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Abbreviation: LD
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Long forms: 1028

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
linkage disequilibrium
(3828 times)
Genetics, Medical
(806 times)
SNPs (978 times)
SNP (411 times)
GWAS (409 times)
1979 Strong linkage disequilibrium between HLA-Dw2 and and BfS in multiple sclerosis and in the normal population.
light-dark
(932 times)
Physiology
(378 times)
SCN (134 times)
DD (21 times)
WT (16 times)
1975 Control of sleep states in the rat by short light-dark cycles.
latissimus dorsi
(924 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(244 times)
SM (67 times)
PM (60 times)
ST (54 times)
1978 Histological and shear properties of bovine muscle and their alteration during postmortem ageing.
learning disabilities
(610 times)
Psychology
(325 times)
ADHD (80 times)
ASD (16 times)
CI (9 times)
1980 Abnormal eye movements in hyperkinetic children with learning disability.
lipid droplet
(562 times)
Biochemistry
(97 times)
ER (63 times)
TAG (38 times)
TG (33 times)
1984 A quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the membrana granulosa of rat preovulatory follicles.
long-day
(479 times)
Botany
(140 times)
SD (372 times)
FT (37 times)
CO (33 times)
1967 The control by gibberellic acid of stem elongation and flowering in biennial plants of Centaurium minus Moench.
lactate dehydrogenase
(426 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(99 times)
CK (123 times)
AST (68 times)
ALP (38 times)
1966 Alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity in sex-linked muscular dystrophy.
Lyme disease
(397 times)
Communicable Diseases
(73 times)
EM (25 times)
Bb (20 times)
ELISA (14 times)
1984 Immunochemical analysis of Lyme disease spirochetes.
low-dose
(396 times)
Radiology
(40 times)
HD (239 times)
SD (41 times)
MD (30 times)
1978 Vagal and aerosol histamine interactions on airway responses in dogs.
10  Legionnaires' disease
(319 times)
Communicable Diseases
(107 times)
SBT (17 times)
Lp (15 times)
Lp1 (15 times)
1978 Pathology of five Scottish deaths from pneumonic illnesses acquired in Spain due to Legionnaires' disease agent.
11  limited disease
(249 times)
Neoplasms
(196 times)
ED (175 times)
SCLC (170 times)
CR (46 times)
1980 A randomized combined modality trial in small cell carcinoma of the lung: comparison of combination chemotherapy-radiation therapy versus cyclophosphamide-radiation therapy effects of maintenance chemotherapy and prophylactiv whole brain irradiation.
12  levodopa
(236 times)
Neurology
(107 times)
PD (144 times)
CD (32 times)
DA (25 times)
1988 Continuous duodenal infusions of levodopa: plasma concentrations and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.
13  loading dose
(210 times)
Cardiology
(64 times)
MD (62 times)
PCI (49 times)
ACS (22 times)
1979 Cefamandole pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustments in relation to renal function.
14  living donor
(205 times)
Transplantation
(135 times)
DD (70 times)
CD (22 times)
LT (15 times)
1992 Pediatric renal transplants--results with sequential immunosuppression.
15  linear dichroism
(192 times)
Biochemistry
(57 times)
CD (52 times)
LB (10 times)
PVA (6 times)
1976 Infrared dichroism of the DNA-caffeine complex. A new method for determination of the ligand orientation.
16  laser diode
(179 times)
Ophthalmology
(132 times)
cw (12 times)
BER (10 times)
FEC (9 times)
1983 Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission.
17  low-density
(179 times)
Hematology
(20 times)
HD (101 times)
MD (9 times)
VLD (8 times)
1972 Lipoprotein particles from the Golgi apparatus of guinea-pig liver.
18  Lafora disease
(134 times)
Neurology
(51 times)
LBs (28 times)
EEG (4 times)
GS (4 times)
1991 Early detection of skin and muscular involvement in Lafora disease.
19  light-dark cycle
(121 times)
Physiology
(32 times)
SCN (25 times)
DD (7 times)
KO (4 times)
