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Abbreviation: PDR
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Long forms: 190

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
proliferative diabetic retinopathy
(1299 times)
Ophthalmology
(766 times)
VEGF (212 times)
NPDR (210 times)
DR (190 times)
0 Results of Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy by the Laser System PASCAL.
proliferative DR
(154 times)
Ophthalmology
(71 times)
DR (151 times)
NPDR (93 times)
CI (18 times)
1997 Changes of plasma tPA and PAI activities in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
pulsed dose rate
(128 times)
Neoplasms
(73 times)
HDR (41 times)
LDR (29 times)
EBRT (16 times)
1995 [The initial results on the radiobiological comparability of continuous LDR irradiation and PDR irradiation using a guinea pig skin animal model].
pleiotropic drug resistance
(97 times)
Molecular Biology
(26 times)
ABC (40 times)
MDR (6 times)
MeJA (3 times)
1982 Allelism of pleiotropic drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
People's Democratic Republic
(85 times)
Tropical Medicine
(19 times)
CI (4 times)
ART (3 times)
G6PD (3 times)
1999 Community-based rehabilitation in Lao--comparison of needs and services.
pandrug-resistant
(81 times)
Communicable Diseases
(19 times)
MDR (51 times)
XDR (41 times)
VAP (6 times)
2005 Outcome of infections due to pandrug-resistant (PDR) Gram-negative bacteria.
polyp detection rate
(77 times)
Gastroenterology
(38 times)
ADR (62 times)
CRC (11 times)
OR (10 times)
2011 Time of day variation in polyp detection rate for colonoscopies performed on a 3-hour shift schedule.
pedestrian dead reckoning
(50 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(44 times)
EKF (6 times)
GNSS (4 times)
IMU (4 times)
2011 Use of Earth's magnetic field for mitigating gyroscope errors regardless of magnetic perturbation.
Physicians' Desk Reference
(41 times)
Drug Therapy
(7 times)
FDA (5 times)
ADEs (2 times)
RCTs (2 times)
1976 Medical legal aspects of clinical monitoring.
10  pancreaticoduodenal resection
(29 times)
General Surgery
(23 times)
PEA (2 times)
PGA (2 times)
PJA (2 times)
1982 Adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Diagnosis and treatment.
11  pretreatment drug resistance
(27 times)
Drug Therapy
(12 times)
ART (12 times)
DRMs (6 times)
ADR (5 times)
2015 Pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance to first-line drugs: results from a baseline assessment of a large cohort initiating ART in Vietnam, 2009-10.
12  plasma disappearance rate
(19 times)
Gastroenterology
(5 times)
ICG (15 times)
IAP (3 times)
CI (2 times)
1989 [Development and clinical application of ICG clearance meter].
13  packet delivery ratio
(17 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(14 times)
MAC (4 times)
EC (2 times)
IoT (2 times)
2010 DMP: detouring using multiple paths against jamming attack for ubiquitous networking system.
14  pupil dilation response
(12 times)
Psychophysiology
(7 times)
EPs (1 time)
ILD (1 time)
LC (1 time)
1999 Phasic pupil dilation response to noxious stimulation in normal volunteers: relationship to brain evoked potentials and pain report.
15  primary drug resistance
(11 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(3 times)
ADR (2 times)
HAART (2 times)
ART (1 time)
1998 Origin and management of primary and acquired drug-resistant tuberculosis in The Netherlands: the truth behind the rates.
16  pathogen-derived resistance
(10 times)
Virology
(4 times)
PTGS (2 times)
AMPs (1 time)
CMV (1 time)
1996 RNA-mediated virus resistance in transgenic plants.
17  photodissociation region
(9 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
AGB (2 times)
FUV (2 times)
COMs (1 time)
2000 Hot Stars and Cool Clouds: The Photodissociation Region M16.
18  potentially drug-resistant
(9 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(4 times)
CAP (5 times)
HCAP (5 times)
PS (2 times)
