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Abbreviation: LI
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
labeling index
(2000 times)
Neoplasms
(676 times)
PCNA (206 times)
BrdU (148 times)
MI (70 times)
1975 3H-thymidine labelling of epidermis and dermal infiltrate in psoriatic erythroderma.
latent inhibition
(333 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(126 times)
CS (40 times)
PPI (39 times)
DA (35 times)
1981 Disrupted latent inhibition in the rat with chronic amphetamine or haloperidol-induced supersensitivity: relationship to schizophrenic attention disorder.
CGRP-like immunoreactivity
(305 times)
Neurology
(127 times)
CGRP (65 times)
NPY (51 times)
SP (49 times)
1979 Radioimmunoassay measurement of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha in human urine.
language impairment
(255 times)
Speech-Language Pathology
(146 times)
TD (28 times)
RD (20 times)
ASD (17 times)
1988 Sentence comprehension strategies in children with autism and specific language disorders.
laterality index
(167 times)
Neurology
(72 times)
fMRI (43 times)
TLE (11 times)
DTI (10 times)
1998 Hemodynamics of a simulation of the vertebrobasilar system using silicone tube.
lacunar infarction
(129 times)
Neurology
(47 times)
MRI (16 times)
WMH (16 times)
CSVD (14 times)
1989 The role of computed tomography in patients with lacunar stroke in the carotid territory.
low-intensity
(108 times)
Physiology
(30 times)
HI (79 times)
MI (20 times)
BFR (14 times)
1983 Physiological adjustments to higher- or lower-intensity exercise in elders.
lateralization index
(105 times)
Neurology
(29 times)
AVS (23 times)
fMRI (22 times)
PA (20 times)
1983 Localization of human colorectal tumor xenografts in the nude mouse with the use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody.
lactose intolerance
(89 times)
Gastroenterology
(19 times)
LM (17 times)
HBT (10 times)
IBS (10 times)
1996 Does lactose intolerance predispose to low bone density? A population-based study of perimenopausal Finnish women.
10  lamellar ichthyosis
(73 times)
Dermatology
(38 times)
CIE (21 times)
ARCI (20 times)
TGM1 (18 times)
1984 Elevated n-alkanes in congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Phenotypic differentiation of two types of autosomal recessive ichthyosis.
11  lymphocytic infiltration
(59 times)
Neoplasms
(21 times)
OS (4 times)
BC (3 times)
CAT (3 times)
1974 Fibrosis as in indication of time in infiltrating breast cancer and its importance in prognosis.
12  lymphatic invasion
(44 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
LNM (5 times)
SLN (5 times)
ESCC (4 times)
1986 Prognostic factors in stage I non-seminomatous germ-cell testicular tumors managed by orchiectomy and surveillance: implications for adjuvant chemotherapy.
13  large intestine
(43 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(7 times)
SI (27 times)
GF (4 times)
SPF (3 times)
1984 Large intestinal carcinogenesis. III. Studies in low-incidence (Japanese) patients.
14  laser iridotomy
(41 times)
Ophthalmology
(30 times)
IOP (10 times)
ACD (9 times)
AS-OCT (5 times)
1987 Argon laser trabeculoplasty in narrow angle glaucoma.
15  lifestyle intervention
(41 times)
Metabolism
(9 times)
UC (7 times)
BMI (4 times)
T2D (4 times)
2008 Feasibility and effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention program in obese endometrial cancer patients: a randomized trial.
16  liver index
(33 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
AI (4 times)
FVC (3 times)
MDA (3 times)
1986 Motility characteristics of sperm from the uterus and oviducts of female mice after mating to congenic males differing in sperm transport and fertility.
17  local impedance
(33 times)
Cardiology
(21 times)
CF (12 times)
RF (11 times)
AF (8 times)
2009 Evaluation of cumulative effects of MR imaging on pacemaker systems at 1.5 Tesla.
18  loop ileostomy
(32 times)
General Surgery
(17 times)
LC (4 times)
LTC (3 times)
AL (2 times)
1997 [Loop ileostomy--use and results].
19  lung injury
(31 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
RGCs (8 times)
ONC (3 times)
RGC (3 times)
1993 Continuous duodenal feeding restores gut blood flow and increases gut oxygen utilization during PEEP ventilation for lung injury.
