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Abbreviation: RL
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Long forms: 530

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
reinforcement learning
(361 times)
Neurology
(67 times)
BG (9 times)
DA (9 times)
NN (8 times)
1996 Multiagent reinforcement learning in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.
lung resistance
(260 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(100 times)
Cdyn (36 times)
EL (25 times)
MCh (20 times)
1976 Lung function after neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
Ringer's lactate
(210 times)
General Surgery
(47 times)
MAP (17 times)
NS (16 times)
HES (15 times)
1977 Sepsis in the baboon: factors affecting resuscitation and pulmonary edema in animals resuscitated with Ringer's lactate versus Plasmanate.
reflection loss
(158 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(45 times)
EM (18 times)
EMW (14 times)
XRD (12 times)
2010 Silica-coated iron nanocubes: preparation, characterization and application in microwave absorption.
right-left
(89 times)
Neoplasms
(28 times)
AP (59 times)
SI (47 times)
BAV (13 times)
1981 Standing balance in healthy boys and in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
red light
(77 times)
Botany
(16 times)
BL (35 times)
GL (28 times)
WL (24 times)
1985 Mode of coaction between blue/UV light and light absorbed by phytochrome in light-mediated anthocyanin formation in the milo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) seedling.
rhamnolipid
(76 times)
Environmental Health
(23 times)
SL (8 times)
CMC (7 times)
SDS (7 times)
1997 Microbial extracellular glycolipid induction of differentiation and inhibition of the protein kinase C activity of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60.
root length
(59 times)
Environmental Health
(13 times)
SL (11 times)
RDW (10 times)
RV (10 times)
2002 Peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities, phenolic acid contents, and allelochemicals-inhibited root growth of soybean.
right lobe
(58 times)
Transplantation
(30 times)
LL (23 times)
LDLT (19 times)
LLS (8 times)
1985 Mechanisms of liver adaptation to prolonged selective biliary obstruction (SBO) in the rat.
10  radioluminescence
(43 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(14 times)
OSL (10 times)
PL (10 times)
TL (10 times)
2001 Analysis of luminescence spectra of leucite (KAISiO4).
11  right lateral
(29 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(7 times)
LL (13 times)
AP (5 times)
AS (4 times)
1990 [Revision of criteria for locating the accessory pathway by electrocardiogram in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. A new algorithm].
12  Ringer's solution
(28 times)
Anesthesiology
(10 times)
HES (7 times)
PV (3 times)
SS (3 times)
1987 [Studies on adequate components and amounts of transfusion solution after hepatectomy from the viewpoint of the development of lung edema].
13  Richardson-Lucy
(26 times)
Biophysics
(6 times)
PSF (4 times)
SD (2 times)
TV (2 times)
1997 Acceleration of iterative image restoration algorithms.
14  rugby league
(26 times)
Sports Medicine
(18 times)
RU (7 times)
CMJ (3 times)
JH (3 times)
2005 Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers 1997-2002.
15  right lung
(23 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(4 times)
LL (16 times)
ANOVA (2 times)
ECG (2 times)
1981 Unilateral lung lavage: blood flow manipulation by ipsilateral pulmonary artery balloon inflation in dogs.
16  reticular lamina
(21 times)
Audiology
(8 times)
BM (15 times)
OHC (9 times)
TM (7 times)
1993 Sound preprocessing by ac and dc movements of cochlear outer hair cells.
17  Ringer's lactate solution
(21 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
HES (3 times)
MAP (3 times)
CVP (2 times)
1981 Colloid or crystalloid in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock: a controlled clinical trial.
18  radiolunate
(17 times)
Traumatology
(6 times)
SL (10 times)
RS (3 times)
CL (2 times)
1993 A method for measuring tension in small ligaments: an application to the ligaments of the wrist carpus.
19  reference level
(17 times)
Radiology
(5 times)
DAP (3 times)
GM (2 times)
SA (2 times)
1998 Dose-area product readings for fluoroscopic and plain film examinations, including an analysis of the source of variation for barium enema examinations.
