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Abbreviation: PY
Appearance Frequency: 1490 time(s)
Long forms: 142

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
person-years
(860 times)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(137 times)
CI (221 times)
HIV (79 times)
HR (74 times)
1980 Recent changes in the incidence of duodenal and gastric ulcer.
patient-years
(153 times)
Rheumatology
(42 times)
RA (28 times)
CI (17 times)
AEs (15 times)
1984 [Valve replacement for congenital valvular disease].
pack-years
(40 times)
Neoplasms
(11 times)
NSCLC (7 times)
CI (5 times)
OR (5 times)
1994 Detection of early lung impairment with aerosol bolus dispersion.
Percus-Yevick
(26 times)
Biophysics
(18 times)
HNC (7 times)
FMT (2 times)
MHNC (2 times)
1994 Light scattering for young human and cataractous lenses.
protein yield
(26 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(14 times)
MY (16 times)
FY (14 times)
QTL (7 times)
2005 An independent confirmation of a quantitative trait locus for milk yield and composition traits on bovine chromosome 26.
pyloric
(24 times)
Neurology
(20 times)
LP (18 times)
PD (17 times)
VD (12 times)
1982 Mechanisms underlying pattern generation in lobster stomatogastric ganglion as determined by selective inactivation of identified neurons. III. Synaptic connections of electrically coupled pyloric neurons.
pyronin Y
(24 times)
Cell Biology
(7 times)
AO (4 times)
7-AAD (2 times)
CHO (2 times)
1981 Flow cytometric estimation of DNA and RNA content in intact cells stained with Hoechst 33342 and pyronin Y.
per year
(13 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
3DCRT (1 time)
AF (1 time)
AHEI (1 time)
1991 Incidence and outcome of surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia among residents of Rochester, Minnesota: 1980-87. A population-based study.
physical dormancy
(13 times)
Botany
(9 times)
SEM (2 times)
DAP (1 time)
lens (1 time)
2007 Seed development in Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae), with particular reference to anatomy of the water gap.
10  pyloric constrictor
(13 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
LP (10 times)
PD (7 times)
DA (6 times)
1994 Multiple receptors mediate the modulatory effects of serotonergic neurons in a small neural network.
11  PY 108-068
(12 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
AII (1 time)
BP (1 time)
Ca (1 time)
1982 PY 108-068, a new, potent, and selective inhibitor of calcium-induced contraction of rabbit aortic rings.
12  peptide Y
(11 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
NPY (6 times)
CCK (4 times)
PYY (4 times)
1992 The primary structure of peptide Y (PY) of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias: immunocytochemical localisation and isolation from the pancreas.
13  pyrazole
(11 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
EtOH (3 times)
ADH (2 times)
CY (2 times)
1987 Different effects of chemicals on metabolism of N-nitrosamines in rat liver.
14  pyrimethamine
(11 times)
Genetics, Medical
(3 times)
CH (5 times)
COL (5 times)
EZ (5 times)
1975 Chemosuppressive field trials in Thailand. II. The suppression of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitemias by a diformyldapsone-pyrimethamine combination.
15  pyruvate
(11 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
LA (5 times)
AI (1 time)
ATP (1 time)
1979 Growth hormone response to continuous and intermittent exercise.
16  pyridostigmine
(10 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
PH (5 times)
AChE (3 times)
MI (2 times)
1984 Protection against diisopropylfluorophosphate intoxication by pyridostigmine and physostigmine in combination with atropine and mecamylamine.
17  peptone-yeast-extract
(9 times)
Microbiology
(8 times)
DAP (2 times)
SEM (2 times)
CD (1 time)
1975 The recovery of nocardial recombinants from broth cultures.
18  phosphorylated
(9 times)
Biological Science Disciplines
(1 time)
ALK (1 time)
CRC (1 time)
GAPDH (1 time)
1997 Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B complexes with the insulin receptor in vivo and is tyrosine-phosphorylated in the presence of insulin.
19  proline-tyrosine
(9 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
AIP (1 time)
BZA (1 time)
cNLSs (1 time)
1998 Molecular cloning of Nedd4 from Xenopus laevis.
20  pyrethroid
(7 times)
Tropical Medicine
(3 times)
OP (5 times)
kdr (2 times)
OC (2 times)
1994 Insecticide susceptibility in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from French Polynesia.
21  pouch young
(6 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(3 times)
PRL (1 time)
1985 Active anti-paternal immunization does not affect the success of marsupial pregnancy.
22  pyrogallol
(6 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
GA (4 times)
RE (4 times)
4OMGA (2 times)
1998 Determination of gallic acid and its metabolites in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.
23  pyrolytic
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(5 times)
LO (5 times)
PAHs (4 times)
HO (3 times)
2014 Chronic dietary exposure to pyrolytic and petrogenic mixtures of PAHs causes physiological disruption in zebrafish--part I: Survival and growth.