20  language-impaired
(30 times)
Speech-Language Pathology
(23 times)
LN (2 times)
NLI (2 times)
RAN (2 times)
1981 A reexamination of some nonverbal perceptual abilities of language-impaired and normal children as a function of age and sensory modality.
21  liver injury
(27 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
AST (4 times)
CI (3 times)
CRP (3 times)
1975 Some somatic complications after small intestinal bypass operations for obesity. Possible factors of significance in the incidence.
22  laser irradiation
(23 times)
General Surgery
(9 times)
LLLT (3 times)
AI (2 times)
aPDT (2 times)
1987 Laser irradiation and balloon dilatation in experimental transluminal angioplasty.
23  light intensity
(23 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
iAs (2 times)
ISA-B (2 times)
ISA-W (2 times)
1993 Regulation of phycobilisome rod proteins and mRNA at different light intensities in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6301.
24  Lawsonia intracellularis
(22 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(20 times)
PE (7 times)
ADG (3 times)
dpi (3 times)
2003 Effect of gilt seropositivity to Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) on their offspring's seropositivity to LI and on diarrhoea after a pure-culture challenge.
25  Labeling indices
(21 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
MCM2 (3 times)
FISH (2 times)
GBM (2 times)
1980 DNA synthesis of benign human breast tumors in the untreated athymic "nude" mouse. An in vivo model to study hormonal influences on growth of human breast tissues.
26  lateral incisor
(21 times)
Dentistry
(12 times)
CI (13 times)
CA (6 times)
GA (3 times)
2008 Range and mean discordance of individual tooth width of the mandibular anterior dentition.
27  low impulsive
(21 times)
Psychopharmacology
(10 times)
HI (19 times)
5-CSRTT (3 times)
mPFC (3 times)
2007 Specific pattern of attentional changes in impulsive individuals.
28  linear interpolation
(18 times)
Radiology
(6 times)
CT (6 times)
MAR (3 times)
NMAR (2 times)
1986 Numerical T1 computation from NMR intensity ratios.
29  lumen-intima
(18 times)
Medical Informatics
(4 times)
MA (17 times)
IMT (9 times)
CIMT (3 times)
2010 Intima-media thickness: setting a standard for a completely automated method of ultrasound measurement.
30  less intensive
(17 times)
Transplantation
(14 times)
MI (14 times)
PTLD (6 times)
CsA (5 times)
2010 A phase III study of belatacept-based immunosuppression regimens versus cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients (BENEFIT study).
31  Lequesne Index
(16 times)
Rheumatology
(5 times)
OA (12 times)
VAS (9 times)
WOMAC (5 times)
2010 Viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid for treatment of osteoarthritis in the elderly.
32  lifting index
(15 times)
Psychology
(8 times)
LBP (4 times)
CLI (2 times)
ES (2 times)
1993 Revised NIOSH equation for the design and evaluation of manual lifting tasks.
33  liver-intestine
(15 times)
Gastroenterology
(4 times)
ADC (1 time)
BE (1 time)
CC (1 time)
2001 LI-cadherin: a marker of gastric metaplasia and neoplasia.
34  Lawton Index
(14 times)
Geriatrics
(7 times)
BI (7 times)
MMSE (4 times)
MNA (2 times)
2008 Mortality in healthy elderly patients after ICU admission.
35  Lemann Index
(14 times)
Gastroenterology
(11 times)
CD (14 times)
DLI (3 times)
MRE (3 times)
2015 Bowel Damage as Assessed by the Lemann Index is Reversible on Anti-TNF Therapy for Crohn's Disease.
36  lobular inflammation
(14 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
CI (3 times)
HI (3 times)
AUC (2 times)
1991 Dissociation between LPS-induced bronchial hyperreactivity and airway edema in the guinea-pig.
37  louping ill
(14 times)
Virology
(9 times)
TBE (7 times)
CEE (2 times)
TSE (2 times)
1981 Immunosuppression in toxoplasmosis: studies in sheep with vaccines for chlamydial abortion and louping-ill virus.
38  low-income
(14 times)
Public Health
(4 times)
HI (6 times)
LMI (5 times)
MI (3 times)
2002 Family income and the impact of a children's health insurance program on reported need for health services and unmet health need.