20  reversal learning
(16 times)
Psychopharmacology
(4 times)
NOR (3 times)
CIAS (2 times)
EDS (2 times)
2009 Set shifting and reversal learning in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.
21  random laser
(15 times)
Optics and Photonics
(7 times)
BO3 (1 time)
BP (1 time)
CA (1 time)
2011 Upconversion ultraviolet random lasing in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass powder.
22  Renilla luciferase
(15 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
FL (6 times)
GFP (3 times)
DSP (2 times)
2002 Inhibition of internal ribosomal entry site-directed translation of HCV by recombinant IFN-alpha correlates with a reduced La protein.
23  resistance of lung
(15 times)
Physiology
(8 times)
Cdyn (6 times)
PEEP (5 times)
FRC (4 times)
1981 Effects of beta adrenergic blockade on histamine and prostaglandin-F2 alpha responsiveness in the dog.
24  random lasing
(14 times)
Biophysics
(6 times)
PMMA (2 times)
AL (1 time)
ASE (1 time)
2011 Remarkable decrease in threshold for electrically pumped random ultraviolet lasing from ZnO film by incorporation of Zn2TiO4 nanoparticles.
25  reading-level
(13 times)
Psychology
(6 times)
CA (11 times)
CI (1 time)
DD (1 time)
1997 Are speech perception deficits associated with developmental dyslexia?
26  radial length
(11 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
RI (3 times)
TC (3 times)
GE (2 times)
2003 Clinical results of external fixation for unstable Colles' fractures.
27  receptive language
(11 times)
Pediatrics
(6 times)
EL (6 times)
ASD (5 times)
MSEL (3 times)
1981 Pediatric speech intelligibility test. II. Effect of receptive language age and chronological age.
28  rhombic lip
(11 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
VZ (3 times)
GCPs (2 times)
Shh (2 times)
2005 Math1 expression redefines the rhombic lip derivatives and reveals novel lineages within the brainstem and cerebellum.
29  rostrolateral
(10 times)
Biology
(4 times)
LM (3 times)
RM (3 times)
CL (2 times)
1997 Visual connections of the atypical diencephalic nucleus rostrolateralis in Pantodon buchholzi (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha).
30  rump length
(10 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
BL (6 times)
HW (4 times)
LW (3 times)
1997 Action potential duration restitution and electrical excitation propagation in a ring of cardiac cells.
31  record linkage
(9 times)
Medical Informatics
(4 times)
AMI (1 time)
DNF (1 time)
DRL (1 time)
2008 [Record-linkage procedures in epidemiology: an Italian multicentre study].
32  recurrent laryngeal
(9 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
PHR (3 times)
HG (2 times)
SL (2 times)
1975 Effects of antitussive drugs on the activity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in cats.
33  reference laboratory
(9 times)
Tropical Medicine
(2 times)
AFB (1 time)
AMC (1 time)
ARC (1 time)
1995 Reducing the cost of HIV-testing through use of the IgG antibody captured particle adherence test (GACPAT) in district hospitals.
34  recessive lethal
(7 times)
Genetics
(4 times)
CL (3 times)
ENU (2 times)
EO (2 times)
1993 Characterization of the genotoxic action of three structurally related 1,2-dihaloalkanes in Drosophila melanogaster.
35  renal length
(7 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
E, L (3 times)
ML (2 times)
BMI (1 time)
2002 Parenchymal consequences of fibromuscular dysplasia renal artery stenosis.
36  residual latency
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
MCV (5 times)
TLI (4 times)
SCV (3 times)
1982 [Studies of peripheral nerve conduction velocities in vibrating tool operators].
37  response latency
(7 times)
Brain
(2 times)
RA (2 times)
CAR (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1977 Effects of Panax Ginseng root on conditioned avoidance response in rats.
38  round ligament
(7 times)
Female Urogenital Diseases
(1 time)
AT (2 times)
POP (2 times)
USL (2 times)
1991 [Treatment of perforated peptic ulcer using the round ligament under celioscopy].
39  relative length
(6 times)
Radiology
(2 times)
ICM (4 times)
PAD (4 times)
SOAM (4 times)
1983 Synaptonemal complexes and the chromosome complement of domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus.
40  relative loss
(6 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
RR (4 times)
IS (2 times)
3-OMD (1 time)
1991 The internal reference technique in microdialysis: a practical approach to monitoring dialysis efficiency and to calculating tissue concentration from dialysate samples.
