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Abbreviation: LR
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Long forms: 781

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
likelihood ratio
(1090 times)
Medicine
(130 times)
CI (158 times)
AUC (94 times)
ROC (83 times)
1983 A comparison of test statistics for assessing the effects of concomitant variables in survival analysis.
local recurrence
(846 times)
Neoplasms
(486 times)
OS (180 times)
RT (101 times)
DFS (87 times)
1976 Melanoma of the trunk: the results of surgical excision and anatomic guidelines for predicting nodal metastasis.
logistic regression
(710 times)
Medical Informatics
(105 times)
SVM (144 times)
RF (108 times)
AUC (106 times)
1983 Assessment of prognostic factors in alcoholic liver disease: toward a global quantitative expression of severity.
left-right
(551 times)
Biology
(153 times)
AP (216 times)
SI (128 times)
CC (48 times)
1986 Sinusoidal galvanic stimulation of the labyrinths and postural responses.
low-risk
(504 times)
Neoplasms
(109 times)
HR (410 times)
HPV (103 times)
IR (74 times)
1986 Effect of intensive care unit exposure on temperament in low birth weight preterm infants.
liver resection
(285 times)
General Surgery
(135 times)
HCC (150 times)
LT (85 times)
OS (65 times)
1993 [Right diaphragmatic paralysis after liver transplantation].
low responders
(262 times)
Chemistry
(53 times)
HR (128 times)
TDDFT (21 times)
ER (20 times)
1978 Major histocompatibility complex gene products on macrophages influence T cell activation.
lactated Ringer's
(249 times)
General Surgery
(51 times)
MAP (40 times)
HS (28 times)
NS (27 times)
1983 Low molecular weight dextran in experimental pancreatitis: effects on pancreatic microcirculation.
lateral root
(193 times)
Botany
(125 times)
PR (29 times)
LRP (19 times)
NO (19 times)
1988 Experimental Studies on Lateral Root Formation in Radish Seedling Roots: II. Analysis of the Dose-Response to Exogenous Auxin.
10  lactated Ringer's solution
(171 times)
General Surgery
(32 times)
MAP (25 times)
HS (20 times)
NS (14 times)
1981 The effects of crystalloid potassium cardioplegic solution on arterialized canine vein grafts. Assessment of chronic prostacyclin production and histopathologic alterations.
11  low-resolution
(169 times)
Medical Informatics
(77 times)
HR (139 times)
SR (76 times)
CNN (6 times)
1985 Design and evaluation of a positron emission tomograph: HEADTOME III.
12  lateral rectus
(146 times)
Ophthalmology
(94 times)
MR (73 times)
MRI (28 times)
SR (27 times)
1980 Sources of direct excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the medial rhombencephalic tegmentum to lateral and medial rectus motoneurons in the cat.
13  liver regeneration
(134 times)
Gastroenterology
(36 times)
PH (63 times)
SO (6 times)
AST (5 times)
1996 Modulation of apoptosis-associated genes bcl-2, bcl-x, and bax during rat liver regeneration.
14  linear regression
(117 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(15 times)
ANN (12 times)
RF (12 times)
PCA (8 times)
1981 Linear and nonlinear models for measuring protein nutritional quality.
15  locoregional recurrence
(62 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
OS (18 times)
DM (13 times)
CI (7 times)
1989 Locoregional recurrences after 649 modified radical mastectomies: incidence and significance.
16  laminin receptor
(50 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
LRP (7 times)
PEDF (5 times)
PrP (4 times)
1990 Immunoreactivity in malignant mesotheliomas with antibodies to basement membrane components and their receptors.
17  level of response
(49 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(46 times)
SRE (16 times)
AUDs (11 times)
FH (6 times)
1997 Assessing the risk for alcoholism among sons of alcoholics.
18  locoregional
(46 times)
Neoplasms
(36 times)
OS (16 times)
DFS (5 times)
IMRT (5 times)
1992 Identification of patients who are at high risk for locoregional breast cancer recurrence after conservative surgery and radiotherapy: a review article for surgeons, pathologists, and radiation and medical oncologists.
19  laparoscopic resection
(43 times)
General Surgery
(32 times)
OR (24 times)
ER (4 times)
HCC (4 times)
1999 Laparoscopic resection does not adversely affect early survival curves in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma.
