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Abbreviation: PAL
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
(978 times)
Botany
(303 times)
POD (104 times)
PPO (103 times)
SA (77 times)
1968 l-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Activity During Germination of Phaseolus vulgaris.
physical activity level
(329 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(107 times)
TEE (88 times)
BMI (43 times)
DLW (35 times)
1992 A simplified approach of assessing adult chronic energy deficiency.
Paired Associates Learning
(115 times)
Neurology
(37 times)
CANTAB (19 times)
AD (11 times)
SWM (11 times)
1988 Paired associate learning: form 1 and form 2 of the Wechsler Memory Scale.
probing attachment level
(115 times)
Dentistry
(101 times)
PPD (65 times)
PD (29 times)
BOP (22 times)
0 The efficacy of interventions to treat peri-implantitis: a Cochrane systematic review of randomised controlled clinical trials.
peer-assisted learning
(100 times)
Education
(51 times)
OSCE (10 times)
EAL (3 times)
GALS (3 times)
0 Getting Started with Peer-Assisted Learning in a Veterinary Curriculum.
pyothorax-associated lymphoma
(66 times)
Neoplasms
(24 times)
EBV (30 times)
CP (4 times)
EBNA (3 times)
1993 High expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent protein EB nuclear antigen-2 on pyothorax-associated lymphomas.
peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein
(62 times)
Biochemistry
(13 times)
ELISA (4 times)
MLP (4 times)
OmpA (4 times)
1981 A novel peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) found in the outer membrane of Proteus mirabilis and other Gram-negative bacteria.
passive avoidance learning
(47 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(16 times)
STZ (6 times)
i.c.v (5 times)
AD (4 times)
1992 CRF increases protein phosphorylation and enhances retention performance in rats.
prolonged air leak
(46 times)
General Surgery
(26 times)
VATS (8 times)
ROC (4 times)
COPD (3 times)
1998 Prolonged air leak following radical upper lobectomy: an analysis of incidence and possible risk factors.
10  Primary adrenal lymphoma
(33 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
DLBCL (4 times)
NHL (4 times)
CNS (3 times)
1998 Clinically silent primary adrenal lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.
11  photoaffinity labeling
(32 times)
Biochemistry
(10 times)
CaM (2 times)
ER (2 times)
PALMm (2 times)
1986 Characterization of benzodiazepine binding sites after short-wave photo-affinity labeling with flunitrazepam.
12  periodontal attachment loss
(28 times)
Dentistry
(25 times)
PD (8 times)
se (6 times)
PI (5 times)
1989 Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease in an Irish population.
13  Persistent air leak
(27 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(12 times)
BPF (3 times)
SP (3 times)
ABP (2 times)
1995 Time course of resolution of persistent air leak in spontaneous pneumothorax.
14  palmatine
(22 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(6 times)
COP (8 times)
Jat (8 times)
Ber (7 times)
2008 [Absorption of extractive Rhizoma Coptidis in rat everted gut scas].
15  peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase
(22 times)
Biochemistry
(9 times)
PHM (19 times)
PAM (16 times)
PALcc (2 times)
1991 The membrane-bound bifunctional peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase protein. Exploration of its domain structure through limited proteolysis.
16  precautionary allergen labelling
(18 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(8 times)
VITAL (2 times)
ED (1 time)
EU (1 time)
2015 Dietary management of peanut and tree nut allergy: what exactly should patients avoid?
17  primary aldosteronism
(18 times)
Endocrinology
(8 times)
ARR (3 times)
FH-I (3 times)
FH-II (3 times)
1979 Adrenal imaging with iodomethyl-norcholesterol (I-131) in primary aldosteronism.
18  progressive addition lens
(17 times)
Optometry
(11 times)
SVL (2 times)
BAT (1 time)
cpd (1 time)
1989 Analysis of a progressive addition lens population.
19  palmitate
(16 times)
Cell Biology
(5 times)
ARI (2 times)
EPA (2 times)
FFAs (2 times)
1988 Biochemical characteristics of mammalian diaphragms.
20  palmitic acid
(16 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
AA (5 times)
EPA (3 times)
FFAs (2 times)
1991 Phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore induces release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids of a human B cell line.