41  reporting limit
(6 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
6-APB (1 time)
AD (1 time)
AIHA (1 time)
2011 Occurrence and distribution of sediment-associated insecticides in urban waterways in the Pearl River Delta, China.
42  resilience
(6 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(2 times)
Rs (5 times)
AOB (1 time)
Ba-IBI (1 time)
2014 Activity of Arylsulphatase in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
43  route learning
(6 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
AD (1 time)
AUC (1 time)
CDR (1 time)
1977 Schizophrenic cognitive dysfunction: a deficit in rule transfer.
44  radiation lobectomy
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
FLR (5 times)
PVE (3 times)
ALPPS (2 times)
2013 Radiation lobectomy: time-dependent analysis of future liver remnant volume in unresectable liver cancer as a bridge to resection.
45  reactive lymphadenopathy
(5 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
DLBCL (3 times)
FL (3 times)
CDK3 (1 time)
2006 Quantitative analysis of herpesvirus load in the lymph nodes of patients with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis using a real-time PCR assay.
46  reading-level matched
(5 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
CA (4 times)
CD (1 time)
DD (1 time)
2003 Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia.
47  receptor-ligand
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
TRHR (2 times)
CCVs (1 time)
D.L (1 time)
1992 Purification of a pituitary receptor for somatostatin. The utility of biotinylated somatostatin analogs.
48  reflux laryngitis
(5 times)
Otolaryngology
(4 times)
GEPR (1 time)
GORD (1 time)
GRB (1 time)
2005 Multidimensional voice analysis of reflux laryngitis patients.
49  rehydrated, lyophilized
(5 times)
Hematology
(4 times)
PLT (1 time)
vWF (1 time)
2000 Intracellular function in rehydrated lyophilized platelets.
50  relapse
(5 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
RM (3 times)
SSNS (3 times)
B-ALL (1 time)
2000 Follow-up of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: tubular proteinuria and enzymuria.
51  respiration in the light
(5 times)
Botany
(4 times)
AOX (4 times)
WT (4 times)
cyt (1 time)
2012 Photosynthetic activity and community shifts of microphytobenthos covered by green macroalgae.
52  rhamnolipid biosurfactant
(5 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
BC (1 time)
CMC (1 time)
PI (1 time)
2003 Enhanced bioremediation of n-alkane in petroleum sludge using bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipid and micronutrients.
53  right lobectomy
(5 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
LL (3 times)
LLS (3 times)
GW (2 times)
1986 Results of 32 major hepatic resections for primary and secondary malignancies of the liver.
54  radiolucent lines
(4 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
OKS (2 times)
OUKR (2 times)
ROM (2 times)
2011 [Medium-term results of the Mayo™ short-stem hip prosthesis after avascular necrosis of the femoral head].
55  Rangpur lime
(4 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(2 times)
SM (3 times)
GAPDH (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
2016 Survival strategies of citrus rootstocks subjected to drought.
56  realistic Laplacian
(4 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
GCV (2 times)
BEM (1 time)
RBF (1 time)
1996 Spline Laplacian estimate of EEG potentials over a realistic magnetic resonance-constructed scalp surface model.
57  REM latency
(4 times)
Psychophysiology
(2 times)
EEG (1 time)
MDD (1 time)
MT (1 time)
1985 "Paradoxical" shortening of REM latency on first recording night in major depressive disorder: clinical and polysomnographic correlates.
58  remnant liver
(4 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
MMP (2 times)
EH (1 time)
MBLM (1 time)
2003 One or two-stage hepatectomy combined with portal vein embolization for initially nonresectable colorectal liver metastases.