39  low-intermediate
(14 times)
Hematology
(7 times)
HI (11 times)
IPI (8 times)
NHL (6 times)
1998 Autologous stem cell transplantation for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in first complete or partial remission: a retrospective analysis of the outcome of 52 patients according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index.
40  lability index
(13 times)
Endocrinology
(8 times)
MAGE (8 times)
LBGI (6 times)
CV (4 times)
1996 Clinical features predictive of exercise-induced asthma in children.
41  laser interferometer
(13 times)
Ophthalmology
(12 times)
PAM (8 times)
CFF (2 times)
ORS (2 times)
1986 A comparison of visual function tests in eyes with maculopathy.
42  limb ischemia
(12 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
ECs (2 times)
MSCs (2 times)
PAD (2 times)
1997 Limb ischemia preconditions the heart against reperfusion tachyarrhythmia.
43  low irradiance
(12 times)
Botany
(4 times)
HI (9 times)
ROS (2 times)
UVB (2 times)
2003 The effect of photoperiod and light irradiance on the antioxidant circadian system of two species of crayfish from different latitudes: Procambarus clarkii and P. digueti.
44  lengthening index
(11 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
HI (7 times)
LLD (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2002 Reduced lengthening index by use of bifocal osteotomy in the tibia: comparison of monofocal and bifocal procedures with the Ilizarov external fixator.
45  lesion index
(11 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
EBF (3 times)
NO (3 times)
GERD (2 times)
1981 Reduction of aspirin-induced ulcers by a new imidazoline anti-inflammatory agent.
46  lipid index
(11 times)
Vascular Diseases
(6 times)
OCT (5 times)
TCFA (4 times)
CAD (3 times)
1995 Aspiration complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
47  label index
(10 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
MI (2 times)
PCNA (2 times)
AE (1 time)
1979 [Dynamics of DNA synthesis in the gastric mucosa in ulcer].
48  ligustrazine injection
(10 times)
Complementary Therapies
(9 times)
IFN-gamma (2 times)
ABT (1 time)
AI (1 time)
2002 [Effect of ligustrazine injection on vascular endothelial cell of the patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans].
49  lipophilic index
(10 times)
Metabolism
(4 times)
BMI (2 times)
FAs (2 times)
TI (2 times)
2003 Measurement of diffusion coefficients of parabens and steroids in water and 1-octanol.
50  Listeria ivanovii
(10 times)
Biotechnology
(4 times)
TB (3 times)
LM (2 times)
Mtb (2 times)
2014 Expression of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus membrane-associated proteins in Listeria ivanovii via a genome site-specific integration and expression system.
51  Long Island
(10 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
CR (2 times)
PC (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1987 Effect of methylmercury on egg and juvenile viability in two populations of killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.
52  learning index
(9 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
AD (1 time)
AI (1 time)
ALRP (1 time)
1999 Drosophila conditioned courtship: two ways of testing memory.
53  life interference
(9 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
SCI (3 times)
MLT (2 times)
PS (2 times)
2004 Psychosocial profiles of people with pain associated with spinal cord injury: identification and comparison with other chronic pain syndromes.
54  lamina I
(8 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
CTB (2 times)
IB4 (2 times)
LII (2 times)
1989 Ultrastructure of primary afferent fibres and terminals expressing alpha-galactose extended oligosaccharides in the spinal cord and brainstem of the rat.
55  left inferior
(8 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
LS (8 times)
RS (7 times)
RI (6 times)
2002 Electrical connections between pulmonary veins: implication for ostial ablation of pulmonary veins in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
56  long intervals
(8 times)
Sports Medicine
(4 times)
SI (8 times)
AS (1 time)
EMG rms (1 time)
1987 Modification of force-interval relations during early adaptation to pressure overload in dogs.
57  labelling
(7 times)
Pathology
(2 times)
MI (6 times)
BrdU (1 time)
CN (1 time)
1981 Circadian rhythms in the epithelial cells and the pericryptal fibroblast sheath in three different sites in the murine intestinal tract.
58  laboratory index
(7 times)
Drug Therapy
(2 times)
5-ASA (3 times)
CDAI (3 times)
CD (1 time)
1991 5-aminosalicylic acid in the prevention of relapses of Crohn's disease in remission: a long-term study.
