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Abbreviation: REF
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Long forms: 124

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
rat embryo fibroblasts
(110 times)
Neoplasms
(32 times)
RCMV (8 times)
CMV (5 times)
MHV (3 times)
1976 Inhibitory effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 on type 2 virus replication.
reference
(85 times)
Environmental Health
(10 times)
AQP4 (4 times)
CSF (3 times)
FO (3 times)
1989 The influence of age and dietary fat in an animal model of sudden cardiac death.
regional ejection fraction
(38 times)
Cardiology
(16 times)
LV (10 times)
CAD (3 times)
EF (3 times)
1981 [First-tracer passage with a single-crystal gamma camera: completed assessment of left-ventricular function by determining enddiastolic volume, regional ejection fraction and %-akinetic segment (author's transl)].
rubber elongation factor
(32 times)
Botany
(11 times)
SRPP (16 times)
CPT (6 times)
ESTs (3 times)
1989 Rubber elongation factor from Hevea brasiliensis. Identification, characterization, and role in rubber biosynthesis.
restriction endonuclease fingerprinting
(30 times)
Genetics, Medical
(8 times)
SSCP (5 times)
AT (3 times)
ddF (2 times)
1984 Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of meningococcal DNA.
reference group
(28 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
AI (2 times)
BMI (2 times)
CI (2 times)
1989 Reliability of articular indices and function tests in a population study of rheumatic disorders.
Research Excellence Framework
(24 times)
Science
(8 times)
ERA (1 time)
GS (1 time)
HARPS (1 time)
2008 WITHDRAWN: The Research Excellence Framework (REF): A major impediment to free and informed debate?
renal erythropoietic factor
(10 times)
Medicine
(8 times)
Ep (1 time)
1967 The renal erythropoietic factor (REF). 3. Enzymatic role in erythropoietin production.
reporter enzyme fluorescence
(9 times)
Microbiology
(3 times)
CFU (2 times)
NIR (2 times)
FRET (1 time)
2010 Imaging tuberculosis with endogenous beta-lactamase reporter enzyme fluorescence in live mice.
10  reaction electronic flux
(7 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
ETS-NOCV (1 time)
SA-CP (1 time)
SA-REF (1 time)
2009 The mechanism of the interstellar isomerization reaction HOC+ --> HCO+ catalyzed by H2: new insights from the reaction electronic flux.
11  reference site
(5 times)
Toxicology
(1 time)
LDH (2 times)
AA (1 time)
AFLP (1 time)
1990 EL BUSCA and the value of signals in the diagnosis of dysmorphic syndromes: good and bad handles in computer assisted differential diagnosis.
12  relative enrichment factor
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
ARE (1 time)
CA (1 time)
CF (1 time)
2008 [Concentrations and distribution of heavy metals in urban sewage discharge channel of Tianjin].
13  relative expression factor
(4 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
CL (2 times)
PBPK (2 times)
AG (1 time)
2015 PBPK modeling of irbesartan: incorporation of hepatic uptake.
14  reorganization of elementary functions
(4 times)
Biology
(1 time)
EFs (1 time)
NCC (1 time)
2009 Post-traumatic functional recovery and reorganization in animal models: a theoretical and methodological challenge.
15  right ventricular ejection fraction
(4 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(2 times)
CI (3 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
CPB (1 time)
1996 [Anesthetic management in unilateral lung transplantation].
16  reference dataset
(3 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
COS (1 time)
DS (1 time)
ED (1 time)
2013 Accuracy of digital models obtained by direct and indirect data capturing.
17  reference diet
(3 times)
Proteome
(1 time)
AHF (1 time)
ATTD (1 time)
DSM (1 time)
1996 Dietary fish oil confers direct antiarrhythmic properties on the myocardium of rats.
18  rapid emptying fraction
(2 times)
Investigational New Drug Application
(1 time)
AEF (1 time)
AEV (1 time)
EDV (1 time)
1990 Assessment of mitral regurgitation using gated radionuclide ventriculography: analysis of left atrial time activity curve.
19  rectus femoris
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
DMD (1 time)
GAS (1 time)
GLM (1 time)
2008 Effect of days on concentrate feed on sensory off-flavor score, off-flavor descriptor and fatty acid profiles for selected muscles from cull beef cows.
20  reduced left ventricular ejection fraction
(2 times)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
AS (1 time)
CI (1 time)
EA (1 time)
2014 Analysis of the effects of electroacupuncture at the pericardium 6 acupoint on heart function in patients with angina using equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography quantity analysis technique.
21  reference gene
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
Axi-cel (1 time)
CRs (1 time)
DLBCL (1 time)
2012 Technical note: identification of reference genes for gene expression studies in different bovine tissues focusing on different fat depots.