24  pack-years smoked
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
FH (2 times)
HR (2 times)
NSCLC (2 times)
1997 Does smoking or family history influence the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer?
25  person-years at risk
(5 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
SIR (2 times)
CI (1 time)
CVAs (1 time)
2013 Temporal trends in stroke admissions in Denmark 1997-2009.
26  PPxY
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CPMG (1 time)
ENaC (1 time)
HCMV (1 time)
1998 NMR studies of tandem WW domains of Nedd4 in complex with a PY motif-containing region of the epithelial sodium channel.
27  practical year
(5 times)
Education, Medical
(3 times)
CanMEDS (1 time)
GP (1 time)
LMU (1 time)
2014 [Requirements for final year medical studies in the era of generation Y - implementation for general and visceral surgery at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich].
28  process yield
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
EE (3 times)
PS (2 times)
ACNs (1 time)
1992 The effects of preblending time on physical and textural properties of coarse ground sausages.
29  past year
(4 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(3 times)
PPY (3 times)
NESARC (2 times)
ADs (1 time)
2002 Dependence potential of antidepressants compared to benzodiazepines.
30  payment year
(4 times)
Jurisprudence
(3 times)
ESRD (4 times)
PPS (4 times)
QIP (3 times)
2012 Medicare program; end-stage renal disease prospective payment system, quality incentive program, and bad debt reductions for all Medicare providers. Final rule.
31  peak yield
(4 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
WD (2 times)
BN (1 time)
BO (1 time)
2013 Comparison of mathematical models applied to f1 dairy sheep lactations in organic farm and environmental factors affecting lactation curve parameter.
32  procion yellow
(4 times)
Brain
(2 times)
ME (2 times)
ST (2 times)
ARC (1 time)
1975 Low resistance pathways between myocardial cells.
33  pyrrolidine
(4 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
Am (1 time)
BPL (1 time)
Bu (1 time)
1991 Quantitative determination of amines in wine by liquid chromatography.
34  peptone yeast extract medium
(3 times)
Microbiology
(3 times)
CL (1 time)
FCS (1 time)
GLC (1 time)
1988 Characterization of some Clostridium species by gas-liquid chromatography using numerical analysis.
35  person-years of follow-up
(3 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
CI (2 times)
GOLD (1 time)
HCV (1 time)
2008 COPD stage and risk of hospitalization for infectious disease.
36  Pro-Pro-x-Tyr
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CYYR1 (1 time)
ENaC (1 time)
LAPTM4alpha (1 time)
2008 Role of the UPS in Liddle syndrome.
37  psilocybin
(3 times)
Psychopharmacology
(1 time)
PI (2 times)
4HIAA (1 time)
ACTH (1 time)
1997 Determination of psilocin and 4-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in plasma by HPLC-ECD and pharmacokinetic profiles of oral and intravenous psilocybin in man.
38  pyrazine-2,5-dipropionic acid
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
ALA (3 times)
PDT (2 times)
DHPY (1 time)
2005 Analysis of pyrazine 2,5-dipropionic acid in 5-aminolevulinic acid-loaded urological and topical delivery vehicles: methodology and assay validation.
39  perylene
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
AN (1 time)
FRET (1 time)
LCNP (1 time)
2003 Synthesis of organic one-dimensional nanomaterials by solid-phase reaction.
40  physical
(2 times)
Wound Healing
(1 time)
EV (1 time)
MPQ (1 time)
ND (1 time)
2008 Understanding pain and quality of life for patients with chronic venous ulcers.
41  plain yogurt
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
FY (2 times)
FFM (1 time)
FM (1 time)
2016 Effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled clinical trial.
42  poly-proline
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
ER (1 time)
hENaC (1 time)
PR (1 time)
2006 WW domain binding protein-2, an E6-associated protein interacting protein, acts as a coactivator of estrogen and progesterone receptors.
43  Poyang Lake
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
DT (1 time)
mtDNA (1 time)
2014 Genetic diversity and population structure of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) as revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA.
44  probiotic yogurt
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
H. pylori (1 time)
LF (1 time)
2012 Randomized control trial: Comparison of Triple Therapy plus Probiotic Yogurt vs. Standard Triple Therapy on Helicobacter Pylori Eradication.
45  product yield
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DTZ (1 time)
EE (1 time)
GI (1 time)
2011 Colon specific chitosan microspheres for chronotherapy of chronic stable angina.
46  professional years
(2 times)
Pharmaceutical Services
(1 time)
--- 2007 Programmatic assessment of student experiences using a longitudinal survey.