2009 Health-care-associated pneumonia among hospitalized patients in a Japanese community hospital.
19  positive detection rate
(8 times)
Genetics
(2 times)
RSV (2 times)
ADT (1 time)
AdV (1 time)
2010 A two-phase procedure for QTL mapping with regression models.
20  predicted death rate
(8 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
AUROC (1 time)
CI (1 time)
ER (1 time)
2011 Mortality and postoperative care after emergency laparotomy.
21  preventable death rate
(8 times)
Traumatology
(4 times)
ISS (2 times)
AIS (1 time)
AIS-85 (1 time)
1988 Evaluating a pediatric trauma program: effectiveness versus preventable death rate.
22  projected difference resolution
(8 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(7 times)
FuRES (4 times)
GC (2 times)
GC/MS (2 times)
2009 Automated principal component-based orthogonal signal correction applied to fused near infrared-mid-infrared spectra of French olive oils.
23  percentage dose recovered
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(4 times)
13C-MTG (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BA (1 time)
1997 Evaluation studies of the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test in healthy controls and adult cystic fibrosis patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
24  photodynamic reaction
(7 times)
Biology
(3 times)
PDT (5 times)
MDR (2 times)
2-ME (1 time)
2010 Oxidative alterations induced in vitro by the photodynamic reaction in doxorubicin-sensitive (LoVo) and -resistant (LoVoDX) colon adenocarcinoma cells.
25  Phthalate dioxygenase reductase
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
FMN (3 times)
FNR (2 times)
DHD (1 time)
1992 Phthalate dioxygenase reductase: a modular structure for electron transfer from pyridine nucleotides to [2Fe-2S].
26  posterior dominant rhythm
(7 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
EEG (2 times)
AE (1 time)
ALS (1 time)
2008 Quantitative analysis of the EEG posterior-dominant rhythm in healthy adolescents.
27  pulsed dose rate brachytherapy
(7 times)
Radiotherapy
(6 times)
EBRT (3 times)
BED (1 time)
bNED (1 time)
1996 Implementation, uptime, and safety of a pulsed dose rate afterloading machine.
28  pupillary dilatation reflex
(7 times)
Anesthesiology
(4 times)
BPS (2 times)
ICU (2 times)
NFR (2 times)
2012 Objective assessment of the immediate postoperative analgesia using pupillary reflex measurement: a prospective and observational study.
29  Prescribed Drug Register
(6 times)
Epidemiology
(2 times)
MBR (2 times)
NPR (2 times)
ADHD (1 time)
2011 Drug use during pregnancy in Sweden - assessed by the Prescribed Drug Register and the Medical Birth Register.
30  progressive disease rate
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
ORR (4 times)
OS (4 times)
PFS (4 times)
2013 A randomized and open-label trial evaluating the addition of pazopanib to lapatinib as first-line therapy in patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.
31  partial dorsal rhizotomy
(4 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
APV (1 time)
CCD (1 time)
CCI (1 time)
1994 H reflex studies in cerebral palsy patients undergoing partial dorsal rhizotomy.
32  PDR group
(4 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
ERM (1 time)
ERMs (1 time)
GAD (1 time)
2005 Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody prevalence and association with HLA genotype in patients with younger-onset type 1 diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
33  post-decapitation reflex
(4 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
NE (2 times)
DA (1 time)
ER (1 time)
1980 Importance of the Locus coeruleus and involvement of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the post-decapitation reflex in the rat.
34  potential denitrification rate
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AOB (1 time)
EEA (1 time)
FM (1 time)
2008 Denitrification potential and its relation to organic carbon quality in three coastal wetland soils.
35  productivity-diversity relationships
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
SEM (1 time)
2009 Separating the influence of resource 'availability' from resource 'imbalance' on productivity-diversity relationships.
36  patient-doctor relationship
(3 times)
Education
(2 times)
CA (1 time)
EI (1 time)
PCP (1 time)
2008 Doctors' emotional intelligence and the patient-doctor relationship.
37  percentage disappearance rate
(3 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
ICG (1 time)
1995 The effects of congenital heart disease and cardiac surgery on liver blood flow in children.
38  perfusion density rate
(3 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
AAR (2 times)
CMRI (2 times)
DR (2 times)
2012 Evaluation of a novel normal database with matched SPECT systems and optimal pre-filter parameters for 3D-SSP.
39  pigmentary disorder
(3 times)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
CMUSE (1 time)
PLE (1 time)
1994 Localisation of the gene for X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder with systemic manifestations (PDR), previously known as X-linked cutaneous amyloidosis.
