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Abbreviation: KO
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Long forms: 228

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
knockout
(7496 times)
Neurology
(1035 times)
WT (2993 times)
IL (204 times)
TNF-alpha (128 times)
1992 CT of 338 active professional boxers.
knockout mice
(103 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
WT (54 times)
HFD (5 times)
NO (5 times)
1998 Tenascin-C promotes healing of Habu-snake venom-induced glomerulonephritis: studies in knockout congenic mice and in culture.
KEGG Orthology
(44 times)
Biochemistry
(11 times)
GO (11 times)
DGE (6 times)
KEGG (5 times)
2004 The KEGG resource for deciphering the genome.
krill oil
(33 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(10 times)
FO (14 times)
EPA (10 times)
DHA (9 times)
1994 Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the activities and expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in autoimmune-prone NZBxNZW F1 mice.
Knock-out
(23 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
WT (10 times)
ANXA1 (2 times)
DG (2 times)
2005 beta-Minor globin gene expression is preferentially reduced in EKLF Knock-Out mice.
knocked out
(21 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
WT (4 times)
3-Hyp (1 time)
AECs (1 time)
2001 Effects of P-glycoprotein on cell volume regulation in mouse proximal tubule.
PPARalpha-knockout
(19 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
WT (10 times)
PPARalpha (3 times)
nAChRs (2 times)
1999 Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Mycobacterium-induced granuloma formation in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-deficient mice.
gene-knockout
(18 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
WT (4 times)
AChR (2 times)
EAMG (2 times)
2000 Suppression of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in IL-10 gene-disrupted mice is associated with reduced B cells and serum cytotoxicity on mouse cell line expressing AChR.
double-knockout
(17 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
WT (2 times)
8-OHdG (1 time)
ABCA1 (1 time)
2000 Protective role of interleukin-1 in mycobacterial infection in IL-1 alpha/beta double-knockout mice.
10  ent-kaurene oxidase
(13 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
KS (5 times)
CPS (4 times)
GA3ox (4 times)
2004 The pea gene LH encodes ent-kaurene oxidase.
11  DGKeta-knockout
(11 times)
Brain
(3 times)
WT (5 times)
DGK (4 times)
OCD (2 times)
2010 Prototypic GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol acts preferentially through forebrain high-affinity binding sites.
12  IFN-gamma-knockout
(9 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
WT (5 times)
IFN-gamma (3 times)
TARPs (2 times)
2004 Mucosal mast cell-derived chondroitin sulphate levels in and worm expulsion from FcRgamma-knockout mice following oral challenge with Strongyloides venezuelensis.
13  single-knockout
(9 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
WT (4 times)
DKO (2 times)
AR (1 time)
2004 Cholinergic stimulation of salivary secretion studied with M1 and M3 muscarinic receptor single- and double-knockout mice.
14  Nmp4-knockout
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
PTH (3 times)
WT (3 times)
EDS (2 times)
2011 Nmp4/CIZ suppresses the response of bone to anabolic parathyroid hormone by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
15  keratosis obturans
(7 times)
Otolaryngology
(7 times)
EACC (6 times)
CT (1 time)
EAC (1 time)
2002 [Erosion of the mastoid caused by the external auditory canal cholesteatoma (with 3 cases reported)].
16  adiponectin-knockout
(6 times)
Gastroenterology
(3 times)
WT (4 times)
NASH (2 times)
AdipoR1 (1 time)
2003 Association of hypoadiponectinemia with impaired vasoreactivity.
17  knockdown
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
19S RP (1 time)
A1R (1 time)
ANXA4 (1 time)
2009 Roles of proteasomal 19S regulatory particles in promoter loading of thyroid hormone receptor.
18  ghrelin-knockout
(5 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
MI (2 times)
WT (2 times)
CSNA (1 time)
2012 Ghrelin prevents incidence of malignant arrhythmia after acute myocardial infarction through vagal afferent nerves.
19  K epoxide
(5 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
VKD (2 times)
TALENs (1 time)
TM (1 time)
2013 Evaluation of warfarin resistance using transcription activator-like effector nucleases-mediated vitamin K epoxide reductase knockout HEK293 cells.