21  para-aortic lymphadenectomy
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
LACC (3 times)
CRT (2 times)
PA (2 times)
1998 Effects of super-extended paraaortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) on biological responses in totally gastrectomized patients with T3 or T4 gastric cancer.
22  paliperidone
(14 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
RIS (4 times)
CLO (3 times)
AMI (2 times)
2013 Study of the efficacy and safety of switching from risperidone to paliperidone in elderly patients with schizophrenia.
23  palonosetron
(14 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
CINV (7 times)
CR (6 times)
DEX (6 times)
2011 Efficacy of palonosetron (PAL) compared to other serotonin inhibitors (5-HT3R) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic (MoHE) treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis.
24  protocatechuic aldehyde
(13 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
DSS (6 times)
Sal B (3 times)
CL (2 times)
2003 Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic studies on (3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-lactic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde in rat serum after oral administration of Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae extract.
25  present atmospheric level
(12 times)
Biology
(6 times)
GOE (1 time)
Ma (1 time)
MIF (1 time)
1980 Ozone, ultraviolet flux and temperature of the paleoatmosphere.
26  positron annihilation lifetime
(11 times)
Biophysics
(3 times)
o-Ps (2 times)
PADB (2 times)
AFM (1 time)
2007 Radiation effect on positronium formation in solid state nuclear track detector.
27  Practical Approach to Lung Health
(11 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
COPD (2 times)
CRD (2 times)
GARD (2 times)
2005 Implementing global knowledge in local practice: a WHO lung health initiative in Nepal.
28  phosphatase alkaline
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
GGT (6 times)
GPx (6 times)
LDH (6 times)
1981 [Determination of serum activity of glucose phosphate isomerase and glutathione reductase in intra and extra hepatic cholestasis.(author's transl)].
29  PA level
(9 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
PA (9 times)
AD (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
2008 Validity of physical activity intensity predictions by ActiGraph, Actical, and RT3 accelerometers.
30  panoramic annular lens
(9 times)
Ophthalmology
(9 times)
FOV (3 times)
BSPFU (1 time)
MDOE (1 time)
2007 Design of a panoramic annular lens with a long focal length.
31  power-assisted liposuction
(9 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
LAL (3 times)
ASCs (2 times)
SAL (2 times)
2006 Liposuction: review of the techniques, innovations and applications.
32  paracorporeal artificial lung
(8 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
ARDS (2 times)
DLC (2 times)
MAP (2 times)
2002 The paracorporeal artificial lung improves 5-day outcomes from lethal smoke/burn-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in sheep.
33  pedicle axis length
(8 times)
Orthopedics
(2 times)
PH (6 times)
PW (6 times)
CT (4 times)
2011 Anatomical feasibility of pediatric cervical pedicle screw insertion by computed tomographic morphometric evaluation of 376 pediatric cervical pedicles.
34  Pharmaceutical Affairs Law
(7 times)
Pharmacy
(3 times)
drugs, etc (1 time)
GPMSP (1 time)
GPSP (1 time)
2002 Oncology drug clinical development and approval in Japan: the role of the pharmaceuticals and medical devices evaluation center (PMDEC).
35  plantar annular ligament
(7 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(7 times)
DFTS (3 times)
DDFT (2 times)
ALCS (1 time)
1999 Tenoscopic examination and proximal annular ligament desmotomy for treatment of equine "complex" digital sheath tenosynovitis.
36  plasma aldosterone levels
(7 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
PRA (4 times)
5-HTP (1 time)
CAP-NS (1 time)
1976 [Secretory regulation and episodic secretion of aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism (author's transl)].
37  palbociclib
(6 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
DOX (4 times)
LET (2 times)
PAZ (2 times)
2017 Cost-effectiveness of palbociclib in hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.
38  phenylalanine
(6 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
Ala (2 times)
Gly (2 times)
TAL (2 times)
1988 Intestinal transport of thiamin and thiamin monophosphate in rat everted jejunal sacs: a comparative study using some potential inhibitors.
