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Abbreviation: Ra
Appearance Frequency: 777 time(s)
Long forms: 117

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
rate of appearance
(208 times)
Physiology
(77 times)
FFA (28 times)
Rd (28 times)
MCR (7 times)
1975 Estimation of cyclic AMP turnover in normal and methylprednisolone-treated dogs: effect of catecholamines.
resistance
(75 times)
Physiology
(29 times)
Re (16 times)
GFR (12 times)
Rt (7 times)
1973 Resistance to drainage of cerebrospinal fluid: clinical measurement and significance.
rate
(61 times)
Physiology
(17 times)
FFA (4 times)
DCA (2 times)
EGP (2 times)
1978 Changes induced by exercise in rates of turnover and oxidation of ketone bodies in fasting man.
average roughness
(60 times)
Dentistry
(25 times)
AFM (10 times)
SEM (9 times)
cpTi (4 times)
1993 Bond strength of composite to etched and sandblasted porcelain.
rates of glucose appearance
(51 times)
Physiology
(22 times)
MCR (5 times)
Rd (4 times)
CHO (2 times)
1979 Effect of intermittent endogenous hyperglucagonemia on glucose homeostasis in normal and diabetic man.
roughness values
(37 times)
Dentistry
(23 times)
SEM (8 times)
ANOVA (4 times)
CP (3 times)
1994 Acquired nail beading in patients receiving itraconazole--an indicator of faster nail growth? A study using optical profilometry.
roughness average
(35 times)
Dentistry
(21 times)
AFM (10 times)
RMS (10 times)
SEM (6 times)
1992 Efficacy of a porcelain refinishing system in restoring surface finish after grinding with fine and extra-fine diamond burs.
radium
(25 times)
Environmental Health
(14 times)
Th (7 times)
Cs (4 times)
Rn (4 times)
1998 Late complications after postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer: analysis of 317 consecutive cases with application of linear-quadratic model.
respiration
(18 times)
Environmental Health
(6 times)
GPP (9 times)
Rh (8 times)
NPP (7 times)
2002 Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2.
10  Rayleigh number
(17 times)
Biophysics
(9 times)
Nu (8 times)
Pr (7 times)
Re (2 times)
2000 Turbulent convection at very high Rayleigh numbers
11  ragged
(11 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
LAMA5 (2 times)
Ragl (1 time)
wst (1 time)
1994 Linkage mapping around the ragged (Ra) and wasted (wst) loci on distal mouse chromosome 2.
12  reabsorption of CSF
(10 times)
Anesthesiology
(9 times)
CSF (9 times)
EEG (2 times)
ICP (2 times)
1988 Muscle relaxation with succinylcholine or vecuronium does not alter the rate of CSF production or resistance to reabsorption of CSF in dogs.
13  Rheumatoid Arthritis
(10 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
Cd (1 time)
ICC (1 time)
MTX (1 time)
1982 Rheumatoid lymphoedema.
14  roughness measurements
(8 times)
Dentistry
(7 times)
Y-TZP (1 time)
1994 Surface roughness of two polished ceramic materials.
15  rate of hepatic glucose production
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
2-DG (1 time)
CHO (1 time)
EE (1 time)
1981 Chromatographic pattern of extrapancreatic glucagon and glucagon-like immunoreactivity before and during stimulation by epinephrine and participation of glucagon in epinephrine-induced hepatic glucose overproduction.
16  rate of glucose production
(6 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
IRG (1 time)
IRI (1 time)
NE (1 time)
1984 Interactions between glucagon and other counterregulatory hormones during normoglycemic and hypoglycemic exercise in dogs.
17  roughness parameter
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
AFM (2 times)
BCP (1 time)
CMP (1 time)
2006 Surface roughness in ceramics with different finishing techniques using atomic force microscope and profilometer.
18  radium concentration EC
(5 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
WRF (1 time)
2012 Measuring effective radium concentration with less than 5 g of rock or soil.
19  radium-223
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
CRPC (1 time)
2010 Life-span study on late effects of 224Ra in children and adults.
20  Rambouillet
(4 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
Finn (4 times)
MB (1 time)
SB (1 time)
1984 The influence of fetal genome on cortisol biokinetics and gestational duration.
21  raphe
(4 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
OT (2 times)
SC (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1987 Neurotransmitters and memory: role of cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems.
22  arithmetic roughness
(3 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
CA (1 time)
DTMA (1 time)
ECW (1 time)
2007 Shark fin test and impression quality: a correlation analysis.
23  radiation
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
Ca (1 time)
CT (1 time)
DLTs (1 time)
2004 The RACOX phase I study: radiation (RA), capecitabine (C) and oxaliplatin (OX) as adjuvant treatment of stage II and III rectal cancer.