20  latency-related
(43 times)
Virology
(39 times)
BHV-1 (28 times)
TG (12 times)
WT (6 times)
1988 Fine mapping of the latency-related gene of herpes simplex virus type 1: alternative splicing produces distinct latency-related RNAs containing open reading frames.
21  lipid raft
(41 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
ASMase (5 times)
MbetaCD (4 times)
PI3K (4 times)
2004 Akt2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and PTEN are in lipid rafts of intestinal cells: role in absorption and differentiation.
22  leptin receptor
(38 times)
Endocrinology
(9 times)
NPY (4 times)
ARC (2 times)
FNIII (2 times)
1998 Leptin receptor immunoreactivity in chemically defined target neurons of the hypothalamus.
23  long-range
(38 times)
Biophysics
(11 times)
SR (10 times)
PCR (4 times)
NGS (3 times)
1985 Effects of luminance and contrast on direction of ambiguous apparent motion.
24  late referral
(37 times)
Nephrology
(21 times)
ER (28 times)
ESRD (9 times)
HD (9 times)
1998 Early referral and its impact on emergent first dialyses, health care costs, and outcome.
25  Landrace
(36 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(10 times)
LW (22 times)
DU (6 times)
FCR (3 times)
1983 Haemoglobin values and some biochemical parameters of different breeds and sexes of pigs in a tropical humid environment.
26  leukoreduced
(36 times)
Hematology
(25 times)
NLR (12 times)
RBC (9 times)
PRBC (5 times)
2004 Hypotensive transfusion reactions can occur with blood products that are leukoreduced before storage.
27  local resection
(35 times)
General Surgery
(19 times)
PD (10 times)
OS (5 times)
GISTs (4 times)
1995 Subsequent insect stings in children with hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera.
28  local relapse
(34 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
OS (12 times)
RT (7 times)
CRT (4 times)
1997 Ductal carcinoma in situ of the male breast. Analysis of 31 cases.
29  loading rate
(32 times)
Sports Medicine
(7 times)
BW (3 times)
EC (3 times)
GRF (3 times)
1999 Anaerobic treatment of poultry mortalities in a modified LB-UASB system.
30  livedo reticularis
(28 times)
Dermatology
(11 times)
APS (5 times)
aPL (3 times)
SLE (3 times)
1979 Opportunistic fungal infection by Fusarium oxysporum in a renal transplant patient.
31  low resistance
(26 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
HR (20 times)
MR (4 times)
FHB (2 times)
1983 Trypanosoma cruzi: variation in susceptibility of inbred strains of rats.
32  leukoreduction
(24 times)
Hematology
(17 times)
RBCs (4 times)
WB (4 times)
MPs (3 times)
2007 Leukoreduction before red blood cell transfusion has no impact on mortality in trauma patients.
33  log reduction
(24 times)
Microbiology
(5 times)
i-PR (2 times)
PDI (2 times)
POP (2 times)
1988 Hand disinfection: a comparison of various agents in laboratory and ward studies.
34  living-related
(22 times)
Transplantation
(16 times)
CAD (4 times)
AZA (3 times)
HLA (3 times)
1982 Effects of histocompatibility testing versus immunoreactive predisposition on kidney transplant survival.
35  leukemoid reaction
(21 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
CML (2 times)
ANC (1 time)
APAAP (1 time)
1976 Mitotic activity in acute promyelocytic leukaemia and leukaemoid reactions.
36  late relapse
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
ER (7 times)
GCT (4 times)
OS (3 times)
1998 Favorable prognosis after late relapse of Hodgkin's disease.
37  lateral
(19 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
AP (10 times)
SI (7 times)
CBCT (4 times)
1990 Operational unit responsible for plane-specific control of eye movement by cerebellar flocculus in cat.
38  limited resection
(18 times)
General Surgery
(11 times)
PD (9 times)
GIST (5 times)
GISTs (4 times)
2008 Outcome after surgical treatment of suspected gastrointestinal stromal tumors involving the duodenum: is limited resection appropriate?
39  low-replicative
(18 times)
Medicine
(6 times)
IT (15 times)
IC (14 times)
HBV (9 times)
1999 Evidence for heteromorphic sex chromosomes in males of Rana tagoi and Rana sakuraii in Nishitama district of Tokyo (Anura: Ranidae).