39  phenylalanine lyase
(6 times)
Botany
(2 times)
CHS (2 times)
FRAP (2 times)
ANR (1 time)
2008 cGMP in ozone and NO dependent responses.
40  Pool Activity Level
(6 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
--- 2002 The Pool Activity Level (PAL) Instrument for Occupational Profiling Jackie Pool The Pool Activity Level (PAL) Instrument for Occupational Profiling Second edition Jessica Kingsley Publishers 96pp 22.50 1843100800 1843100800.
41  people affected by leprosy
(5 times)
Tropical Medicine
(3 times)
HC (1 time)
MB (1 time)
PB (1 time)
2007 Recent advances in ocular leprosy.
42  peptidylamidoglycolate lyase
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
PHM (5 times)
NE (2 times)
PAM (2 times)
1996 Peptide amidating activity in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
43  phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity
(5 times)
Biocompatible Materials
(1 time)
APX (1 time)
CAD (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
2000 Effect of gamma-irradiation on phenolic compounds and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity during storage in relation to peel injury from peel of Citrus clementina hort. Ex. tanaka.
44  Physical Activity and Lymphedema
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
BCRL (1 time)
BIRS (1 time)
QOL (1 time)
2009 Physical Activity and Lymphedema (the PAL trial): assessing the safety of progressive strength training in breast cancer survivors.
45  Pohang Accelerator Laboratory
(5 times)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
BS (1 time)
DENN (1 time)
fs (1 time)
2004 Measurement of the neutron fluence and dose spectra using an extended bonner sphere and a tissue-equivalent proportional counter.
46  palmitic
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
MYR (3 times)
STE (2 times)
ara (1 time)
2004 Lipid binding in rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 complexes from Oryza sativa.
47  periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
GAL (3 times)
IDs (1 time)
NBDAO (1 time)
2012 Detection of cellular sialic acid content using nitrobenzoxadiazole carbonyl-reactive chromophores.
48  persistent airflow limitation
(4 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(4 times)
FEV1 (1 time)
GSVA (1 time)
MRC (1 time)
1984 Persisting airflow limitation in asthmatics receiving routine self-adjusted medication.
49  physically active learning
(4 times)
Physical Exertion
(1 time)
CMB (1 time)
LPA (1 time)
MI (1 time)
2017 Study design and protocol for a mixed methods evaluation of an intervention to reduce and break up sitting time in primary school classrooms in the UK: The CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) Programme.
50  plasma ammonia levels
(4 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
AHE (1 time)
AL (1 time)
ALF (1 time)
1992 Plasma ammonia in patients with acute leukemia.
51  posterior-assisted levitation
(4 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
IOLs (1 time)
PC IOLs (1 time)
TPPV (1 time)
2005 Posterior assisted levitation: long-term follow-up data.
52  power-assisted lipoplasty
(4 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
SAL (2 times)
TL (1 time)
WAL (1 time)
1999 Power-assisted lipoplasty (PAL): A clinical pilot study comparing PAL to traditional lipoplasty (TL).
53  prealbumin
(4 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
RBP (2 times)
RDR (2 times)
AAT (1 time)
1990 [Changes in 4 bearer-proteins and C3 in patients following burn injury].
54  proximal airway lavage
(4 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
BAL (3 times)
GM-CSF (2 times)
IL-8 (2 times)
1996 Ozone-induced decrements in FEV1 and FVC do not correlate with measures of inflammation.
55  pulmonary air leak
(4 times)
Critical Care
(1 time)
ARDS (1 time)
BPD (1 time)
BW (1 time)
1990 [Incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia].
56  Palyam
(3 times)
Biology
(2 times)
AGDP (1 time)
BLU (1 time)
BTV (1 time)
1985 Problems in the interpretation of diagnostic tests due to cross-reactions between orbiviruses and broad serological responses in animals.