1976 Brain temperature in the unanaesthetized chicken: its circadian rhythm of responsiveness to light.
20  laser Doppler
(116 times)
Vascular Diseases
(28 times)
CBF (18 times)
ACh (6 times)
PRH (6 times)
1984 The assessment of skin blood flow in peripheral vascular disease by laser Doppler velocimetry.
21  lipodystrophy
(116 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(28 times)
HAART (20 times)
ART (12 times)
HIV (11 times)
1998 Disorders of fat distribution in HIV infection.
22  Leishmania donovani
(105 times)
Tropical Medicine
(16 times)
VL (28 times)
PKDL (8 times)
SAG (7 times)
1981 Leishmaniasis recidivans treated with sodium stibogluconate.
23  lumen diameter
(95 times)
Vascular Diseases
(32 times)
IMT (19 times)
IAD (11 times)
CCA (9 times)
1982 Three-dimensional organization of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels of laboratory rodents.
24  learning disabled
(88 times)
Psychology
(46 times)
ADHD (5 times)
ED (4 times)
FL (4 times)
1975 Hemispheric processing and cognitive styles in learning-disabled and normal children.
25  lymphocyte depletion
(78 times)
Neoplasms
(22 times)
MC (38 times)
NS (33 times)
LP (27 times)
1977 Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease. I. Analysis of histopathology, stage distribution and results of therapy.
26  lethal dose
(73 times)
Toxicology
(10 times)
LPS (4 times)
i.p (3 times)
i.v (3 times)
1976 Methyl-CCNU: preclinical toxicologic evaluation of a single iv infusion in dogs and monkeys.
27  liver disease
(73 times)
Gastroenterology
(16 times)
CF (7 times)
HCV (7 times)
NAFLD (6 times)
1983 Changes in size, subclass, and metabolic properties of serum immunoglobulin A in liver diseases and in other diseases with high serum immunoglobulin A.
28  lumbar drainage
(72 times)
Neurosurgery
(26 times)
CSF (36 times)
EVD (22 times)
SAH (10 times)
2006 Intracerebral hemorrhage with severe ventricular involvement: lumbar drainage for communicating hydrocephalus.
29  lithium disilicate
(71 times)
Dentistry
(46 times)
CAD-CAM (7 times)
PICN (6 times)
HF (5 times)
2004 In vitro fracture resistance of posterior metal-ceramic and all-ceramic inlay-retained resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.
30  lesion depth
(70 times)
Dentistry
(57 times)
ML (12 times)
IML (10 times)
PD (6 times)
1991 An in vivo study on the merits of two glass ionomers for the cementation of orthodontic bands.
31  longest diameter
(66 times)
Radiology
(22 times)
SD (24 times)
CT (12 times)
ROC (10 times)
1999 Prenatal sonographic chest and lung measurements for predicting severe pulmonary hypoplasia.
32  learning disorder
(64 times)
Pediatrics
(15 times)
ADHD (28 times)
ASD (6 times)
AD/HD (4 times)
1981 Learning-disordered children's evoked potentials during sustained attention.
33  limiting dilution
(57 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(40 times)
CTL (12 times)
Th (8 times)
IL-2 (7 times)
1983 Quantitative studies on T cell diversity. IV. Mathematical analysis of multiple limiting populations of effector and suppressor T cells.
34  limit of detection
(52 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(17 times)
LQ (10 times)
PD (3 times)
ELSD (2 times)
1993 A new look at the limits of detection (LD), quantification (LQ) and power of definition (PD)
35  laser diffraction
(45 times)
Pharmacology
(23 times)
SEM (7 times)
PCS (6 times)
PSD (6 times)
2001 Technical note: use of laser diffraction for particle size distribution measurements in duodenal digesta.
36  detection limit
(41 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(15 times)
RTP (15 times)
LQ (12 times)
SS-RTP (12 times)
1993 Application of systematic error bounds to detection limits for practical counting.
37  live donor
(35 times)
Transplantation
(19 times)
DD (8 times)
HR (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1999 The shrinking renal replacement therapy "break-even" point.
38  language delay
(34 times)
Psychiatry
(10 times)
ASD (8 times)
TD (5 times)
DD (4 times)
1985 Interactions of language-delayed and normal preschool boys with their peers.
39  lower dose
(34 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
HD (21 times)
CI (4 times)
SD (4 times)
1990 Recombinant gamma-interferon as first line therapy for high risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Italian MDS Study Group.
