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Abbreviation: LD
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Long forms: 845

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
linkage disequilibrium
(3192 times)
Genetics, Medical
(761 times)
SNPs (820 times)
SNP (337 times)
GWAS (246 times)
1979 Strong linkage disequilibrium between HLA-Dw2 and and BfS in multiple sclerosis and in the normal population.
light-dark
(845 times)
Physiology
(359 times)
SCN (123 times)
DD (20 times)
CT (14 times)
1975 Control of sleep states in the rat by short light-dark cycles.
latissimus dorsi
(712 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(232 times)
SM (63 times)
PM (49 times)
ST (49 times)
1978 Histological and shear properties of bovine muscle and their alteration during postmortem ageing.
learning disabilities
(557 times)
Psychology
(319 times)
ADHD (69 times)
ASD (12 times)
ADD (8 times)
1980 Abnormal eye movements in hyperkinetic children with learning disability.
long-day
(392 times)
Botany
(116 times)
SD (307 times)
FT (29 times)
CO (23 times)
1967 The control by gibberellic acid of stem elongation and flowering in biennial plants of Centaurium minus Moench.
lactate dehydrogenase
(390 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(85 times)
CK (116 times)
AST (62 times)
ALP (36 times)
1966 Alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity in sex-linked muscular dystrophy.
lipid droplet
(344 times)
Biochemistry
(85 times)
ER (28 times)
HCV (27 times)
TAG (26 times)
1984 A quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the membrana granulosa of rat preovulatory follicles.
low-dose
(285 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
HD (182 times)
MD (22 times)
SD (22 times)
1978 Vagal and aerosol histamine interactions on airway responses in dogs.
Lyme disease
(279 times)
Communicable Diseases
(52 times)
EM (20 times)
ELISA (14 times)
Bb (12 times)
1984 Immunochemical analysis of Lyme disease spirochetes.
10  Legionnaires' disease
(252 times)
Communicable Diseases
(91 times)
Lp1 (11 times)
SBT (11 times)
CI (9 times)
1978 Pathology of five Scottish deaths from pneumonic illnesses acquired in Spain due to Legionnaires' disease agent.
11  limited disease
(229 times)
Neoplasms
(182 times)
ED (161 times)
SCLC (156 times)
CR (46 times)
1980 A randomized combined modality trial in small cell carcinoma of the lung: comparison of combination chemotherapy-radiation therapy versus cyclophosphamide-radiation therapy effects of maintenance chemotherapy and prophylactiv whole brain irradiation.
12  levodopa
(199 times)
Neurology
(96 times)
PD (125 times)
CD (23 times)
DA (22 times)
1988 Continuous duodenal infusions of levodopa: plasma concentrations and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.
13  loading dose
(182 times)
Cardiology
(58 times)
MD (54 times)
PCI (42 times)
ACS (19 times)
1979 Cefamandole pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustments in relation to renal function.
14  linear dichroism
(171 times)
Biochemistry
(57 times)
CD (46 times)
LB (10 times)
PVA (6 times)
1976 Infrared dichroism of the DNA-caffeine complex. A new method for determination of the ligand orientation.
15  living donor
(167 times)
Transplantation
(117 times)
DD (52 times)
CD (21 times)
LT (14 times)
1992 Pediatric renal transplants--results with sequential immunosuppression.
16  low-density
(146 times)
Hematology
(20 times)
HD (82 times)
VLD (8 times)
MD (6 times)
1972 Lipoprotein particles from the Golgi apparatus of guinea-pig liver.
17  laser diode
(135 times)
Ophthalmology
(104 times)
cw (10 times)
BER (8 times)
FEC (7 times)
1983 Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission.