57  para-aortic lymph node
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
GBC (1 time)
PALM (1 time)
pCR (1 time)
2005 Results and controversial issues regarding a para-aortic lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer.
58  pediatric artificial lung
(3 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
ESLF (2 times)
RPA (2 times)
rPA-RT (1 time)
2015 The Implantable Pediatric Artificial Lung: Interim Report on the Development of an End-Stage Lung Failure Model.
59  pelvic-and-aortic lymphadenectomy
(3 times)
Gynecology
(3 times)
PL (2 times)
RALH (2 times)
BMI (1 time)
2009 Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer: Analysis of surgical performance.
60  peptidoglycan-associated outer-membrane lipoprotein
(3 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
CF (1 time)
orf2 (1 time)
1988 Cloning of genes encoding a 15,000-dalton peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane lipoprotein and an antigenically related 15,000-dalton protein from Haemophilus influenzae.
61  phage-associated lysin
(3 times)
Microbiology
(2 times)
LYSIN-M (1 time)
1971 Staphylococcal bacteriophage-associated lysin: a lytic agent active against Staphylococcus aureus.
62  phagocytic activity of leukocytes
(3 times)
Lung Diseases
(2 times)
LCT (1 time)
NSR (1 time)
1985 [Evaluation of the nonspecific resistance of diffuse peritonitis patients by using a lysosomal-cation test and indices of leukocyte phagocytic activity].
63  postoperative anastomotic leakage
(3 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
CCT (1 time)
CI (1 time)
FTBs (1 time)
2010 Significance of intraoperative endoscopy in total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
64  Programa de Apoyo Alimentario
(3 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
pp (1 time)
2010 Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.
65  pacifier-activated lullaby
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
NNS (2 times)
LBW (1 time)
2005 Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.
66  PAL group
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
OR (1 time)
PALNU (1 time)
PLOS (1 time)
2016 Impact of primary para-aortic lymphadenectomy on distant failure in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated in the era of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy.
67  palatal
(2 times)
Dentistry
(1 time)
DB (1 time)
DGE (1 time)
MB (1 time)
1983 The potential attachment area of the maxillary first molar.
68  palate
(2 times)
Otolaryngology
(1 time)
MM (2 times)
AHI (1 time)
BOT (1 time)
2000 Reliability of the Muller maneuver and its association with sleep-disordered breathing.
69  palatinus
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
EMG (2 times)
LP (2 times)
TP (2 times)
1994 Soft palate muscle activity in response to hypoxic hypercapnia.
70  Palomino
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ARCO (1 time)
CAL (1 time)
DAR (1 time)
1993 Breed and environmental effects on postweaning growth of rabbits.
71  parametric array loudspeaker
(2 times)
Audiology
(2 times)
--- 2010 Active noise control using a steerable parametric array loudspeaker.
72  Parkinson's Active Living
(2 times)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
PD (1 time)
SD (1 time)
2017 The Parkinson's Active Living (PAL) Program.
73  partial aortic ligation
(2 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
ARF (1 time)
1987 Partial aortic ligation: a hypoperfusion model of ischemic acute renal failure and a comparison with renal artery occlusion.
74  partial ligature of their abdominal aorta
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
PAL-O (2 times)
Sh-O (1 time)
SHAM (1 time)
1996 Increased salt preference in adult offspring raised by mother rats consuming excessive amounts of salt and water.
75  particle acceleration levels
(2 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
AEP (2 times)
SPL (1 time)
SPLs (1 time)
2012 Relationship between swim bladder morphology and hearing abilities--a case study on Asian and African cichlids.
76  Pathfinder AVHRR Land
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AVHRR (1 time)
ET (1 time)
grd (1 time)
2002 The potential of Pathfinder AVHRR data for providing surrogate climatic variables across Africa and Europe for epidemiological applications.
77  patient-assisted laparoscopy
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
--- 1997 Effect on negative laparoscopy rate in chronic pelvic pain patients using patient assisted laparoscopy.