40  plasma droplet rate
(3 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(3 times)
ASR (3 times)
MOT (3 times)
NBA (2 times)
2006 Candidate gene markers for sperm quality and fertility of boar.
41  Polymorphism Discovery Resource
(3 times)
Genetics, Medical
(2 times)
SNPs (3 times)
AEI (1 time)
ATP (1 time)
2002 Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase 2 (PAPSS2) pharmacogenetics: gene resequencing, genetic polymorphisms and functional characterization of variant allozymes.
42  pre-ART HIV drug resistance
(3 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(3 times)
ART (3 times)
NNRTI (2 times)
ARV (1 time)
2015 HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals from a reference hospital in Guatemala, 2010-2013.
43  pressure-diameter relationship
(3 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
SC (2 times)
AP (1 time)
ICN (1 time)
1975 Reflex sympathetic changes in aortic diastolic pressure-diameter relationship.
44  ProDesign R
(3 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
REC (2 times)
AF (1 time)
micro-CT (1 time)
2018 Debris extrusion and foraminal deformation produced by reciprocating instruments made of thermally treated NiTi wires.
45  Professional Decision-Making in Research
(3 times)
Ethics
(2 times)
NIH (1 time)
RCR (1 time)
2016 Professional Decision-Making in Research (PDR): The Validity of a New Measure.
46  parent daily report
(2 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
OSLC (1 time)
TAB (1 time)
1987 Delinquency prevention through training parents in family management.
47  pattern dystrophy of the retina
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
rds (1 time)
RHO (1 time)
1995 Age-dependent phenotypic expression of a pattern dystrophy of the retina.
48  PD reduction
(2 times)
Dentistry
(1 time)
PD (2 times)
BANA (1 time)
beta-TCP (1 time)
2009 Growth factor-mediated treatment of recession defects: a randomized controlled trial and histologic and microcomputed tomography examination.
49  pepsin-digest-residue
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
--- 1956 The pepsin-digest-residue (PDR) amino acid index of net protein utilization.
50  per cent disease reduction
(2 times)
Biophysics
(1 time)
DIR (1 time)
DPPH (1 time)
MDR (1 time)
2001 Evaluating the effectiveness of a longitudinal magnetic field in reducing underdosing of the regions around upper respiratory cavities irradiated with photon beams--a Monte Carlo study.
51  per monomer, and a reductase
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DHD (2 times)
PDO (2 times)
BZDO (1 time)
2005 Chemistry of the catalytic conversion of phthalate into its cis-dihydrodiol during the reaction of oxygen with the reduced form of phthalate dioxygenase.
52  percentage drug retention
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
AMK LDPI (1 time)
FPF (1 time)
IDU (1 time)
2004 Topical liposomal gel of idoxuridine for the treatment of herpes simplex: pharmaceutical and clinical implications.
53  pericardio-diaphragmatic rupture
(2 times)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
TDR (2 times)
1999 Pericardio-diaphragmatic rupture: five new cases and literature review.
54  photo-dependent swimming response
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CA (1 time)
PSSR (1 time)
2018 Alterations of larval photo-dependent swimming responses (PDR): New endpoints for rapid and diagnostic screening of aquatic contamination.
55  photodynamic response
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
ALA (1 time)
BPD-MA (1 time)
CAM (1 time)
2002 Photodynamic parameters in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioassay for photosensitizers administered intraperitoneally (IP) into the chick embryo.
56  photon-dominated region
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
UV (1 time)
2006 Photoprocesses in protoplanetary disks.
57  pigmentary disorder with systemic manifestations
(2 times)
Genetics, Medical
(2 times)
--- 1994 Localisation of the gene for X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder with systemic manifestations (PDR), previously known as X-linked cutaneous amyloidosis.