59  lambing interval
(7 times)
Tropical Medicine
(3 times)
AFL (5 times)
LS (3 times)
ARR (2 times)
2009 Genetic parameters for growth, reproductive and maternal traits in a multibreed meat sheep population.
60  laterointermediate
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
LL (5 times)
LM (5 times)
AL (4 times)
1983 Retinotopic organization of striate and extrastriate visual cortex in the hooded rat.
61  lidocaine
(7 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
BI (2 times)
VAS (2 times)
7-EC (1 time)
1987 Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after axillary brachial plexus block.
62  low intake
(7 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
HI (6 times)
CNVRs (1 time)
CNVs (1 time)
1982 Performance of laying turkeys grouped according to daily food intake.
63  late infantile
(6 times)
Genetics, Medical
(2 times)
EI (3 times)
MLD (3 times)
ARSA (2 times)
1996 Molecular and biochemical analysis of protective protein/cathepsin A mutations: correlation with clinical severity in galactosialidosis.
64  lateralization
(6 times)
Brain
(2 times)
ACTH (1 time)
AD (1 time)
ADNI (1 time)
1998 Reproducibility of functional transcranial Doppler sonography in determining hemispheric language lateralization.
65  learning impaired
(6 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
NLI (3 times)
RAN (2 times)
RD (2 times)
1993 Language, learning, and behavioral disturbances in childhood: a longitudinal perspective.
66  light interception
(6 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
BW (1 time)
CGR (1 time)
DMI (1 time)
2002 Radiation Use Efficiency and Biomass Production in Soybean at Different Plant Population Densities.
67  Limousin
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(4 times)
CH (3 times)
AN (2 times)
AA (1 time)
2007 Growth performance and fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from Limousin and Charolais heifers fed extruded linseed.
68  lithogenic index
(6 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
BSI (1 time)
CH (1 time)
FH (1 time)
1979 Tupaias (tree shrews)--a new animal model for gallstone research. II. Influence of fat, sugar, and cholesterol on bile composition.
69  local infiltration
(6 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
BI (2 times)
IANB (2 times)
BLI (1 time)
2012 Effect of tooth isolation on laser Doppler readings.
70  local irradiation
(6 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
3DCRT (1 time)
AHF (1 time)
BMDC (1 time)
1997 [Effects of low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) on tumor-bearing rats].
71  lodging index
(6 times)
Botany
(2 times)
BR (2 times)
AWD (1 time)
BF (1 time)
2004 [Effects of nutrient and water regimes on lodging resistance of rice].
72  low-iodine
(6 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
NI (2 times)
TSH (2 times)
BDNF (1 time)
2001 [A study on membrane fluidity of thyroid gland in rats with iodine deficiency or iodine excess].
73  lumbar instability
(6 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
BMI (1 time)
CLBP (1 time)
CLL (1 time)
2015 Hidden spondylolisthesis: unrecognized cause of low back pain? Prospective study about the use of dynamic projections in standing and recumbent position for the individuation of lumbar instability.
74  lung impedance
(6 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
AHF (3 times)
HF (3 times)
AMI (1 time)
2011 A novel radiological score to assess lung fluid content during evolving acute heart failure in the course of acute myocardial infarction.
75  MIB-1-labeling index
(6 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
MDR (2 times)
MVD (2 times)
P-gp (2 times)
2000 Medulloblastoma with lipidized cells versus lipomatous medulloblastoma.
76  labile iron
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
ROS (3 times)
AO (1 time)
AOs (1 time)
2007 Intracellular labile iron.
77  Lansbury index
(5 times)
Rheumatology
(3 times)
RA (5 times)
AAS (1 time)
AGE (1 time)
1996 Improvement in rheumatoid arthritis following application of an extracorporeal granulotrap column, G-1.
78  lattice index
(5 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
DTI (3 times)
FA (3 times)
GM (2 times)
1999 In vivo diffusion characteristics of rat spinal cord.
79  Lawton-Brody Index
(5 times)
Geriatrics
(4 times)
BI (5 times)
ADL (2 times)
HDL-C (2 times)
2007 Risk factors for functional decline in nonagenarians: a one-year follow-up. The NonaSantfeliu study.
80  layer I
(5 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
5HT3aR (1 time)
ACC (1 time)
CALR (1 time)
1988 Synaptic action of layer I fibers on cells in cat striate cortex.
81  lethally irradiated
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
BMC (1 time)
CFE (1 time)
CFU-S (1 time)
1973 The effect of lethally irradiated cells on the transplantability of murine tumours.
82  light irradiance
(5 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
DC (2 times)
APD (1 time)
CaTnC (1 time)
2010 Photoautotrophic nutrient utilization and limitation during semi-continuous growth of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.