40  Lactobacillus rhamnosus
(17 times)
Zoology
(5 times)
LA (2 times)
LAB (2 times)
LL (2 times)
2008 The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulates chloride/hydroxyl exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells.
41  laparoscopic repair
(16 times)
General Surgery
(15 times)
OR (7 times)
IH (2 times)
PPU (2 times)
2000 Laparoscopic repair vs open surgery for incisional hernias: a comparison study.
42  Labrador Retrievers
(15 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(14 times)
IW (5 times)
NF (5 times)
LEO (4 times)
2001 Comparison of urine composition of healthy Labrador retrievers and miniature schnauzers.
43  log rank
(15 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
HR (5 times)
OS (2 times)
TV (2 times)
1997 Tracking markers with missing data by lower rank approximation.
44  longitudinal rotation
(14 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
FE (6 times)
ISL (3 times)
LV (3 times)
1993 The axes of rotation of the knee.
45  low-resisting
(14 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(4 times)
HR (10 times)
MR (4 times)
PCR-RFLP (2 times)
2000 [The effect of sodium alpha-ketoglutarate on the physical load endurance of rats with different resistances to hypoxia].
46  Lactobacillus reuteri
(13 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(3 times)
PG (2 times)
Ss (2 times)
TNF-alpha (2 times)
2007 Effects of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, or serovar Choleraesuis, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bacillus licheniformis on chemokine and cytokine expression in the swine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2.
47  linear range
(12 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(7 times)
LOD (6 times)
Cys (2 times)
DL (2 times)
1991 Responses of neurons in the ventromedial midbrain to noxious mechanical stimuli.
48  linker region
(12 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
CD (3 times)
CBD (2 times)
ED (2 times)
2000 Alteration of a single tryptophan residue of the cellulose-binding domain blocks secretion of the Erwinia chrysanthemi Cel5 cellulase (ex-EGZ) via the type II system.
49  logistic regression analysis
(12 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
ROC (5 times)
AA (1 time)
AD (1 time)
2002 Prospective testing of two models based on clinical and oximetric variables for prediction of obstructive sleep apnea.
50  low-responding
(12 times)
Biology
(2 times)
HR (11 times)
ITI (3 times)
FVIII (2 times)
1984 Effects of phosphatidylserine on avoidance relearning in rats (preliminary observations).
51  laparoscopic
(11 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
OR (4 times)
ASA (2 times)
ACS-NSQIP (1 time)
1999 Open vs laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer.
52  Lawesson's reagent
(11 times)
Chemistry
(5 times)
DCCI (1 time)
FW (1 time)
IMes (1 time)
1998 Synthesis and comparative anti-phlogistic potency of new proteinogenic amino acid conjugates of 2-[2,6-dichlorophenyl-1-amino]phenyl acetic acid "diclofenac".
53  Leaf rust
(11 times)
Genetics
(3 times)
APR (8 times)
QTL (4 times)
GWAS (2 times)
2015 Genetic Analysis of Resistance to Leaf Rust and Yellow Rust in Spring Wheat Cultivar Kenya Kongoni.
54  local-regional
(11 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
NB (2 times)
OS (2 times)
RT (2 times)
1985 Analysis of local-regional relapses in patients with early breast cancers treated by excision and radiotherapy: experience of the Institut Gustave-Roussy.
55  low-responsive
(11 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
HR (5 times)
ASIP (1 time)
AT (1 time)
1982 The relationship between the c-wave and light response of the rabbit eye.
56  Ringer's lactate
(11 times)
Anesthesiology
(3 times)
AR (3 times)
MAP (3 times)
iNOS (2 times)
1995 Effects of pentafraction and hetastarch plasma expansion on lung and soft tissue transvascular fluid filtration.
57  lateral rectus muscle
(10 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
MR (3 times)
MRI (2 times)
AChE (1 time)
1984 Phasic activity of the basolateral amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus during REM sleep in the cat.
58  light rough
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
HR (8 times)
ER (4 times)
PC (1 time)
1980 Correlation of the effect of feeding upon the cell cycle distribution profiles of MPC-11 cells with the relative appearance of [3H]-choline labeled material in microsomal subfractions and other cell fractions.