59  resistance loading
(4 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
HSP (1 time)
MGF (1 time)
MRFs (1 time)
2005 Impact of resistance loading on myostatin expression and cell cycle regulation in young and older men and women.
60  retrolabyrinthine
(4 times)
Otolaryngology
(2 times)
AETL (1 time)
CSF (1 time)
IAM (1 time)
1988 Retrolabyrinthine versus middle fossa vestibular neurectomy.
61  robot-assisted laparoscopy
(4 times)
Gynecology
(2 times)
CL (4 times)
2010 Robotics versus laparoscopy--an experimental study of the transfer effect in maiden users.
62  roof line
(4 times)
Heart Diseases
(2 times)
AF (3 times)
CA (2 times)
MIL (2 times)
2014 Benefit of left atrial roof linear ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a prospective, randomized study.
63  lactated Ringer's
(3 times)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
Gel (2 times)
HES (2 times)
ADSOL (1 time)
1989 Compatibility of ADSOL-stored red cells with intravenous solutions.
64  long repeat region
(3 times)
Virology
(3 times)
HSV-1 (2 times)
HSV-2 (1 time)
IRL (1 time)
1988 The DNA sequences of the long repeat region and adjoining parts of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1.
65  longitudinal resistance
(3 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
AV (1 time)
PGR (1 time)
RT (1 time)
1999 The effect of 'non-critical' (<50%) stenosis on vein graft longitudinal resistance and impedance.
66  N-(all-trans-retinoyl)-DL-leucine
(3 times)
Toxicology
(1 time)
RA (3 times)
RG (2 times)
4-HPR (1 time)
1988 Toxicologic and immunologic evaluations of N-(all-trans-retinoyl)-DL-leucine and N-(all-trans-retinoyl)glycine.
67  raised lesions
(3 times)
Pathology
(2 times)
FS (2 times)
TC (2 times)
CHD (1 time)
1988 Natural history of aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in Tokyo.
68  rasagenthi lehyam
(3 times)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
CAM (1 time)
cRL (1 time)
2004 Rasagenthi lehyam (RL) a novel complementary and alternative medicine for prostate cancer.
69  reaction layer
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
AL (1 time)
CVD (1 time)
ER (1 time)
1996 Visualization of the reaction layer in the immediate membrane vicinity.
70  received letters
(3 times)
Biology
(1 time)
MFA (1 time)
1986 Continuity of care after July: what happens to the resident's patients?
71  recirculated landfill
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
CL (3 times)
BL (2 times)
DBP (1 time)
2010 Migration behavior of Cu and Zn in landfill with different operation modes.
72  recommended level
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
CRZ (2 times)
DMZ (2 times)
IPZ (2 times)
2006 Effect of protein intake on strength, body composition and endocrine changes in strength/power athletes.
73  reconfigurable logic
(3 times)
Nanotechnology
(2 times)
CMOS-NEM (2 times)
M3D (2 times)
FEM (1 time)
2020 Monolithic-3D (M3D) Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Nanoelectromechanical (CMOS-NEM) Hybrid Reconfigurable Logic (RL) Circuits.
74  red laser
(3 times)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
aPDT (1 time)
CT (1 time)
IRL (1 time)
2017 Comparison of photoinactivation of T. rubrum by new methylene blue (NMB) and indocyanine green (EmunDo).
75  red LED
(3 times)
Biology
(1 time)
BL (3 times)
LED (2 times)
aPDT (1 time)
2013 Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using high-power blue light-emitting diode and red-dye agent on Porphyromonas gingivalis.
76  refractive lenticule
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
AS-OCT (1 time)
FSL (1 time)
LASIK (1 time)
2012 Refractive lenticule re-implantation after myopic ReLEx: a feasibility study of stromal restoration after refractive surgery in a rabbit model.
77  regenerating liver
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
LI (2 times)
5mC (1 time)
AU (1 time)
1987 The effects of postoperative factors on serum thyroid hormones and rat liver nuclear 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor concentrations in surgical models of uremia and regenerating liver.
78  relaparotomy
(3 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
AEPI (1 time)
GIS (1 time)
1997 [Acute early postoperative intestinal obstruction in patients with gastroduodenal ulcer].
79  reloading
(3 times)
Craniomandibular Disorders
(1 time)
UL (2 times)
COX-2 (1 time)
DAVID (1 time)
2006 Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibition suppresses restoration of tibial trabecular bone formation in association with restriction of osteoblast maturation in skeletal reloading after hindlimb elevation of mice.