83  local invasion
(5 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
LN (2 times)
ABO-I LDLT (1 time)
aEPEC (1 time)
1997 Pelvic inflammatory disease isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are distinguished by C1q-dependent virulence for newborn rats and by the sac-4 region.
84  low-iron
(5 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
HI (3 times)
MI (2 times)
BCAA (1 time)
2008 Effects of mode of oral iron administration on serum ferritin and haemoglobin in infants.
85  lumbar index
(5 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
PI (2 times)
STA (2 times)
DS (1 time)
2003 Development of spondylolytic olisthesis in adolescents.
86  late infection
(4 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
SOT (2 times)
aHR (1 time)
AM (1 time)
1986 Pathogenesis of subclinical bovine mastitis: diagnostic and dynamic characteristics of various subclinical udder conditions monitored by means of the International Dairy Federation criteria.
87  latently infected
(4 times)
Gynecology
(1 time)
AI (1 time)
ART (1 time)
CNR (1 time)
2001 Dissecting the IgM antibody response during the acute and latent phase of toxoplasmosis.
88  Lawsonia inermis
(4 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
A.b (1 time)
A.i (1 time)
CFU (1 time)
2016 Evaluation of Antifungal Efficacy of Ethanolic Crude Lawsone and Listerine Mouthwash in Uncontrolled Diabetics and Denture Wearers - A Randomized Clinical Trial.
89  Lawton and Brody Index
(4 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
BI (4 times)
GDS (2 times)
ABPM (1 time)
2007 [Nonagenarian's risk profile for living in a nursing home. The NonaSantfeliu study].
90  laxity index
(4 times)
Wounds and Injuries
(3 times)
FCI (2 times)
AR (1 time)
AS (1 time)
2018 Comparison of Three Methods to Quantify Laxity in the Canine Hip Joint.
91  leachability index
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
CH (1 time)
CWDS (1 time)
De (1 time)
2002 Improvement of nuclide leaching resistance of paraffin waste form with low density polyethylene.
92  Lee index
(4 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
HFD (2 times)
AI (1 time)
BAI (1 time)
2010 Anti-obesity and antihyperlipidaemic effect of Hunteria umbellata seed extract in experimental hyperlipidaemia.
93  leptomeningeal involvement
(4 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
CSF (2 times)
sCD27 (2 times)
ALL (1 time)
2002 Increased levels of soluble CD27 in the cerebrospinal fluid are not diagnostic for leptomeningeal involvement by lymphoid malignancies.
94  level I
(4 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
LII (4 times)
SSRF (2 times)
TCs (2 times)
2017 Quantifying and exploring the recent national increase in surgical stabilization of rib fractures.
95  ligamentous injury
(4 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
AIS (1 time)
BI (1 time)
FE (1 time)
2005 The early work-up for isolated ligamentous injury of the cervical spine: does computed tomography scan have a role?
96  Lindegaard index
(4 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
RCVS (2 times)
TCD (2 times)
CSF (1 time)
2008 Transcranial color doppler study for reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes.
97  lineage I
(4 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
LII (2 times)
STEC (2 times)
AMR (1 time)
2012 Variation in stress resistance patterns among stx genotypes and genetic lineages of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157.
98  Listeria innocua
(4 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
LM (2 times)
CV (1 time)
LG (1 time)
2019 Influence of some parameters on the ability of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Escherichia coli to form biofilms.
99  liver involvement
(4 times)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
AST (1 time)
BCs (1 time)
2000 How to restrict liver biopsy to high-risk patients in early-stage Hodgkin's disease. German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group.
100  lobularity index
(4 times)
Pathology
(1 time)
MPXI (3 times)
CME (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1994 Myeloperoxidase activity and nuclear segmentation of maternal neutrophils during normal pregnancy.