59  light-reared
(10 times)
Psychophysiology
(5 times)
DR (8 times)
CMT (2 times)
CR (1 time)
1978 The effect of visual deprivation in the rat on transfer effects after form discrimination training.
60  Leukoregulin
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
NK (2 times)
CAT (1 time)
CTLs (1 time)
1988 Activation of ion channels in tumor cells by leukoregulin, a cytostatic lymphokine.
61  load range
(9 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
ROM (3 times)
PVF (2 times)
PVP (2 times)
2005 Reliability of rate of velocity development and phase measures on an isokinetic device.
62  Labeled Release
(8 times)
Biology
(5 times)
GEx (2 times)
PR (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
1977 Life on Mars? The Viking labeled release experiment.
63  laryngeal resistance
(8 times)
Otolaryngology
(3 times)
Ps (2 times)
IOP (1 time)
MA (1 time)
1982 Different laryngeal responses during respiratory arrest produced by hypoxia withdrawal, thiopentone, ketamine, and lidocaine in cats.
64  latent reservoir
(8 times)
Virology
(2 times)
ART (2 times)
QVOA (2 times)
LTR (1 time)
1989 Status of the endorectal ileal pullthrough procedure for ulcerative colitis and polyposis.
65  level running
(8 times)
Sports Medicine
(4 times)
DR (4 times)
UR (3 times)
CON-6 (1 time)
1990 Stance phase knee and ankle kinematics and kinetics during level and downhill running.
66  lichenoid reaction
(8 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
OLP (4 times)
MF (2 times)
BM (1 time)
1987 HLA-DR3 antigens in erosive oral lichen planus, cutaneous lichen planus, and lichenoid reactions.
67  ligand-receptor
(8 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
3D-PhaM (2 times)
LRD (2 times)
MCET (2 times)
1994 Continuous spectrofluorometric analysis of formyl peptide receptor ternary complex interactions.
68  lumbar radiculopathy
(8 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
EMG (1 time)
LBP (1 time)
LDH (1 time)
1996 Prevalence of lumbosacral radiculopathy in two Sicilian municipalities. Sicilian Neuro-Epidemiologic Study (SNES) Group.
69  lymphocyte reactivity
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
PHA (4 times)
CMV (3 times)
APP (1 time)
1975 In vitro lymphocyte reactivity and T-cell levels in chronic cigarette smokers.
70  labeling rate
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
PCNA (6 times)
BrdU (2 times)
ER (2 times)
1993 Analysis of proliferative activity using anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibody in gastric cancer tissue specimens obtained by endoscopic biopsy.
71  laser radiation
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
SOD (2 times)
AP (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
1991 [Laser therapy in acute nonspecific epididymo-orchitis].
72  leukocyte rolling
(7 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
I/R (5 times)
WT (5 times)
LA (3 times)
2005 Antecedent ethanol ingestion prevents postischemic leukocyte adhesion and P-selectin expression by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism.
73  leukocyte-reduced
(7 times)
Hematology
(5 times)
RBC (3 times)
TNF-alpha (2 times)
AOR (1 time)
1998 Prevention of cytokine accumulation in platelets obtained with the COBE spectra apheresis system.
74  Lindegaard ratio
(7 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
TCD (4 times)
MCA (3 times)
SAH (3 times)
2005 Posttraumatic vasospasm: the epidemiology, severity, and time course of an underestimated phenomenon: a prospective study performed in 299 patients.
75  logistic regression model
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
SVM (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
AMI (1 time)
2004 Predictors of patients who will develop prolonged occult hypoperfusion following blunt trauma.
76  low reward
(7 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
HR (6 times)
ACC (3 times)
BLA (1 time)
2005 The mesocortical dopamine projection to anterior cingulate cortex plays no role in guiding effort-related decisions.
77  labor room
(6 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
CMQCC (1 time)
CPAP (1 time)
DDST (1 time)
2005 Comparison of two techniques of marking the horizontal axis during excimer laser keratorefractive surgery for myopic astigmatism.
78  lateral resolution
(6 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(2 times)
CFB (2 times)
CS (2 times)
CM (1 time)
2004 A contribution to sonograph image quality estimation using point spread function.
79  lateral retinaculum
(6 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
LRR (3 times)
IMPI (2 times)
2-DG (1 time)
1984 Regional (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake during forelimb movements evoked by rat motor cortex stimulation: pons, cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord, muscle.