80  repetitive learning
(3 times)
Behavior
(1 time)
EEG (1 time)
GPx (1 time)
HRV (1 time)
1998 Gender comparison of peak oxygen uptake: repetitive box lifting versus treadmill running.
81  residual layer
(3 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
CS (1 time)
HPEs (1 time)
PB (1 time)
2017 Structure and Mechanical Properties of Polybutadiene Thin Films Bound to Surface-Modified Carbon Interface.
82  resistive load
(3 times)
Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
BRS (1 time)
CC16 (1 time)
CF (1 time)
2013 Resetting the baroreflex during snoring: role of resistive loading and intra-thoracic pressure.
83  resolution length
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
BFP (1 time)
dsRNA (1 time)
HEC (1 time)
2015 Analysis of small interfering RNA by capillary electrophoresis in hydroxyethylcellulose solutions.
84  resorption lacunae
(3 times)
Metabolism
(1 time)
ES/BS (1 time)
FAS (1 time)
LER (1 time)
2005 First inventory of resorption lacunae on rods and plates of trabecular bone as observed by scanning electron microscopy.
85  restaging laparotomy
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
HD (2 times)
CR (1 time)
RFS (1 time)
1983 Restaging laparotomy for Hodgkin's disease.
86  resting muscle length
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
EE (2 times)
AM (1 time)
AM22-52 (1 time)
2006 Angiotensin II acutely decreases myocardial stiffness: a novel AT1, PKC and Na+/H+ exchanger-mediated effect.
87  reticulocyte lysate
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
BAC (1 time)
EMSA (1 time)
HSP (1 time)
2000 Quantitative analysis of DNA binding affinity and dimerization properties of wild-type and mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta1.
88  retrolingual
(3 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(2 times)
OSA (3 times)
MMA (2 times)
MR (2 times)
2008 Computer-assisted quantitative evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea using digitalized endoscopic imaging with Muller maneuver.
89  return loss
(3 times)
Optics and Photonics
(2 times)
DDM (1 time)
ER (1 time)
IL (1 time)
1998 Microwave catheter design.
90  rhizobium-legume
(3 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
AM (2 times)
CO (1 time)
CSP (1 time)
2010 Medicago truncatula proteomics.
91  Rhus laccase
(3 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
CGEC (1 time)
FTIR (1 time)
I-RL (1 time)
2006 Purification and characterization of hydrosoluble components from the sap of Chinese lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera.
92  ribosomal lineages
(3 times)
Biology
(1 time)
PCR (1 time)
2011 Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection.
93  RL group
(3 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
NS (3 times)
HES (1 time)
SA (1 time)
2011 Fluid replacement in craniofacial pediatric surgery: normal saline or ringer's lactate?
94  discrimination-reversal learning
(2 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
TCDD (2 times)
DSA (1 time)
MWM (1 time)
1989 Learning in monkeys exposed perinatally to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
95  laryngeal resistance
(2 times)
Otolaryngology
(2 times)
Ps (2 times)
MFR (1 time)
2009 Indirect estimation of laryngeal resistance via airflow redirection.
96  litter respiration
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
Rs (2 times)
Ra (1 time)
Rh (1 time)
2016 Effects of simulated acid rain on soil respiration and its components in a subtropical mixed conifer and broadleaf forest in southern China.
97  long repeat
(2 times)
Virology
(2 times)
UL (2 times)
HSV-1 (1 time)
HSV-2 (1 time)
1991 Comparative sequence analysis of the long repeat regions and adjoining parts of the long unique regions in the genomes of herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2.
98  lymphatic resistance
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
PL (2 times)
PO (1 time)
1989 Intestinal lymphatic flow during portal venous hypertension.
99  radical lymphadenectomy
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
l-Pam (1 time)
NM (1 time)
NSCLC (1 time)
1982 The treatment of state I melanoma of the extremities with regional hyperthermic isolation perfusion.
100  radio-lunate angle
(2 times)
Orthopedics
(2 times)
SL (2 times)
RI (1 time)
UT (1 time)
2006 [Radiometric assessment of wrist angle values, linear parameters of the forearm and wrist ratios].