22  reference group without training
(2 times)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
DASH (1 time)
2012 Influence of frequency and duration of strength training for effective management of neck and shoulder pain: a randomised controlled trial.
23  reference hybrids
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
CON (2 times)
2003 Effect of feeding glyphosate-tolerant (roundup-ready events GA21 or nk603) corn compared with reference hybrids on feedlot steer performance and carcass characteristics.
24  reference intervention
(2 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
APE (1 time)
GFT (1 time)
PPT (1 time)
2009 The effect of worksite physical activity intervention on physical capacity, health, and productivity: a 1-year randomized controlled trial.
25  reference phase
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
HR (1 time)
MAP (1 time)
MDF (1 time)
2002 Effects of mental and physical demands on heart rate variability during computer work.
26  reference treatment
(2 times)
Zoology
(1 time)
PCK (1 time)
VIN (1 time)
2008 A preliminary evaluation of the safety and tolerance of medicinally ingested vinegar in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
27  Referential Thinking
(2 times)
Psychology
(1 time)
AVHs (1 time)
DoRs (1 time)
2010 The criterion and discriminant validity of the Referential Thinking (REF) scale.
28  Referential Thinking Scale
(2 times)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
--- 2009 The specificity of referential thinking: a comparison of schizotypy and social anxiety.
29  retroocular fibroblasts
(2 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
GAG (2 times)
IFN-gamma (2 times)
PTX (2 times)
1997 Inhibitory effect of pentoxifylline on HLA-DR expression and glycosaminoglycan synthesis of retrobulbar fibroblasts induced by interferon gamma.
30  reversed Eck fistula
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
--- 1982 In vivo quantitation of the rat liver's ability to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood.
31  right ejection fraction
(2 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
AC (1 time)
CO (1 time)
EFW (1 time)
1989 Radionuclide detection of abnormal ventricular filling patterns in rejecting human allografts.
32  RNA binding export factor
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
N-helix (1 time)
RRM (1 time)
2006 The solution structure of REF2-I reveals interdomain interactions and regions involved in binding mRNA export factors and RNA.
33  RNA export factor
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CRM1 (1 time)
EJC (1 time)
TAP (1 time)
2005 The prototype gamma-2 herpesvirus nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, ORF 57, transports viral RNA through the cellular mRNA export pathway.
34  pMAM-ras-REF
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DE (1 time)
rasREF (1 time)
2004 Destruxin E, a cyclodepsipeptide antibiotic, reduces cyclin D1 levels and inhibits anchorage-independent growth of v-Ki-ras-expressed pMAM-ras-REF cells.
35  radiation effectiveness factor
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
MCL (1 time)
U.S. EPA (1 time)
2011 Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?
36  radiation enhancement factor
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2014 Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial activity and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to radiation.
37  radionuclide ejection fraction
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
EDV (1 time)
RAS (1 time)
STI (1 time)
1985 Correlations of systolic time intervals and radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise.
38  radiopharmaceutical-excited fluorescent
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
--- 2017 Nanoparticle-mediated radiopharmaceutical-excited fluorescence molecular imaging allows precise image-guided tumor-removal surgery.
39  radiosensitization enhancement factor
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
--- 2010 Gold nanoparticles as radiation sensitizers in cancer therapy.
40  ranged from 23 microg kg(-1) dw
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
2008 Evaluation of the genotoxicity of river sediments from industrialized and unaffected areas using a battery of short-term bioassays.
41  rare earth foils
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
--- 1980 [radiation exposure of patients during angiographic studies using rare earth foils (REF)].
42  rat embryo fibroblast transformed cell lines
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
--- 2018 Fusarium mangiferae as New Cell Factories for Producing Silver Nanoparticles.
43  rat primary embryo fibroblast cells
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
HPV-16 (1 time)
PyMLV (1 time)
1993 Suppression of viral transformation in rat embryo fibroblast cells immortalized with transforming genes of human papillomavirus type 16.
44  rate enhancing factors
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
GlyLeu (1 time)
GlySer (1 time)
GylGly (1 time)
2002 Copper(II)- cis, cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane complex-promoted hydrolysis of dipeptides: kinetic, speciation and structural studies.
45  reasons for encounter
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
RFE (1 time)
2012 A morbidity survey of South African primary care.
46  Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
BRT1 (1 time)
UV (1 time)
2001 Mutations that reduce sinapoylmalate accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana define loci with diverse roles in phenylpropanoid metabolism.
47  reduction equivalent fluence
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
Fmin (1 time)
FR (1 time)
MFSD (1 time)
2017 On-Site Determination and Monitoring of Real-Time Fluence Delivery for an Operating UV Reactor Based on a True Fluence Rate Detector.