58  Pittsburgh Decision Rule
(2 times)
Emergency Medicine
(2 times)
CI (1 time)
OKR (1 time)
2006 The Pittsburgh Decision Rule: triage nurse versus physician utilization in the emergency department.
59  plasma depletion or reduction
(2 times)
Hematology
(1 time)
CB (2 times)
aGVHD (1 time)
CBT (1 time)
2011 Cell recovery comparison between plasma depletion/reduction- and red cell reduction-processing of umbilical cord blood.
60  preemptive dose reduction
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
INR (2 times)
CI (1 time)
ORs (1 time)
2007 Coumarin anticoagulants and co-trimoxazole: avoid the combination rather than manage the interaction.
61  pretreatment disposition response
(2 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
CD (2 times)
CD-PDR (1 time)
1989 A characterization of chlordecone pretreatment-altered pharmacokinetics in mice.
62  previous day recalls
(2 times)
Diet
(1 time)
DO (1 time)
ICC (1 time)
2014 Validation of a previous day recall for measuring the location and purpose of active and sedentary behaviors compared to direct observation.
63  pronephric duct rudiment
(2 times)
Biology
(2 times)
--- 1990 Cell migration in the formation of the pronephric duct in Xenopus laevis.
64  protein deposition ratio
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
FCR (2 times)
ALT (1 time)
AST (1 time)
2017 The effects of dietary leucine on the growth performances, body composition, metabolic abilities and innate immune responses in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.
65  protocol-defined response
(2 times)
Gastroenterology
(2 times)
--- 2014 Randomized trial of asunaprevir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for previously untreated genotype 1 or 4 chronic hepatitis C.
66  pulmonary-derived renotropin
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
CDH (2 times)
PGF (2 times)
PH (2 times)
1990 Pathophysiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: I. Renal enlargement suggests feedback modulation by pulmonary derived renotropins--a unifying hypothesis to explain pulmonary hypoplasia, polyhydramnios, and renal enlargement in the fetus/newborn with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
67  pulsed dose irradiation
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
CLDR (2 times)
1997 Continuous, pulsed or single acute irradiation of a transplanted rodent tumour model.
68  pulsed-brachytherapy
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
CLDR (1 time)
1997 Biological effect of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy with stepping sources if short half-times of repair are present in tissues.
69  5-pentadecylresorcinol
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
4,5,6-tri-Me-PDC (1 time)
5,6-di-Me-PDC (1 time)
5-Me-PDC (1 time)
1986 Influence of chemical reactivity of urushiol-type haptens on sensitization and the induction of tolerance.
70  p-dimethylaminobenzylidene rodamine
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
--- 1999 [Determination of copper in waste water by beta-correction new spectrophotometry].
71  Packet Drop Ratio
(1 time)
Biosensing Techniques
(1 time)
FROG-MAC (1 time)
IoT (1 time)
WSNs (1 time)
2018 A Preemptive Priority-Based Data Fragmentation Scheme for Heterogeneous Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks.
72  PAMAM dendrimer
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
DNR (1 time)
DPV (1 time)
EIS (1 time)
2011 Dendrimer modified graphite sensors for detection of anticancer drug Daunorubicin by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
73  pan-DR
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
DR (1 time)
ICU (1 time)
MDR (1 time)
2016 Prevalence of Multidrug-resistant, Extensively Drug-resistant, and Pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Tertiary Level Intensive Care Unit.
74  pan-drug
(1 time)
Genomics
(1 time)
AB (1 time)
IS (1 time)
MDR (1 time)
2016 Genome dynamics of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii during infection and treatment.
75  pan-drug resistant strains
(1 time)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
BLIS (1 time)
BLISs (1 time)
MDR (1 time)
2016 Determination of Acquired Resistance Profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates and Characterization of an Effective Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substance (BLIS) Against These Isolates.
76  pandevelopmental retardation
(1 time)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
--- 1977 Neurobiologic antecedents of schizophrenia in children. Evidence for an inherited, congenital neurointegrative defect.