20  kinetic occipital
(5 times)
Brain
(2 times)
fMRI (2 times)
LO (2 times)
STS (1 time)
1997 The kinetic occipital region in human visual cortex.
21  receptor-knockout
(5 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
WT (3 times)
AD (1 time)
CCh (1 time)
2002 Vascular endothelin-B receptor system in vivo plays a favorable inhibitory role in vascular remodeling after injury revealed by endothelin-B receptor-knockout mice.
22  kaurene oxidase
(4 times)
Synthetic Biology
(1 time)
GA (1 time)
KAH (1 time)
rAtKO (1 time)
2006 Spatial organisation of four enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are involved in steviol glycoside synthesis.
23  knee osteoarthritis
(4 times)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
DN (1 time)
FM (1 time)
LLLT (1 time)
2008 Quality of life assessments with SF 36 in different musculoskeletal diseases.
24  Kolliker's organ
(4 times)
Audiology
(2 times)
TM (2 times)
CN (1 time)
Hh (1 time)
1991 Incorporation of D-[3H]-glucosamine and L-[3H]-fucose into the developing rat cochlea.
25  Korean Oge
(4 times)
Animal Husbandry
(1 time)
WL (2 times)
AI (1 time)
dead (1 time)
2012 Cryopreservation of Korean Oge chicken semen using N-methylacetamide.
26  Kusabira-Orange
(4 times)
Biotechnology
(2 times)
AFM (1 time)
BiFC (1 time)
FPs (1 time)
2008 A new red fluorescent protein that allows efficient marking of murine hematopoietic stem cells.
27  5-HT(1A)-knockout
(3 times)
Science
(1 time)
WT (2 times)
2000 Impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and functional abnormalities in the hippocampus in mice lacking serotonin(1A) receptors.
28  Aqp7-knockout
(3 times)
Science
(2 times)
AQP7 (3 times)
TAC (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2004 Adaptation to fasting by glycerol transport through aquaporin 7 in adipose tissue.
29  CARD3-knockout
(3 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
CARD3 (2 times)
WT (2 times)
CARD (1 time)
2013 CARD3 deficiency exacerbates diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance in male mice.
30  knocking out
(3 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
8-oxodG (1 time)
AC (1 time)
ERK (1 time)
2010 The beta-blocker atenolol lowers the longevity-related degree of fatty acid unsaturation, decreases protein oxidative damage, and increases extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the heart of C57BL/6 mice.
31  KO mice
(3 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
WT (4 times)
COX (1 time)
MAP (1 time)
2010 Reduced SERCA2 abundance decreases the propensity for Ca2+ wave development in ventricular myocytes.
32  MyD88-knockout
(3 times)
Gynecology
(1 time)
WT (2 times)
CH (1 time)
DC (1 time)
2009 Adjuvant effect of lipopolysaccharide on the induction of contact hypersensitivity to haptens in mice.
33  ABCA1-knockout
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
WT (2 times)
apoA-I (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2008 Biogenesis of HDL by SAA is dependent on ABCA1 in the liver in vivo.
34  CITED1-knockout
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
WT (2 times)
AB (1 time)
EGF (1 time)
2008 CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED1 modulates parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic differentiation.
35  Crmp4-knockout
(2 times)
Anatomy
(1 time)
CRMP4 (2 times)
WT (2 times)
ASD (1 time)
2016 Deletion of collapsin response mediator protein 4 results in abnormal layer thickness and elongation of mitral cell apical dendrites in the neonatal olfactory bulb.
36  Dicer-knockout
(2 times)
Virus Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
miRNAs (2 times)
DGCR8 (1 time)
ESCs (1 time)
2010 RNA Genes: Retroelements and Virally Retroposable microRNAs in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
37  E-selectin-knock out
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
BBB (1 time)
ECs (1 time)
FITC (1 time)
2002 SA-Lea and tumor metastasis: the old prediction and recent findings.
38  FABP7-knockout
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
FABPs (2 times)
LPS (1 time)
OPCs (1 time)
2013 Differential expression and regulatory roles of FABP5 and FABP7 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells.