48  Reduction of Expired Food waste
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
EFE (1 time)
2020 LCA analysis of food waste co-digestion.
49  refed
(1 time)
Psychopharmacology
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
DMNL (1 time)
REST (1 time)
1989 Normal catch-up growth in rats severely food-restricted prior to lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus: the first 48 hours.
50  refeeding
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
UR (1 time)
2016 Early postnatal feed restriction reduces liver connective tissue levels and affects H3K9 acetylation state of regulated genes associated with protein metabolism in low birth weight pigs.
51  reference bread
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2017 Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.
52  reference CIN grade=CIN
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
CIN (1 time)
HPV (1 time)
PCR (1 time)
2001 Relationship between the presence of oncogenic HPV DNA assessed by polymerase chain reaction and Ki-67 immunoquantitative features in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
53  reference epoxy
(1 time)
Polymers
(1 time)
Al (1 time)
BPT (1 time)
CFRP (1 time)
2020 Enhanced Interface Adhesion by Novel Eco-Epoxy Adhesives Based on the Modified Tannic Acid on Al and CFRP Adherends.
54  reference ground powder samples
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ET (1 time)
IOPCs (1 time)
PCs (1 time)
2013 Self-assembly, highly modified spontaneous emission and energy transfer properties of LaPO4:Ce3+, Tb3+ inverse opals.
55  reference IFB
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
IFB (1 time)
PD (1 time)
2011 Closed-loop insulin delivery utilizing pole placement to compensate for delays in subcutaneous insulin delivery.
56  reference laboratory
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
CCC (1 time)
2013 Comparison of two portable lactate meters in dogs.
57  reference land-application scenario
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
ATS (1 time)
LCA (1 time)
2013 Environmental and economic assessment of integrated systems for dairy manure treatment coupled with algae bioenergy production.
58  Reference lean adolescents
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
AGM (1 time)
DI (1 time)
FA (1 time)
2008 Abnormalities in glucose tolerance are common in children with fanconi anemia and associated with impaired insulin secretion.
59  reference liquid
(1 time)
Biosensing Techniques
(1 time)
SRR (1 time)
SUTs (1 time)
2018 A Microwave Method for Dielectric Characterization Measurement of Small Liquids Using a Metamaterial-Based Sensor.
60  reference magnitude
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 2019 Force and electromyography responses during isometric force release of different rates and step-down magnitudes.
61  reference meal based on WHO guidelines
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
eVAS (1 time)
GIP (1 time)
GLP-1 (1 time)
2015 Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.
62  reference model
(1 time)
micro-CT (1 time)
RMS (1 time)
2015 Accuracy of Digital Impressions and Fitness of Single Crowns Based on Digital Impressions.
63  reference patients
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
END (1 time)
1987 [Cardiac hypertrophy, dilatation and performance in top athletes].
64  reference peatland
(1 time)
Ecological and Environmental Processes
(1 time)
DOC (1 time)
RES (1 time)
2018 Multi-year net ecosystem carbon balance of a restored peatland reveals a return to carbon sink.
65  reference plane in relation to the ONH
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
ONH (1 time)
2003 Reasons for rim area variability in scanning laser tomography.
66  reference plot
(1 time)
Microbiology
(1 time)
FAME (1 time)
LTSP (1 time)
2002 Cultivation-dependent characterization of bacterial diversity from British Columbia forest soils subjected to disturbance.
67  Reference population
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
COMB (2 times)
VAL (1 time)
2012 Analyzes of genome-wide association follow-up study for calving traits in dairy cattle.
68  reference products
(1 time)
Health Services
(1 time)
BIOSIM-EPO (1 time)
EPO (1 time)
2015 Biosimilar versus patented erythropoietins: learning from 5 years of European and Japanese experience.
69  reference solution
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
betaA (1 time)
PLA (1 time)
TAB (1 time)
2012 Effect of slow-release beta-alanine tablets on absorption kinetics and paresthesia.
70  reference standard
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
AHA (1 time)
MAHA (1 time)
MCP (1 time)
2020 Vessel-specific coronary perfusion territories using a CT angiogram with a minimum cost path technique and its direct comparison to the American Heart Association 17-segment model.
71  reference subjects
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
NC (1 time)
1985 [Cardiac angioscintigraphy at equilibrium coupled with isoproterenol perfusion. Method of diagnosing chronic coronary insufficiency].
72  reference system
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
RER (1 time)
VE (1 time)
1996 Reliability and validity of a portable metabolic measurement system.
73  reference voltage V
(1 time)
Biosensing Techniques
(1 time)
CMOS (1 time)
SOI (1 time)
TID (1 time)
2013 Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.