18  laser Doppler
(112 times)
Vascular Diseases
(27 times)
CBF (18 times)
ACh (6 times)
PRH (6 times)
1984 The assessment of skin blood flow in peripheral vascular disease by laser Doppler velocimetry.
19  light-dark cycle
(107 times)
Physiology
(28 times)
SCN (23 times)
DD (4 times)
KO (4 times)
1976 Brain temperature in the unanaesthetized chicken: its circadian rhythm of responsiveness to light.
20  lipodystrophy
(106 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(27 times)
HAART (19 times)
HIV (11 times)
ART (10 times)
1998 Disorders of fat distribution in HIV infection.
21  Lafora disease
(97 times)
Neurology
(33 times)
LBs (16 times)
LB (4 times)
EEG (3 times)
1991 Early detection of skin and muscular involvement in Lafora disease.
22  Leishmania donovani
(89 times)
Tropical Medicine
(14 times)
VL (20 times)
CL (6 times)
PKDL (6 times)
1981 Leishmaniasis recidivans treated with sodium stibogluconate.
23  learning disabled
(88 times)
Psychology
(46 times)
ADHD (5 times)
ED (4 times)
FL (4 times)
1975 Hemispheric processing and cognitive styles in learning-disabled and normal children.
24  lumen diameter
(76 times)
Vascular Diseases
(26 times)
IMT (17 times)
IAD (9 times)
CCA (7 times)
1982 Three-dimensional organization of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels of laboratory rodents.
25  lymphocyte depletion
(71 times)
Neoplasms
(20 times)
MC (36 times)
NS (32 times)
HD (26 times)
1977 Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease. I. Analysis of histopathology, stage distribution and results of therapy.
26  lethal dose
(61 times)
Toxicology
(8 times)
LPS (4 times)
i.p (3 times)
i.v (3 times)
1976 Methyl-CCNU: preclinical toxicologic evaluation of a single iv infusion in dogs and monkeys.
27  lesion depth
(58 times)
Dentistry
(50 times)
ML (11 times)
IML (8 times)
PD (6 times)
1991 An in vivo study on the merits of two glass ionomers for the cementation of orthodontic bands.
28  limiting dilution
(57 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(40 times)
CTL (12 times)
Th (8 times)
IL-2 (7 times)
1983 Quantitative studies on T cell diversity. IV. Mathematical analysis of multiple limiting populations of effector and suppressor T cells.
29  liver disease
(54 times)
Gastroenterology
(10 times)
HCV (7 times)
CF (4 times)
HCC (3 times)
1983 Changes in size, subclass, and metabolic properties of serum immunoglobulin A in liver diseases and in other diseases with high serum immunoglobulin A.
30  learning disorder
(53 times)
Pediatrics
(15 times)
ADHD (23 times)
AD/HD (4 times)
ASD (4 times)
1981 Learning-disordered children's evoked potentials during sustained attention.
31  lumbar drainage
(48 times)
Neurosurgery
(15 times)
CSF (24 times)
EVD (14 times)
SAH (8 times)
2006 Lumbar drainage for communicating hydrocephalus after ICH with ventricular hemorrhage.
32  limit of detection
(45 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(14 times)
LQ (8 times)
PD (3 times)
ELSD (2 times)
1993 A new look at the limits of detection (LD), quantification (LQ) and power of definition (PD)
33  longest diameter
(40 times)
Radiology
(15 times)
SD (14 times)
CT (7 times)
ROC (5 times)
1999 Prenatal sonographic chest and lung measurements for predicting severe pulmonary hypoplasia.
34  detection limit
(38 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(15 times)
RTP (16 times)
SS-RTP (12 times)
LQ (10 times)
1993 Application of systematic error bounds to detection limits for practical counting.
35  L-dopa
(32 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
DA (17 times)
PD (7 times)
GPx (3 times)
1977 L-tryptophan administration in L-dopa-induced hallucinations in elderly Parkinsonian patients.
36  laser diffraction
(32 times)
Pharmacology
(18 times)
SEM (5 times)
PCS (4 times)
SLN (4 times)
2001 Technical note: use of laser diffraction for particle size distribution measurements in duodenal digesta.
37  lateral dorsal
(31 times)
Neurology
(21 times)
LP (13 times)
PO (9 times)
AV (7 times)
1982 Thalamic projections to visual areas of the middle suprasylvian sulcus in the cat.
38  latissimus dorsi muscle
(31 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
IMF (3 times)
ADG (2 times)
BF (2 times)
1992 Skeletal muscle powered pumps can work under low preload. Design considerations.
39  long photoperiod
(30 times)
Physiology
(8 times)
SD (30 times)
DA (2 times)
HA (2 times)