40  lactation day
(33 times)
Toxicology
(18 times)
GD (20 times)
PND (7 times)
NOAEL (3 times)
1995 Effects of porcine growth hormone on pregnancy and fetal/neonatal development in the rat.
41  long photoperiod
(33 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
SD (32 times)
DA (2 times)
HA (2 times)
1985 Naloxone-induced secretion of LH in the male Syrian hamster: modulation by photoperiod and gonadal steroids.
42  L-dopa
(32 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
DA (17 times)
PD (7 times)
GPx (3 times)
1977 L-tryptophan administration in L-dopa-induced hallucinations in elderly Parkinsonian patients.
43  lactic acid
(32 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
MDA (15 times)
LDH (14 times)
SOD (12 times)
2005 [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus injection on nitric oxide and endothelin concentration of intestinal mucosa after hemorrhage shock-reperfusion in rats].
44  laterodorsal
(32 times)
Neurology
(21 times)
LP (13 times)
PO (9 times)
AV (7 times)
1982 Thalamic projections to visual areas of the middle suprasylvian sulcus in the cat.
45  latissimus dorsi muscle
(32 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
IMF (3 times)
ADG (2 times)
BF (2 times)
1992 Skeletal muscle powered pumps can work under low preload. Design considerations.
46  lexical decision
(31 times)
Psychology
(15 times)
fMRI (2 times)
NAM (2 times)
PD (2 times)
1991 On the conditions necessary for obtaining argument structure complexity effects.
47  liver dysfunction
(30 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
LR (3 times)
OR (3 times)
PN (3 times)
1991 Chronic liver dysfunction in heart transplant recipients, with special reference to viral B, C, and non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. A retrospective study in 80 patients with follow-up of 60 months.
48  liposomal doxorubicin
(28 times)
Neoplasms
(18 times)
DOX (3 times)
OS (3 times)
PPE (3 times)
1997 Kaposi's sarcoma and its management in AIDS patients. Recommendations from a Scandinavian Study Group.
49  lithogenic diet
(28 times)
Biochemistry
(7 times)
ABC (4 times)
CG (4 times)
BA (3 times)
2003 Keratin-8 null mice have different gallbladder and liver susceptibility to lithogenic diet-induced injury.
50  Langevin dynamics
(27 times)
Chemistry
(12 times)
MD (7 times)
SGLD (3 times)
BD (2 times)
1992 Langevin dynamics of peptides: the frictional dependence of isomerization rates of N-acetylalanyl-N'-methylamide.
51  lidocaine
(27 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
PB (3 times)
5-FU (2 times)
CwG (2 times)
1987 [The effect of lidocaine on brain edema and neural function].
52  long-distance
(26 times)
Sports Medicine
(9 times)
MD (10 times)
SD (4 times)
HDL-C (2 times)
1981 Anaerobic performance in middle and long distance runners.
53  low-dimensional
(25 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
HD (6 times)
PSCs (3 times)
DR (2 times)
2008 Enhanced spectral resolution by high-dimensional NMR using the filter diagonalization method and "hidden" dimensions.
54  laser diffractometry
(24 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
PCS (16 times)
DSC (7 times)
NLC (5 times)
1993 Fat emulsions for parenteral nutrition II: Characterisation and physical long-term stability of Lipofundin MCT LCT.
55  language disorder
(23 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
ASD (4 times)
AAE (1 time)
ADHD (1 time)
1990 Comprehension monitoring in language-disordered children: a preliminary investigation of cognitive and linguistic factors.
56  lateral decubitus
(23 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
BC (7 times)
IOP (3 times)
MCMS (3 times)
1991 Breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position: technique of the Institut Curie.
57  loop diuretics
(23 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
HF (6 times)
PTH (5 times)
BMD (2 times)
1992 Action of diuretics at the cellular level.
58  lung disease
(21 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(5 times)
MAC (10 times)
NTM (4 times)
LC (2 times)
2012 Chronic smoke exposure induces rheumatoid factor and anti-heat shock protein 70 autoantibodies in susceptible mice and humans with lung disease.