74  references values acquisition
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
RPA (1 time)
THr (1 time)
TOFR (1 time)
2013 Survey of muscle relaxant effects management with a kinemyographic-based data archiving system: a retrospective quantitative and contextual quality control approach.
75  referral to PAGs from a physician
(1 time)
Multiple Sclerosis
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
PAGs (1 time)
2020 Physician referral improves adherence to the physical activity guidelines for adults with MS: A randomized controlled trial.
76  refers to omega's over the stretching contours and I
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
--- 2004 Raman H-bond pair volume for water.
77  refined
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
NAFLD (1 time)
VIR (1 time)
2015 Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.
78  refined foods
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
LFD (1 time)
2017 An obesogenic refined low-fat diet disrupts attentional and behavioral control processes in a vigilance task in rats.
79  Reflection
(1 time)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
--- 2013 Treatment notes: objective measures of language style point to clinical insights.
80  reflexive
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
ACL (1 time)
CCR (1 time)
HAMS (1 time)
2007 Knee-muscle activation during landings: developmental and gender comparisons.
81  Reforpins
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
CEJ (1 time)
FRC (1 time)
RCE (1 time)
2008 Fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth restored using three root-reinforcement methods.
82  refractometry
(1 time)
Internal Medicine
(1 time)
BRIX (1 time)
IgG (1 time)
ITPI (1 time)
2018 Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Refractometry and Brix Refractometry for the Diagnosis of Inadequate Transfer of Passive Immunity in Calves.
83  refractory
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
Se (1 time)
SUS (1 time)
1983 Evidence of a hereditary factor affecting the chick's response to uncomplicated selenium deficiency.
84  refractory disease
(1 time)
Hematology
(1 time)
AHCT (1 time)
OS (1 time)
PFS (1 time)
2008 Long-term results of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphoma: the Stanford experience.
85  refrigerators
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
ILS (1 time)
2001 Formation characteristics of PCDD and PCDF during pyrolysis processes.
86  refugee patients in hospital settings
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
CR (1 time)
HPC (1 time)
ICU (1 time)
2017 Prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms in refugee patients, medical tourists and domestic patients admitted to a German university hospital.
87  refugial
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
MHC (1 time)
PGE (1 time)
2009 Long-term survival of a urodele amphibian despite depleted major histocompatibility complex variation.
88  refugium areas
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
MHC (1 time)
PGE (1 time)
2014 Drift rather than selection dominates MHC class II allelic diversity patterns at the biogeographical range scale in natterjack toads Bufo calamita.
89  regarding agricultural products for three diets - the current diet
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
HEALTHY (1 time)
VEG (1 time)
WFcons (1 time)
2013 Potential water saving through changes in European diets.
90  region of intact normal bone
(1 time)
BI (1 time)
PTH (1 time)
TI (1 time)
2020 Influence of General Mineral Condition on Collagen-Guided Alveolar Crest Augmentation.
91  region-derived approximation of the plasma input
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
ART (1 time)
NT (1 time)
ntPET (1 time)
2006 Temporal resolution of ntPET using either arterial or reference region-derived plasma input functions.
92  regressions of logk' vs. logk
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
S-D (1 time)
SE (1 time)
2009 Application of Snyder-Dolan classification scheme to the selection of "orthogonal" columns for fast screening of illicit drugs and impurity profiling of pharmaceuticals--I. Isocratic elution.
93  regular exercise facility
(1 time)
10mMWS (1 time)
EXH (1 time)
FTSS (1 time)
2020 The effectiveness of two different multimodal training modes on physical performance in elderly.
94  Relative Efficiency
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
ET (1 time)
SR (1 time)
T-S (1 time)
2017 Increasing the Efficiency on Producing Radiology Reports for Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Means of Structured Reports. A Comparative Study.
95  relative efficiency factor
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
AAP (1 time)
EPG (1 time)
PVY (1 time)
2011 Assessing aphids potato virus Y-transmission efficiency: A new approach.
96  relative transporter expression factors
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
OATP (1 time)
RAF (1 time)
2014 Prediction of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1- and 1B3-mediated hepatic uptake of statins based on transporter protein expression and activity data.
97  relatively low fat commercially available stock diet
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
PUFA's (1 time)
1987 The occurrence of cardiac lipidosis and necrotic lesions in the hearts of rats following long-term feeding of different lipid supplemented diets.
98  relevant exposure with feedback
(1 time)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
IEF (1 time)
RENoF (1 time)
1997 Computer-delivered modeling of exposure for spider phobia: relevant versus irrelevant exposure.
99  renal excretory function
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
CG (1 time)
CHF (1 time)
MDRD (1 time)
2009 Prognostic value of formulas estimating excretory renal function in the elderly with systolic heart failure.
100  renewable energy fund
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
kW (1 time)
MW (1 time)
2013 Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.