39  Fgf21-knockout
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
FGF21 (2 times)
AT (1 time)
BAT (1 time)
2015 Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism.
40  HDAC9-knockout
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CCD (1 time)
COX-2 (1 time)
ENaCs (1 time)
2018 Knockout of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel type 3 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and alters renal sodium transport.
41  IFT139-knockout
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
IFT (2 times)
GPCRs (1 time)
TPRs (1 time)
2017 Intraflagellar transport-A complex mediates ciliary entry and retrograde trafficking of ciliary G protein-coupled receptors.
42  Karanja oil
(2 times)
Oils
(1 time)
CPO (1 time)
FAME (1 time)
FFA (1 time)
2016 Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.
43  KEGG ortholog groups
(2 times)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
GO (2 times)
PPI (2 times)
2009 Pairwise alignment of interaction networks by fast identification of maximal conserved patterns.
44  kerosene oil
(2 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
DO (1 time)
EO (1 time)
MHD (1 time)
2016 A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.
45  kidney-only
(2 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
DGF (2 times)
EGF (1 time)
KL (1 time)
1989 Influence of cadaveric organ source on delayed renal allograft function.
46  kinetic occipital area
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
AM (1 time)
fMRI (1 time)
2003 Responses of extrastriate cortex to switching perception of ambiguous visual motion stimuli.
47  knockdown or knockout
(2 times)
Biology
(1 time)
ASM (1 time)
GPCRs (1 time)
2015 Specificity of arrestin subtypes in regulating airway smooth muscle G protein-coupled receptor signaling and function.
48  knockout animals
(2 times)
Psychopharmacology
(1 time)
Ihh (1 time)
mGlu (1 time)
2012 Opposing efficacy of group III mGlu receptor activators, LSP1-2111 and AMN082, in animal models of positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
49  KnockoutSR
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
4-ABP (1 time)
BaP (1 time)
CSC (1 time)
2006 Impact of Cyp1a2 or Ahr gene knockout in mice: implications for biomonitoring studies.
50  knowledge only
(2 times)
Violence
(1 time)
DV (1 time)
2018 Project Date SMART: a Dating Violence (DV) and Sexual Risk Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls with Prior DV Exposure.
51  Korean
(2 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
AA (1 time)
ACEI (1 time)
BP (1 time)
2009 Breast cancer in young women (YBC): prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations and risk of secondary malignancies across diverse racial groups.
52  KRTE only group
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
AO (2 times)
KRTE (2 times)
WL (2 times)
2011 Interaction and efficacy of Keigai-rengyo-to extract and acupuncture in male patients with acne vulgaris: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial.
53  Nucling-knockout
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
WT (2 times)
APCs (1 time)
cIAP (1 time)
2010 Inflammatory disease and cancer with a decrease in Kupffer cell numbers in Nucling-knockout mice.
54  PINK1-knockout
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
PD (2 times)
PINK1 (2 times)
CNTF (1 time)
2013 PINK1 deficiency attenuates astrocyte proliferation through mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced AKT and increased p38 MAPK activation, and downregulation of EGFR.
55  PTPMEG-knockout
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
FH (1 time)
PCs (1 time)
PTPRO (1 time)
2007 Involvement of protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPMEG in motor learning and cerebellar long-term depression.
56  Ptprj-knock-out
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
4NQO (1 time)
DKO (1 time)
HNSCC (1 time)
2016 STAT3 as a Chemoprevention Target in Carcinogen-Induced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
57  Sirt6-knockout
(2 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
ABR (1 time)
ARE (1 time)
Bach1 (1 time)
2011 Impaired auditory-vestibular functions and behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk6-deficient mice.