78  per length squared
(2 times)
Anatomy
(1 time)
CPA (1 time)
LTCA (1 time)
MLA (1 time)
2008 Alternative approach to evaluating lumbar lordosis on direct roentgenograms: projection area per length squared.
79  Personal Acoustics Lab
(2 times)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
DSP (1 time)
1986 The Personal Acoustics Lab (PAL): a microcomputer-based system for digital signal acquisition, analysis, and synthesis.
80  phenyl alanine lyase activity
(2 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
CBSM (2 times)
Phe (2 times)
TF (1 time)
2011 Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).
81  phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
CHI (1 time)
CHS (1 time)
F6H (1 time)
2015 Construction and development of a novel expression system of Streptomyces.
82  phosphonoacetaldehyde
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
--- 1998 Prebiotic chemistry of phosphonic acids: products derived from phosphonoacetaldehyde in the presence of formaldehyde.
83  physical activity index
(2 times)
Metabolism
(1 time)
DXA (1 time)
FFM (1 time)
MR (1 time)
2000 Leisure time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in nonsmoking middle-aged men.
84  Physically Active for Life
(2 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
PASE (1 time)
1998 Acceptability and feasibility of physician-based activity counseling. The PAL project.
85  Physician assisted living
(2 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
--- 1997 The Physician Assisted Living (PAL) program.
86  Pisum arvense seed lectin
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CRD (1 time)
MD (1 time)
2017 Crystal structure of Pisum arvense seed lectin (PAL) and characterization of its interaction with carbohydrates by moleculardocking and dynamics.
87  pituitary anterior lobe
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
Cd (1 time)
FSC (1 time)
PLD (1 time)
2005 Alterations in the lipid content of pituitary gland and serum prolactin and growth hormone in cadmium treated rats.
88  plasma-activated lactated Ringer's solution
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
Lac-R (1 time)
NAC (1 time)
NTP (1 time)
2018 Effect of Plasma-Activated Lactated Ringer's Solution on Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.
89  plating after lengthening
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
--- 2007 Plating after lengthening (PAL): technical notes and preliminary clinical experiences.
90  pneumatic artificial larynx
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
MPT (1 time)
NNE (1 time)
TE (1 time)
2009 Perceptual evaluation and acoustic analysis of pneumatic artificial larynx.
91  poly(aspartic acid-co-l-lactide)
(2 times)
Polymers
(1 time)
PLLA (2 times)
PML (2 times)
DR (1 time)
2017 Change in thermal transitions and water uptakes of poly(l-lactic acid) blends upon hydrolytic degradation.
92  polyclonal activation of lymphocytes
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
--- 1990 Modulation of polyclonal activation of lymphocytes by cyclophosphazenic compounds bearing ethylene-imino groups and vectorized by polyamines.
93  Positive Automatic Thoughts List
(2 times)
Psychology
(1 time)
--- 2007 [Development of the Positive Automatic Thoughts List (PAL)].
94  posterior arch length
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
APL (1 time)
DCS (1 time)
DSA (1 time)
1996 Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: role of videokeratoscopy and trephine sizing.
95  pregnant after loss
(2 times)
Psychotherapy
(1 time)
pregnancy anxiety (1 time)
2007 Threat appraisal, coping, and emotions across pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss.
96  Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma
(2 times)
Pathology
(1 time)
EUS-CB (1 time)
EUS-FNA (1 time)
SMA (1 time)
2015 Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: a case report and review of literature.
97  primary hyperaldosteronism
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
ARR (1 time)
EHT (1 time)
PAC (1 time)
2010 Reference intervals for aldosterone, renin, and the aldosterone-to-renin ratio in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1).
98  Profile of Aided Loudness
(2 times)
Audiology
(2 times)
WDRC (1 time)
2007 Aided loudness growth and satisfaction with everyday loudness perception in compression hearing aid users.
99  programmatic assessment for learning
(2 times)
Education, Medical
(1 time)
--- 2017 An application of programmatic assessment for learning (PAL) system for general practice training.
100  progressive-addition spectacle lenses
(2 times)
Optometry
(1 time)
MTF CL (2 times)
MV (2 times)
SV (2 times)
2009 Influence of presbyopic corrections on driving-related eye and head movements.