80  leishmaniasis recidivans
(6 times)
Dermatology
(4 times)
CL (4 times)
ACL (1 time)
AL (1 time)
1995 Treatment of recurrent cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
81  leptin resistance
(6 times)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
IR (3 times)
BAT (1 time)
DIO (1 time)
1987 Expression of human choriogonadotropin-like material correlates with metastatic phenotype of R3230 AC rat adenocarcinoma.
82  life review
(6 times)
Psychophysiology
(2 times)
DT (2 times)
AC (1 time)
AM (1 time)
2013 Hospice and palliative social workers' engagement in life review interventions.
83  linezolid-resistant
(6 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(3 times)
DNS (1 time)
hVISA (1 time)
ICU (1 time)
2012 Intensive care unit dissemination of multiple clones of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.
84  lithium ratio
(6 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
Li (1 time)
NE (1 time)
RBC (1 time)
1980 Lithium-drug interactions altering the intracellular lithium level: an in vitro study.
85  liver remnant
(6 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
PH (4 times)
FLR (3 times)
CT (2 times)
2012 Early hepatic regeneration index and completeness of regeneration at 6 months after partial hepatectomy.
86  liver-related
(6 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
CD (2 times)
HCV (2 times)
IF-RB (2 times)
1981 Diagnostic and prognostic significance of an increase in fractional protein clearance ratio before and during rejection of renal transplant.
87  living room
(6 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
BR (5 times)
CR (2 times)
MA (2 times)
1997 House dust mite and cat allergen levels in domestic dwellings in Christchurch.
88  log-roll
(6 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
LS (3 times)
AGIT-Sit (1 time)
AP (1 time)
2003 A Comparison of Spine-Board Transfer Techniques and the Effect of Training on Performance.
89  London Resin
(6 times)
Histocytochemistry
(2 times)
cNOS (1 time)
NOS III (1 time)
TEM (1 time)
1991 Rapid polymerization of LR-white for immunocytochemistry.
90  low ratio
(6 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
HR (4 times)
RUP (2 times)
ADG (1 time)
2007 The effect of food rations on tissue-specific copper accumulation patterns of sublethal waterborne exposure in Cyprinus carpio.
91  low responders to novelty
(6 times)
Psychopharmacology
(4 times)
HR (6 times)
AMPH (1 time)
APO-SUS (1 time)
1996 Analysis of the biphasic locomotor response to ethanol in high and low responders to novelty: a study in Nijmegen Wistar rats.
92  low-renin
(6 times)
Vascular Diseases
(2 times)
NR (3 times)
PRA (3 times)
BP (2 times)
1982 Effects of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor (SQ 14,225) on the responses of blood pressure and steroid hormone to angiotensin II and ACTH infusion in hypertensive subjects.
93  Lupus Ratio
(6 times)
Vascular Diseases
(5 times)
LA (5 times)
NP (3 times)
APTT (2 times)
1993 Choice of standard plasma for diagnosis and quantitation of lupus anticoagulants.
94  laparoscopic rectal resection
(5 times)
Gastroenterology
(4 times)
OR (4 times)
CR (1 time)
CRM (1 time)
2008 Conversion rate in 300 laparoscopic rectal resections and its influence on morbidity and oncological outcome.
95  laparoscopic rectopexy
(5 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
OR (3 times)
LRR (2 times)
NSQIP (2 times)
2005 The impact of laparoscopic resection rectopexy in patients with total rectal prolapse.
96  late reperfusion
(5 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
ER (3 times)
CI (2 times)
FR (1 time)
1994 Effects of captopril therapy after late reperfusion on left ventricular remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction.
97  latency relaxation
(5 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
hs (1 time)
LE (1 time)
1976 Sarcomere lengthening and tension drop in the latent period of isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers.
98  lateral reach
(5 times)
Physical Medicine
(3 times)
FR (3 times)
COP (1 time)
KJH (1 time)
2006 [Effectiveness of ability grouping in structured fall prevention exercise program for frail elderly people].
99  lateral recumbency
(5 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
DR (2 times)
LA (2 times)
CPP (1 time)
1990 Effect of body posture on cardiopulmonary function in horses during five hours of constant-dose halothane anesthesia.
100  lipid-rich
(5 times)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(1 time)
LP (2 times)
CR (1 time)
ER (1 time)
2007 The effect of diet on simvastatin and losartan enhancement of endothelial function.