1985 Naloxone-induced secretion of LH in the male Syrian hamster: modulation by photoperiod and gonadal steroids.
40  lactation day
(27 times)
Toxicology
(15 times)
GD (15 times)
PND (5 times)
NOAEL (3 times)
1995 Effects of porcine growth hormone on pregnancy and fetal/neonatal development in the rat.
41  language delay
(27 times)
Psychiatry
(10 times)
ASD (7 times)
DD (4 times)
TD (4 times)
1985 Interactions of language-delayed and normal preschool boys with their peers.
42  lexical decision
(26 times)
Psychology
(14 times)
NAM (2 times)
PD (2 times)
RTs (2 times)
1991 On the conditions necessary for obtaining argument structure complexity effects.
43  lithium disilicate
(26 times)
Dentistry
(20 times)
SEM (4 times)
CAD/CAM (3 times)
HF (3 times)
2004 In vitro fracture resistance of posterior metal-ceramic and all-ceramic inlay-retained resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.
44  Langevin dynamics
(24 times)
Chemistry
(10 times)
MD (7 times)
SGLD (3 times)
BD (2 times)
1992 Langevin dynamics of peptides: the frictional dependence of isomerization rates of N-acetylalanyl-N'-methylamide.
45  lidocaine
(24 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
PB (3 times)
5-FU (2 times)
CwG (2 times)
1987 [The effect of lidocaine on brain edema and neural function].
46  lactic acid
(23 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
MDA (11 times)
SOD (9 times)
LDH (8 times)
2004 [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus injection on nitric oxide and endothelin concentration of intestinal mucosa after hemorrhage shock-reperfusion in rats].
47  live donor
(23 times)
Transplantation
(15 times)
DD (4 times)
HCV (3 times)
Ab (2 times)
1997 Renal transplantation in children from 1987-1996: the 1996 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study.
48  laser diffractometry
(22 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
PCS (15 times)
DSC (6 times)
NLC (5 times)
1993 Fat emulsions for parenteral nutrition II: Characterisation and physical long-term stability of Lipofundin MCT LCT.
49  liposomal doxorubicin
(22 times)
Neoplasms
(14 times)
DOX (3 times)
OS (3 times)
PPE (3 times)
1997 Kaposi's sarcoma and its management in AIDS patients. Recommendations from a Scandinavian Study Group.
50  liver dysfunction
(22 times)
Transplantation
(4 times)
CG (2 times)
GGT (2 times)
LR (2 times)
1991 Chronic liver dysfunction in heart transplant recipients, with special reference to viral B, C, and non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. A retrospective study in 80 patients with follow-up of 60 months.
51  long-distance
(20 times)
Sports Medicine
(8 times)
MD (10 times)
HDL-C (2 times)
LDL-C (2 times)
1981 Anaerobic performance in middle and long distance runners.
52  lower dose
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
HD (11 times)
CI (3 times)
CMV (2 times)
1990 Recombinant gamma-interferon as first line therapy for high risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Italian MDS Study Group.
53  lamina densa
(17 times)
Histocytochemistry
(4 times)
GBM (7 times)
LL (5 times)
LRE (5 times)
1980 Increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane to ferritin after removal of glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate) by enzyme digestion.
54  language disorders
(17 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
ASD (2 times)
AAE (1 time)
ADHD (1 time)
1990 Comprehension monitoring in language-disordered children: a preliminary investigation of cognitive and linguistic factors.
55  light-dark conditions
(16 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
DD (5 times)
SCN (2 times)
AA-NAT (1 time)
1988 Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in the effect of light deprivation on the fly visual system.
56  limited-stage disease
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(11 times)
SCLC (14 times)
ED (10 times)
CR (4 times)
1988 The role of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer.
57  lymphocyte-defined
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
SD (7 times)
MLC (5 times)
MHC (4 times)
1972 Serologically defined and lymphocyte-defined components of the major histocompatibility complex in the mouse.
58  lithogenic diet
(15 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
BA (2 times)
CG (2 times)
KO (2 times)
2003 Keratin-8 null mice have different gallbladder and liver susceptibility to lithogenic diet-induced injury.
59  laser desorption
(14 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(12 times)
MALDI (3 times)
FTICR (2 times)
FTMS (2 times)
