetomidine on physiology and anesthetic characteristics in rhesus macaques.
87  ketamine monotherapy
(1 time)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
CoKP (1 time)
ED (1 time)
PSA (1 time)
2017 Adverse Events During a Randomized Trial of Ketamine Versus Co-Administration of Ketamine and Propofol for Procedural Sedation in a Pediatric Emergency Department.
88  ketamine-low-dose midazolam
(1 time)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
ED (1 time)
MF (1 time)
2013 Comparison of ketamine-low-dose midozolam with midazolam-fentanyl for orthopedic emergencies: a double-blind randomized trial.
89  Ketone musk
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
ATP (1 time)
GSDMD (1 time)
IL (1 time)
2019 Protective effect of Ketone musk on LPS/ATP-induced pyroptosis in J774A.1 cells through suppressing NLRP3/GSDMD pathway.
90  key-mapping
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 2010 Evidence for model-based action planning in a sequential finger movement task.
91  keymen
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
BAHS (1 time)
VA (1 time)
2000 Characteristics and performance of village animal health workers and veterinary assistants in northern Malawi.
92  Khai Mook Esarn
(1 time)
Animal Diseases
(1 time)
ADG (1 time)
cGH (1 time)
IGF-I (1 time)
2015 Association of Chicken Growth Hormones and Insulin-like Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Thai Broilers.
93  Khamira Marwarid
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
DTH (1 time)
PFC (1 time)
RBCs (1 time)
2009 Immunopotentiating effect of Khamira Marwarid, an herbo-mineral preparation.
94  Khon Mueang
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
--- 2011 Genetic affinity and admixture of northern Thai people along their migration route in northern Thailand: evidence from autosomal STR loci.
95  kidney malformation
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
BKM (1 time)
CAKUT (1 time)
CysC (1 time)
2012 Is Cystatin C a promising marker of renal function, at birth, in neonates prenatally diagnosed with congenital kidney anomalies?
96  kidney mass without fat
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
KF (1 time)
KFI (1 time)
ST (1 time)
2008 The use of total serum proteins and triglycerides for monitoring body condition in the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica).
97  kidney mitochondria of rabbit
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
AB1 (1 time)
1979 [Effect of aflatoxin B 1 on respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in the rabbit. II. Research on cardiac and renal mitochondria].
98  KidneyMobile
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
CKD (1 time)
NKFI (1 time)
2018 The National Kidney Foundation of Illinois KidneyMobile: a mobile resource for community based screenings of chronic kidney disease and its risk factors.
99  kimchi
(1 time)
Food Technology
(1 time)
KC (1 time)
NDMA (1 time)
2017 Inhibitory effects on N-nitrosodimethylamine formation by decrease of salted-fermented fish products and increase of condiments in kimchi.
100  Kimura spiral myotomy
(1 time)
LGEA (1 time)
LM (1 time)
VM (1 time)
2019 A new esophageal elongation technique for long-gap esophageal atresia: in vitro comparison of myotomy techniques.