59  light damage
(20 times)
Ophthalmology
(7 times)
AMD (8 times)
SD (5 times)
ERG (3 times)
2006 Multiple, parallel cellular suicide mechanisms participate in photoreceptor cell death.
60  local dependence
(20 times)
Therapeutics
(2 times)
DIF (11 times)
IRT (6 times)
CFA (4 times)
1999 Impaired load dependence of diaphragm relaxation during congestive heart failure in the rabbit.
61  limited-stage disease
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(13 times)
SCLC (16 times)
ED (12 times)
CR (5 times)
1988 The role of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer.
62  linear discriminant
(18 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
KNN (5 times)
SVM (5 times)
DT (4 times)
1999 Hidden Markov models used for the offline classification of EEG data.
63  lumbar decompression
(18 times)
Orthopedics
(6 times)
VAS (9 times)
ODI (6 times)
PROMIS-PF (5 times)
2013 The incidence and mortality of thromboembolic events in lumbar spine surgery.
64  lamina densa
(17 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
GBM (7 times)
LL (5 times)
LRE (5 times)
1980 Increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane to ferritin after removal of glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate) by enzyme digestion.
65  learning difficulties
(17 times)
Psychology
(4 times)
DD (2 times)
TD (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1987 Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties.
66  light/12-h dark
(17 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
SCN (3 times)
DD (2 times)
ELGs (2 times)
1994 Diurnal and circadian changes of serotonin in the suprachiasmatic nuclei: regulation by light and an endogenous pacemaker.
67  lithium disilicate glass-ceramic
(17 times)
Dentistry
(10 times)
SEM (4 times)
ANOVA (3 times)
FC (3 times)
2015 Microshear Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Lithium Disilicate Substrates as a Function of Surface Preparation.
68  London dispersion
(17 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
LED (4 times)
DEDs (2 times)
DLPNO-CC (2 times)
2016 Multi-conformer molecules in solutions: an NMR-based DFT/MP2 conformational study of two glucopyranosides of a vitamin E model compound.
69  lumbar discectomy
(17 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
BMI (2 times)
LDH (2 times)
RTW (2 times)
2008 Measurement of paradoxical and coupled motions following lumbar total disc replacement.
70  laser desorption
(16 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(14 times)
LTP (3 times)
MALDI (3 times)
FT-ICR (2 times)
1991 Investigation of UV matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for peptides.
71  light-dark conditions
(16 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
DD (5 times)
SCN (2 times)
AA-NAT (1 time)
1988 Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in the effect of light deprivation on the fly visual system.
72  light-darkness
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
EPM (2 times)
SCN (2 times)
2,3BDZ (1 time)
1978 A daily rhythm in the behavioural sensitivity of the female rat to oestradiol.
73  limited
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
SCLC (9 times)
ED (6 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
1986 Ambulatory combination chemotherapy with oral etoposide and cisplatin for advanced non small cell lung carcinoma patients. A phase II study.
74  living donation
(16 times)
Transplantation
(9 times)
DCD (2 times)
DD (2 times)
BD (1 time)
2002 Renal allograft survival in transplant recipients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
75  lockdown
(16 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
PLD (3 times)
COVID-19 (2 times)
HW (2 times)
2020 Changing clinical patterns of Rhegmatogeneous Retinal Detachments during the COVID19 pandemic lockdown in the North West of the UK.
76  longitudinal direction
(16 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(7 times)
MD (7 times)
TD (7 times)
DTI (6 times)
2012 Influence of the measurement method of features in ultrasound images of the thyroid in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease.
77  lymphocyte-defined
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
SD (7 times)
MLC (5 times)
MHC (4 times)
1972 Serologically defined and lymphocyte-defined components of the major histocompatibility complex in the mouse.
78  late diagnosis
(15 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
ED (3 times)
HIV (3 times)
AD (2 times)
2004 Late diagnosis defines a unique population of long-term survivors of cystic fibrosis.
79  lateral displacement
(15 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
AD (2 times)
SD (2 times)
ACV (1 time)
2004 Foot-ground reaction force during resistive exercise in parabolic flight.
80  laryngeal dystonia
(14 times)
Otolaryngology
(6 times)
CD (2 times)
BoNT (1 time)
BPS (1 time)
1986 Episodic laryngeal dyskinesia. Clinical and psychiatric characterization.
81  light-duty
(14 times)
Environmental Health
(11 times)
HD (10 times)
PM (4 times)
CO (3 times)
1988 Effects of diesel exhaust particles on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange and morphological transformation in cultured mammalian cells.