58  Slc20a2-knockout
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
CSF (1 time)
PFBC (1 time)
Pi (1 time)
2016 Slc20a2 is critical for maintaining a physiologic inorganic phosphate level in cerebrospinal fluid.
59  TWEAK-knockout
(2 times)
Muscle, Skeletal
(1 time)
PGC-1alpha (2 times)
Tg (1 time)
TNF (1 time)
2013 TWEAK promotes exercise intolerance by decreasing skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity.
60  Ypt7-knockout
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
12-HETE (1 time)
FABP3 (1 time)
ZNT7 (1 time)
2018 Aberrant fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle contributes to insulin resistance in zinc transporter 7 (znt7)-knockout mice.
61  (FXIIIA)-knockout
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
FXIII (1 time)
2003 Factor XIII A subunit-deficient mice developed severe uterine bleeding events and subsequent spontaneous miscarriages.
62  4-1BB-knockout
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
HSCs (1 time)
JE (1 time)
2015 Amelioration of Japanese encephalitis by blockage of 4-1BB signaling is coupled to divergent enhancement of type I/II IFN responses and Ly-6C(hi) monocyte differentiation.
63  Actn3-knockout
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CSA (1 time)
2014 ACTN3 genotype and modulation of skeletal muscle response to exercise in human subjects.
64  ADAMTS-1-knockout
(1 time)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
AIA (1 time)
mRNA (1 time)
RT-PCR (1 time)
2005 ADAMTS-1-knockout mice do not exhibit abnormalities in aggrecan turnover in vitro or in vivo.
65  ALDH2-knockout
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
ALDH2 (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2014 Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice.
66  alpha-catenin-knockout
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
AJs (1 time)
PM (1 time)
TJs (1 time)
2018 Adherens junctions influence tight junction formation via changes in membrane lipid composition.
67  alpha-ketooctanoic
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
KC (1 time)
KIC (1 time)
KIV (1 time)
1975 Effects of alpha-ketomonocarboxylic acids upon insulin secretion and metabolism of isolated pancreatic islets.
68  amelogenin-knockout
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
LRAP (1 time)
TRAP (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2006 Amelogenin-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis, and periodontal cell proliferation and migration.
69  AMPKalpha2-knockout
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AMPK (1 time)
beta-AR (1 time)
ISO (1 time)
2016 Exacerbated cardiac fibrosis induced by beta-adrenergic activation in old mice due to decreased AMPK activity.
70  AMPKgamma3-knockout
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
AMPK (1 time)
EDL (1 time)
2009 Role of the AMPKgamma3 isoform in hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport in glycolytic skeletal muscle.
71  AnxA6-knockout
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
AnxA6 (1 time)
HDL (1 time)
HFD (1 time)
2018 Altered hepatic glucose homeostasis in AnxA6-KO mice fed a high-fat diet.
72  APOE-KO
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
APOE (2 times)
BBB (1 time)
CCI (1 time)
2017 ApoE Influences the Blood-Brain Barrier Through the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 Pathway After Traumatic Brain Injury.
73  ApoE-single-knockout
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
APOE (1 time)
2013 Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.
74  AQP2-CNT-KO mice
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
AQP2 (1 time)
BW (1 time)
CD (1 time)
2013 Genetic ablation of aquaporin-2 in the mouse connecting tubules results in defective renal water handling.
75  Bbc3-knockout
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
4-HNE (1 time)
HMGB1 (1 time)
2016 Involvement of a proapoptotic gene (BBC3) in islet injury mediated by cold preservation and rewarming.
76  Bcl6-knockout
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
cDCs (1 time)
DCs (1 time)
2011 Bcl6 is required for the development of mouse CD4+ and CD8alpha+ dendritic cells.
77  bHLH106-knockout
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
GFP (1 time)
OX (1 time)
stc8 (1 time)
2015 bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis.
78  BKB1-R-knockout
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
BK (1 time)
STZ (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2005 Absence of diabetic hyperalgesia in bradykinin B1 receptor-knockout mice.
79  BPLF1-knockout
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
EBV (1 time)
NPC (1 time)
PTLD (1 time)
2015 Knockout of Epstein-Barr virus BPLF1 retards B-cell transformation and lymphoma formation in humanized mice.
80  CaMKIV-knockout
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
CaMKIV (1 time)
CREB (1 time)
2006 Evidence for a role of CaMKIV in the development of opioid analgesic tolerance.
81  Capsr3-knockout
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
WT (1 time)
2016 Caspr3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Low Motor Learning during the Early Phase of the Accelerated Rotarod Task.