47  protein Y
(2 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
EF-Tu (1 time)
HPF (1 time)
RMF (1 time)
2008 Modification of the Ribosome and the Translational Machinery during Reduced Growth Due to Environmental Stress.
48  Prunus yedoensis
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
COX-2 (1 time)
ELISA (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2013 Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus yedoensis through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.
49  pyraclostrobin
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AZ (1 time)
KM (1 time)
KR (1 time)
2010 Subnanomolar inhibitor of cytochrome bc1 complex designed by optimizing interaction with conformationally flexible residues.
50  pyroelectric
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
PV (2 times)
1996 Influence of the internal photoinduced electric field on the formation of self-pumped phase conjugation in doped (K(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.2)(Sr(0.75)Ba(0.25))(0.9)Nb(2)O(6) crystals.
51  pyroglutamic
(2 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
GA (2 times)
MSG (2 times)
1983 Plasma pyroglutamic acid levels after oral administration of monosodium glutamate to human volunteers.
52  pyromorphite
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
AMs (1 time)
DTPA (1 time)
HAP (1 time)
2013 Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil.
53  pyronin Y(G)
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(2 times)
7-AAD (2 times)
FITC (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1999 Flow cytometric analysis of live cell proliferation and phenotype in populations with low viability.
54  pyruvic acid
(2 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
BCKD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DH (1 time)
1993 Comparative metabolism and structure of BCKD-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis.
55  (4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl)amine hydrochloride
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DO (1 time)
LB (1 time)
2005 Thin films of hydrophobically modified poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide).
56  100-patient-years
(1 time)
BE (1 time)
CEIM (1 time)
EET (1 time)
2017 Recurrence of intestinal metaplasia and early neoplasia after endoscopic eradication therapy for Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
57  2-Pyrrolidone
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
BPL (1 time)
MPY (1 time)
PG (1 time)
2005 Effect of penetration enhancers on the transdermal delivery of bupranolol through rat skin.
58  3H-pyrene
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BAF (1 time)
BaP (1 time)
HCBP (1 time)
2004 The role of desorption for describing the bioavailability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners for seven laboratory-spiked sediments.
59  4-pyridyl
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BT (1 time)
CN (1 time)
DFT (1 time)
2013 Single-molecule conductance of functionalized oligoynes: length dependence and junction evolution.
60  bromophenyl-methyl-pyridinium
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ISC (1 time)
RTP (1 time)
2019 Efficient Room-Temperature Phosphorescence of Solid-State Supramolecule Enhanced by Cucurbit[6]uril.
61  Leu-Pro-Xaa-Tyr
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
Gla (1 time)
PRGP2 (1 time)
YAP (1 time)
2007 Proline-rich Gla protein 2 is a cell-surface vitamin K-dependent protein that binds to the transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein.
62  pack-yr
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CRC (1 time)
2013 Partial associations of dietary iron, smoking and intestinal bacteria with colorectal cancer risk.
63  Packets/Year
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
ANZTS (1 time)
BBD (1 time)
COPD (1 time)
2014 [The diagnosis of COPD is recommendation dependent].
64  Paramonov-Yaliraki
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
CG (1 time)
PAH (1 time)
2019 Coarse-grained modeling of the nucleation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into soot precursors.
65  parent-youth
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
FPNG (1 time)
GEE (1 time)
kiR (1 time)
2018 The Role of Culture of Origin on the Effectiveness of a Parents-Involved Intervention to Prevent Substance Use Among Latino Middle School Youth: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
66  parents and youth
(1 time)
FPNG (1 time)
2012 Efficacy of a Culturally Based Parenting Intervention: Strengthening Open Communication Between Mexican-Heritage Parents and Adolescent Children.
67  peak milk yield
(1 time)
Animal Diseases
(1 time)
DP (1 time)
IY (1 time)
LL (1 time)
2013 Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.
68  pectin yield
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
DE (1 time)
GA (1 time)
LSR (1 time)
2019 Efficient extraction and characterization of pectin from orange peel by a combined surfactant and microwave assisted process.
69  people years
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
ALL (1 time)
1996 Characterization of acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes in Brazilian patients.
70  peptide-tyrosine
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
NPY (1 time)
PP (1 time)
PYY (1 time)
1993 Evolution of neuropeptide Y and its related peptides.
71  peptone yeast
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 2003 Expression of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and their sigma factor TcdD is controlled by temperature.
72  peptone-yeast extract broth
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
PYA (1 time)
1974 Heat injury and recovery of vegetative cells of Clostridium botulinum type E.
73  per 10(-5)personyear
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
ACS (1 time)
CVRF (1 time)
SIR (1 time)
2016 Acute coronary syndrome among patients with chest pain: Prevalence, incidence and risk factors.
74  periwinkle yellows
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
--- 2003 [Detection and identification of phytoplasma strain associated with periwinkle yellows].