82  limit dextrinase
(14 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
LDI (5 times)
ABA (1 time)
AGL (1 time)
2004 Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.
83  long day length
(14 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
SD (12 times)
3'-UTR (1 time)
6-MBOA (1 time)
1993 Response to short photoperiod and spontaneous sexual recrudescence in the lesser mouse lemur: role of olfactory bulb removal.
84  long duration
(14 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
SD (6 times)
CI (2 times)
HI (2 times)
1994 Angiotensin II neurotransmitter actions in paraventricular nucleus are potentiated by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.
85  Lymphedema-distichiasis
(14 times)
Genetics, Medical
(9 times)
BCD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DM (1 time)
1999 A gene for lymphedema-distichiasis maps to 16q24.3.
86  lymphoproliferative disorders
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
IBD (3 times)
AML (2 times)
CD (2 times)
1976 Human spleen heme oxygenase in normal, hemolytic and other pathological states.
87  light deprivation
(13 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
MD (2 times)
TMS (2 times)
AGB (1 time)
2003 Effects of light deprivation on recovery from neglect and extinction induced by unilateral lesions of the medial agranular cortex and dorsocentral striatum.
88  light drinkers
(13 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(6 times)
BD (3 times)
HD (3 times)
MD (3 times)
1987 Effect of chronic ethanol administration and abstinence on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin and growth hormone concentrations in rats with high and low ethanol intake.
89  light/dark regimen
(13 times)
Endocrinology
(5 times)
AOE (1 time)
AOS (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1984 Influence of continuous illumination on estrous cycle of rats: time course of changes in levels of gonadotropins and ovarian steroids until occurrence of persistent estrus.
90  lactase deficiency
(12 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
LI (3 times)
IBS (2 times)
BOG (1 time)
1977 Lactase deficiency--a comparative study of diagnostic methods.
91  laterodorsal thalamic nucleus
(12 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
ATN (1 time)
AV (1 time)
CL (1 time)
1979 Afferent connections of the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus in the rat.
92  left dominant
(12 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
RD (9 times)
CD (5 times)
CAD (2 times)
2007 Coronary dominance and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome.
93  Lepidoglyphus destructor
(12 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(10 times)
Tp (7 times)
DP (6 times)
AS (4 times)
1991 Skin cross-reactivity between Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and storage mites in atopic children.
94  light density
(12 times)
Hematology
(3 times)
BM (2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
HH (2 times)
1988 5-fluorodeoxyuridine decreases the effect of arabinofuranosyl-cytosine in undifferentiated human B lymphocytes.
95  longitudinal diameter
(12 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
TD (7 times)
APD (3 times)
CT (2 times)
2014 Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.
96  labyrinthine-defective
(11 times)
Brain
(5 times)
CCW (1 time)
COR (1 time)
CW (1 time)
1989 Circularvection about earth-horizontal axes in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects.
97  laser Doppler flowmetry
(11 times)
Vascular Diseases
(4 times)
SLS (2 times)
TEWL (2 times)
APG (1 time)
1986 The value of laser Doppler velocimetry and transcutaneous oxygen tension determination in predicting healing of ischemic forefoot ulcerations and amputations in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
98  latissimus dorsi flap
(11 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
DIEP (2 times)
EXP (2 times)
LTD (2 times)
1997 Serum creatine kinase in fasciocutaneous and musculocutaneous flap surgery.
99  localized disease
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
CWS (6 times)
CHT (4 times)
OS (4 times)
1993 A randomized study comparing cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine (CAV) with cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine, methotrexate (CEVM) in patients with small cell lung cancer.
100  lucid dreaming
(11 times)
Cognitive Science
(8 times)
REMS (3 times)
BD (1 time)
FA (1 time)
2013 Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.