1991 Investigation of UV matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for peptides.
60  light damage
(14 times)
Ophthalmology
(7 times)
AMD (5 times)
SD (4 times)
ERG (3 times)
2006 Multiple, parallel cellular suicide mechanisms participate in photoreceptor cell death.
61  light-darkness
(14 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
SCN (2 times)
2,3BDZ (1 time)
AceH3 (1 time)
1978 A daily rhythm in the behavioural sensitivity of the female rat to oestradiol.
62  light:12-h dark
(14 times)
Brain
(4 times)
SCN (3 times)
DD (2 times)
NAT (2 times)
1994 Diurnal and circadian changes of serotonin in the suprachiasmatic nuclei: regulation by light and an endogenous pacemaker.
63  long day length
(14 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
SD (12 times)
3'-UTR (1 time)
6-MBOA (1 time)
1993 Response to short photoperiod and spontaneous sexual recrudescence in the lesser mouse lemur: role of olfactory bulb removal.
64  lymphoproliferative disorders
(14 times)
Gastroenterology
(3 times)
IBD (3 times)
AML (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1976 Human spleen heme oxygenase in normal, hemolytic and other pathological states.
65  light/dark regimen
(13 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
AOE (1 time)
AOS (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1984 Influence of continuous illumination on estrous cycle of rats: time course of changes in levels of gonadotropins and ovarian steroids until occurrence of persistent estrus.
66  limited
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
SCLC (9 times)
ED (5 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
1986 Ambulatory combination chemotherapy with oral etoposide and cisplatin for advanced non small cell lung carcinoma patients. A phase II study.
67  living donation
(13 times)
Transplantation
(8 times)
BD (1 time)
CAD (1 time)
CIT (1 time)
2003 Renal allograft survival in transplant recipients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
68  local dependence
(13 times)
Psychometrics
(2 times)
DIF (5 times)
IRT (5 times)
PROMIS (3 times)
1999 Impaired load dependence of diaphragm relaxation during congestive heart failure in the rabbit.
69  long duration
(13 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
SD (5 times)
CI (2 times)
HI (2 times)
1994 Angiotensin II neurotransmitter actions in paraventricular nucleus are potentiated by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.
70  loop diuretic
(13 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
PTH (5 times)
TD (2 times)
TZ (2 times)
1992 Action of diuretics at the cellular level.
71  Lymphedema-distichiasis
(13 times)
Genetics, Medical
(9 times)
BCD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1999 A gene for lymphedema-distichiasis maps to 16q24.3.
72  lateral decubitus
(12 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
BC (3 times)
PRISMA (2 times)
TIA (2 times)
1991 Breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position: technique of the Institut Curie.
73  Lepidoglyphus destructor
(12 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(10 times)
TP (7 times)
DP (6 times)
AS (4 times)
1991 Skin cross-reactivity between Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and storage mites in atopic children.
74  light density
(12 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
BM (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
HH (2 times)
1988 5-fluorodeoxyuridine decreases the effect of arabinofuranosyl-cytosine in undifferentiated human B lymphocytes.
75  light-duty
(12 times)
Environmental Health
(9 times)
HD (8 times)
PM (3 times)
CO (2 times)
1988 Effects of diesel exhaust particles on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange and morphological transformation in cultured mammalian cells.
76  labyrinthine-defective
(11 times)
Brain
(5 times)
CCW (1 time)
COR (1 time)
CW (1 time)
1989 Circularvection about earth-horizontal axes in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects.
77  light drinkers
(11 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(5 times)
BD (3 times)
WM (3 times)
GM (2 times)
1987 Effect of chronic ethanol administration and abstinence on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin and growth hormone concentrations in rats with high and low ethanol intake.
78  lumbar discectomy
(11 times)
Orthopedics
(6 times)
AR (1 time)
ASD (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
2008 Measurement of paradoxical and coupled motions following lumbar total disc replacement.
79  luminance-defined
(11 times)
Ophthalmology
(7 times)
MD (5 times)
OTD (3 times)
TD (2 times)
1992 Dissociation of orientation discrimination from form detection for motion-defined bars and luminance-defined bars: effects of dot lifetime and presentation duration.