75  Perplexity
(1 time)
Nervous System Diseases
(1 time)
BD (1 time)
Di (1 time)
SD (1 time)
2017 Sensing the Worst: Neurophenomenological Perspectives on Neutral Stimuli Misperception in Schizophrenia Spectrum.
76  person years observed
(1 time)
Tropical Medicine
(1 time)
HDSS (1 time)
NCDs (1 time)
VA (1 time)
2018 Pattern of all-causes and cause-specific mortality in an area with progressively declining malaria burden in Korogwe district, north-eastern Tanzania.
77  person-years of observation
(1 time)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
MRRs (1 time)
2014 Mortality rates in people dually infected with HIV-1/2 and those infected with either HIV-1 or HIV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
78  phenytoin
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
CE (1 time)
CM (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
1997 Optimized high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of lamotrigine in serum with concomitant determination of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and carbamazepine epoxide.
79  photochemical efficiency
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
ALFA (1 time)
CDOM (1 time)
Chl (1 time)
2014 Aquatic laser fluorescence analyzer: field evaluation in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
80  photochemical yield
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
ALF (1 time)
CC (1 time)
CF (1 time)
2011 Photo-physiological variability in phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence and assessment of chlorophyll concentration.
81  physical therapy
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
BTX-A (1 time)
GMFM (1 time)
MAS (1 time)
2014 The relief effect of botulinum toxin-A for spastic iliopsoas of cerebral palsy on children.
82  physically dormant
(1 time)
Botany
(1 time)
--- 2011 Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle--water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae).
83  phytase levels
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ALP (1 time)
1996 Adverse effects of wide calcium:phosphorus ratios on supplemental phytase efficacy for weanling pigs fed two dietary phosphorus levels.
84  phytosterol
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
PN (1 time)
2008 Phytosterolemia in parenteral nutrition patients: implications for liver disease development.
85  pigment yellow
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
PR (1 time)
SSE (1 time)
2017 Handheld new technology Raman and portable FT-IR spectrometers as complementary tools for the in situ identification of organic materials in modern art.
86  pigment yield
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
CMC (1 time)
2013 Utilization and optimization of a waste stream cellulose culture medium for pigment production by Penicillium spp.
87  pingyangmycin
(1 time)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
(1 time)
TEM (1 time)
TUNEL (1 time)
2014 Proapoptotic effect and the mechanism of action of pingyangmycin on cavernous hemangiomas.
88  Pingyangtezao
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
Chl (1 time)
FD (1 time)
MDA (1 time)
2013 Variation of photosynthesis, fatty acid composition, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, and anatomical structure of two tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) cultivars in response to fluoride.
89  placebo yoghurt fermented with delta-acid-lactone
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
LDL (1 time)
PP (1 time)
StLa (1 time)
2000 Effect of 8 week intake of probiotic milk products on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
90  plain yogurt drink
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
DCY (1 time)
DY (1 time)
FM (1 time)
2011 Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.
91  plant yield
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
BHP (1 time)
BSP (1 time)
MILP (1 time)
2016 Genetic dissection of plant architecture and yield-related traits in Brassica napus.
92  polyyne
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BLA (1 time)
HO-LU (1 time)
PA (1 time)
2007 Structural and electronic properties of polyacetylene and polyyne from hybrid and Coulomb-attenuated density functionals.
93  positive yield
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
CAD (1 time)
TASMC (1 time)
TIA (1 time)
2014 Predicting the need for hospital admission of TIA patients.
94  potato yellows
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
AshY (1 time)
AWB (1 time)
BLL (1 time)
2004 Clover proliferation phytoplasma: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'.
95  PPPPY
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
EBV (1 time)
LMP2A (1 time)
2000 The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A PY motif recruits WW domain-containing ubiquitin-protein ligases.
96  Prana-Yoga
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
HRV (1 time)
LF (1 time)
SK (1 time)
2014 Effect of controlled breathing exercises on the psychological status and the cardiac autonomic tone: Sudarshan Kriya and Prana-Yoga.
97  predicted yield
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
AY (1 time)
PB (1 time)
PPV (1 time)
2014 Peripheral blood stem cell yield calculated using preapheresis absolute CD34+ cell count, peripheral blood volume processed, and donor body weight accurately predicts actual yield at multiple centers.
98  pressure from breathing circuit Y-piece
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
--- 2002 Tracheal pressure control provides automatic and variable inspiratory pressure assist to decrease the imposed resistive work of breathing.
99  previous-year
(1 time)
Botany
(1 time)
CY (1 time)
2012 Gas exchange and leaf aging in an evergreen oak: causes and consequences for leaf carbon balance and canopy respiration.
100  primary:primordial follicle
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
ML (1 time)
2000 Interaction of extracellular matrix and activin-A in the initiation of follicle growth in the mouse ovary.