77  pandrug-resistant bacteria
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
HAP (1 time)
MDR (1 time)
VAP (1 time)
2018 New guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia: USA vs. Europe.
78  paradigm elicit a biphasic dilation of the pupil
(1 time)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
ERPs (1 time)
PCA (1 time)
2018 Emotion lies in the eye of the listener: Emotional arousal to novel sounds is reflected in the sympathetic contribution to the pupil dilation response and the P3.
79  parametric double regularization
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
--- 2005 A soft double regularization approach to parametric blind image deconvolution.
80  paravaginal defect repair
(1 time)
Gynecology
(1 time)
USI (1 time)
2007 Abdominal paravaginal defect repair in the treatment of paravaginal defect and urodynamic stress incontinence.
81  Parent Daily Report Checklist
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
--- 2006 Who disrupts from placement in foster and kinship care?
82  Parkinson's disease, right
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 1995 Neuropsychological characteristics of parkinsonian patients with lateralized motor impairment.
83  partial de novo-reference assembly
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
BBAP (1 time)
2017 De novo assembly of highly polymorphic metagenomic data using in situ generated reference sequences and a novel BLAST-based assembly pipeline.
84  partial dentin caries removal
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
AP-PCR (1 time)
2014 Genotypic diversity and virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans isolated from carious dentin after partial caries removal and sealing.
85  partial lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
drs (1 time)
SI (1 time)
VR (1 time)
1996 The critical importance of stimulus intensity in intraoperative monitoring for partial dorsal rhizotomy.
86  Participant-driven recruitment
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
RDS (1 time)
2006 Respondent-driven sampling in participatory research contexts: participant-driven recruitment.
87  participatory design research
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
eHealth (1 time)
2018 The Optimization of an eHealth Solution (Thought Spot) with Transition-Aged Youth in Postsecondary Settings: Participatory Design Research.
88  particular amino acid sequence motif
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
allo-HSCT (1 time)
CTLs (1 time)
TCR (1 time)
2015 [Development of Tax-redirected T-cell immunotherapy using TCR gene transduction in patients with ATL].
89  Particulate depolarization ratio
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CR (1 time)
TBC (1 time)
YRD (1 time)
2018 Spatial-temporal characteristics of haze and vertical distribution of aerosols over the Yangtze River Delta of China.
90  passive defensive response
(1 time)
Behavior
(1 time)
AOR (1 time)
PSS (1 time)
PTSD (1 time)
2019 From Allostatic Load to Allostatic State-An Endogenous Sympathetic Strategy to Deal With Chronic Anxiety and Stress?
91  Patellar dislocation and relocation
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
MR (1 time)
2001 MR imaging of patellar dislocation and relocation.
92  patient diagnosis rate
(1 time)
World Health
(1 time)
--- 2016 Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in western China in 2010-11: a population-based, cross-sectional survey.
93  patients and does not interfere with ICG
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
OLT (1 time)
PEEP (1 time)
2000 Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on hemodynamics and indocyanine green kinetics in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation.
94  PD subjects with right-side onset
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
PD (1 time)
PDL (1 time)
VBM (1 time)
2015 Side of motor onset is associated with hemisphere-specific memory decline and lateralized gray matter loss in Parkinson's disease.
95  PDRpeak
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
MTE (1 time)
NDIRS (1 time)
1999 [13C-mixed triglyceride CO2 exhalation test. Investigation with an isotope selective, non dispersive infrared spectrophotometer of indirect function of the exocrine pancreas].
96  Peak distention rate
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
PCR (1 time)
1998 [A modified method of cardiac functional analysis for ECG gated SPECT: study of functional G-maps].
97  pediatric dentistry residents
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
PD (1 time)
2018 What Makes a Great Resident: A Perspective of Pediatric Dentistry Program Directors and Residents.
98  Peer-driven recruitment
(1 time)
Ethics
(1 time)
--- 2010 Community members as recruiters of human subjects: ethical considerations.
99  penetrating diaphragmatic rupture
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
HLOS (1 time)
ICU LOS (1 time)
ISS (1 time)
2013 Factors affecting outcomes in penetrating diaphragmatic trauma.
100  percent-dose-recovery
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
2009 Breath tests with (13)C substrates.