80  laryngeal dystonia
(10 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CD (2 times)
BPS (1 time)
BSP (1 time)
1986 Episodic laryngeal dyskinesia. Clinical and psychiatric characterization.
81  lateral displacement
(10 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
AD (1 time)
ALS (1 time)
ASD (1 time)
2004 Foot-ground reaction force during resistive exercise in parabolic flight.
82  laterodorsal thalamic nucleus
(10 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
ATN (1 time)
AV (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1979 Afferent connections of the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus in the rat.
83  learning difficulties
(10 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
APA (1 time)
AR (1 time)
CAAS (1 time)
1987 Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties.
84  light deprivation
(10 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
TMS (2 times)
BDNF (1 time)
CS (1 time)
2003 Effects of light deprivation on recovery from neglect and extinction induced by unilateral lesions of the medial agranular cortex and dorsocentral striatum.
85  limit dextrinase
(10 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
LDI (5 times)
ABA (1 time)
CM-protein family (1 time)
2004 Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.
86  liquid desorption
(10 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(9 times)
SBSE (7 times)
PDMS (3 times)
LOQ (2 times)
2004 Determination of 4-tert.-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol in laboratory animal feed sample by stir bar sorptive extraction followed by liquid desorption and column-switching liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction.
87  lard
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
FO (4 times)
PO (3 times)
SO (3 times)
1986 The effect of graded levels of corn oil and different fats on the performance of white pekin ducklings.
88  late diagnosis
(9 times)
Communicable Diseases
(3 times)
ED (3 times)
HIV (2 times)
AD (1 time)
2005 Late diagnosis defines a unique population of long-term survivors of cystic fibrosis.
89  longitudinal diffusivity
(9 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
DTI (6 times)
MD (6 times)
FA (5 times)
2012 Influence of the measurement method of features in ultrasound images of the thyroid in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease.
90  lung disease
(9 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
MAC (5 times)
LC (2 times)
RA (2 times)
2012 Chronic smoke exposure induces rheumatoid factor and anti-heat shock protein 70 autoantibodies in susceptible mice and humans with lung disease.
91  lactase deficiency
(8 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
BOG (1 time)
BOS (1 time)
IBS (1 time)
1977 Lactase deficiency--a comparative study of diagnostic methods.
92  large defects
(8 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
SD (3 times)
DCM (2 times)
MSD (2 times)
1986 Inverted micellar intermediates and the transitions between lamellar, cubic, and inverted hexagonal lipid phases. I. Mechanism of the L alpha----HII phase transitions.
93  laser Doppler flowmetry
(8 times)
Dermatology
(3 times)
SLS (2 times)
TEWL (2 times)
APG (1 time)
1986 The value of laser Doppler velocimetry and transcutaneous oxygen tension determination in predicting healing of ischemic forefoot ulcerations and amputations in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
94  lateral dorsal nucleus
(8 times)
Brain
(6 times)
AD (2 times)
AV (2 times)
ChE (2 times)
1977 Thalamic projections to parietal cortex.
95  lipid deposition
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
DM (2 times)
PD (2 times)
REI (2 times)
1996 Performance and body composition of finishing gilts (45 to 85 kilograms) as affected by energy intake and nutrition in earlier life: II. Protein and lipid accretion in body components.
96  lateral dimension
(7 times)
Rehabilitation
(4 times)
APD (7 times)
CSA (4 times)
MLD (2 times)
1996 Ultrasonography of the neck splenius capitis muscle. Investigation in a group of young healthy women.
97  latissimus dorsi flap
(7 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
DIEP (2 times)
EXP (2 times)
LTD (2 times)
1997 Serum creatine kinase in fasciocutaneous and musculocutaneous flap surgery.
98  linear discriminant
(7 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
HRV (2 times)
PSG (2 times)
AUC (1 time)
1999 Hidden Markov models used for the offline classification of EEG data.
99  liquid diet
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(3 times)
SBR (2 times)
CCD (1 time)
CORT (1 time)
1995 Pectin improves colonic function in rat short bowel syndrome.
100  liver damage
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
AKI (1 time)
AST (1 time)
AUROC (1 time)
2007 Sonographic fatty liver and hepatitis B virus carrier status: synergistic effect on liver damage in Taiwanese adults.