82  caspase-1-knockout
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
IL-1beta (1 time)
MI (1 time)
MMP-3 (1 time)
2003 Targeted deletion of caspase-1 reduces early mortality and left ventricular dilatation following myocardial infarction.
83  Ccn4-knock out
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
hBMSCs (1 time)
siCCN4 (1 time)
TGF-beta3 (1 time)
2016 CCN4/WISP-1 positively regulates chondrogenesis by controlling TGF-beta3 function.
84  cell-knockout
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
--- 2001 CD4+ T cell recognition of a single discordant HLA-A2-transgenic molecule through the indirect antigen presentation pathway induces acute rejection of murine cardiac allografts.
85  Ctrp3-knockout
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
CTRP-3 (1 time)
HFD (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2016 CTRP3 deficiency reduces liver size and alters IL-6 and TGFbeta levels in obese mice.
86  Cyp27b1-knockout
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 2017 Endogenous Calcitriol Synthesis Controls the Humoral IgE Response in Mice.
87  Cyp4a14-knockout
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CYP450 (1 time)
DSS (1 time)
DUOX (1 time)
2018 Mice Deficient in Cyp4a14 Have An Increased Number of Goblet Cells and Attenuated Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.
88  DC-STAMP-knockout
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
DC-STAMP (1 time)
OC-STAMP (1 time)
OCps (1 time)
2018 OC-STAMP promotes osteoclast fusion for pathogenic bone resorption in periodontitis via up-regulation of permissive fusogen CD9.
89  DDAH1-knockout
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
ADMA (1 time)
DDAH1 (1 time)
MEFs (1 time)
2016 DDAH1 deficiency promotes intracellular oxidative stress and cell apoptosis via a miR-21-dependent pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
90  DNAJA4-knockout
(1 time)
Dermatology
(1 time)
CA (1 time)
HPV (1 time)
2018 DNAJA4 deficiency enhances NF-kappa B-related growth arrest induced by hyperthermia in human keratinocytes.
91  DOCK8-knockout
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 2018 IL-21 alleviates allergic asthma in DOCK8-knockout mice.
92  Dsg3-knockout
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
Dsg (1 time)
PV (1 time)
2006 Significance of autoimmunity to non-desmoglein targets in pemphigus.
93  EGFL7-knockout
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
BBB (1 time)
EAE (1 time)
ECM (1 time)
2018 EGFL7 reduces CNS inflammation in mouse.
94  epiregulin-knockout
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
MCECs (1 time)
PMN (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2012 Important role of epiregulin in inflammatory responses during corneal epithelial wound healing.
95  ERF109-knocked out
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
OE (1 time)
PCA (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
2018 Multifunctional activities of ERF109 as affected by salt stress in Arabidopsis.
96  ESAM-knockout
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
5-FU (1 time)
BFU-E (1 time)
BM (1 time)
2016 Endothelial Cell-Selective Adhesion Molecule Expression in Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Is Essential for Erythropoiesis Recovery after Bone Marrow Injury.
97  EZH2-knockout
(1 time)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
EBV (1 time)
EZH2 (1 time)
2018 Regulation of Epstein-Barr Virus Life Cycle and Cell Proliferation by Histone H3K27 Methyltransferase EZH2 in Akata Cells.
98  FcgammaRIII-knockout
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
SAP (1 time)
WT (1 time)
2013 Absence of FcgammaRIII results in increased proinflammatory response in FcgammaRIII-KO cardiac recipients.
99  fractalkine-knockout
(1 time)
Neurosciences
(1 time)
--- 2014 Fractalkine is a "find-me" signal released by neurons undergoing ethanol-induced apoptosis.
100  G(s)alpha-knockout
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
AMPK (1 time)
2009 G(s)alpha deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced muscle mass, fiber-type switching, and glucose intolerance without insulin resistance or deficiency.