24  rate of production
(3 times)
Metabolism
(2 times)
2max (1 time)
CON (1 time)
IE (1 time)
1976 The essentiality of insulin and the role of glucagon in regulating glucose utilization and production during strenuous exercise in dogs.
25  Rayleigh
(3 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
DNS (1 time)
LES (1 time)
Nu (1 time)
1999 Plumes and waves in two-dimensional turbulent thermal convection.
26  reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid
(3 times)
Anesthesiology
(2 times)
CPP (1 time)
CSF (1 time)
EEG (1 time)
1984 Effects of enflurane and isoflurane on resistance to reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid in dogs.
27  resistance of afferent
(3 times)
Nephrology
(3 times)
AABF (3 times)
EABF (2 times)
SNFF (2 times)
1977 Effects of acute ureteral obstruction on glomerular hemodynamics in rat kidney.
28  rabbit
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ADCC (1 time)
aggG (1 time)
ALS (1 time)
1982 Heterogeneity of human lymphocyte Fc receptors: studies using heat-aggregated and antigen-complexed IgG from human, rabbit, guinea pig, horse and goat.
29  Raphanusanin
(2 times)
Botany
(2 times)
A. thaliana (1 time)
B. cinerea (1 time)
GO (1 time)
2010 Comparative transcriptional profiling-based identification of raphanusanin-inducible genes.
30  rates of amino acid appearance
(2 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
Leu (1 time)
Phe (1 time)
Rd (1 time)
1990 Effect of starvation on human muscle protein metabolism and its response to insulin.
31  resistance at the afferent arteriole
(2 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
CPAH (2 times)
GFR (1 time)
RBF (1 time)
2013 Relationship between serum TSH levels and intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in euthyroid subjects.
32  roughness analysis
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
BS (1 time)
CLSM (1 time)
EGF (1 time)
2011 Confocal laser microscopic analysis of biofilm on newer feldspar ceramic.
33  roughness gradients of average roughness
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(2 times)
PCL (2 times)
RSm (2 times)
ALP (1 time)
2014 Differential regulation of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells on surface roughness gradients.
34  Roughness parameters were average roughness
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
LR (2 times)
SEM (1 time)
2003 Surface geometry of three packable and one hybrid composite after finishing.
35  226radium
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
CR (1 time)
Po (1 time)
Th (1 time)
1992 Radium-226 levels and concentration ratios between water, vegetation, and tissues of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) from a watershed with uranium tailings near Elliot Lake, Canada.
36  BCP-R had a surface roughness
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
CaP (1 time)
2015 Microporous calcium phosphate ceramics driving osteogenesis through surface architecture.
37  R wave
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
Dd (1 time)
DNa (1 time)
1992 Effects of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on cardiovascular functional parameters in rats.
38  Ra-Dichloride
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2013 Phase I pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study with escalating doses of Ra-dichloride in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer.
39  Radium was separated as Ba
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2001 Simultaneous determination of 226Ra and 210Pb in groundwater and soil samples by using the liquid scintillation counter-suspension gel method.
40  radium-223 dichloride
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2018 Excretion and whole-body retention of radium-223 dichloride administered for the treatment of bone metastases from castration resistant prostate cancer.
41  raisins
(1 time)
Food
(1 time)
DApp (1 time)
DApr (1 time)
DF (1 time)
2018 Postprandial Glycaemic Responses of Dried Fruit-Containing Meals in Healthy Adults: Results from a Randomised Trial.
42  raltitrexed
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
GC (1 time)
HIPPC (1 time)
MMC (1 time)
2016 Laparoscopic Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Perfusion Chemotherapy for Patients with Malignant Ascites Secondary to Unresectable Gastric Cancer.
43  Ramachandran water-bridge capacity h
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
CDF (1 time)
NMR titration (1 time)
pmc (1 time)
2007 Verification of simple hydration/dehydration methods to characterize multiple water compartments on tendon type 1 collagen.
44  range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
--- 2013 Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.
45  ranibizumab
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
DEX (1 time)
2018 DEXAMETHASONE INTRAVITREAL IMPLANT VS RANIBIZUMAB IN THE TREATMENT OF MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CHOROIDAL MELANOMA.
46  rank
(1 time)
Psychology, Clinical
(1 time)
AIMIT (1 time)
CG (1 time)
IMS (1 time)
2012 Assessment of Interpersonal Motivation in Transcripts (AIMIT): an inter- and intra-rater reliability study of a new method of detection of interpersonal motivational systems in psychotherapy.
47  ranking of SR values
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
AO (1 time)
IM (1 time)
RS (1 time)
2012 Durability of composite repair using different surface treatments.
48  Ranna (Sicily, Italy), SD
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
SD (1 time)
1980 Cytogenetic Analysis of an SD Chromosome from a Natural Population of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.
49  rapamycin in DMSO
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
DMSO (1 time)
NS (1 time)
2016 The effect of rapamycin on TGFbeta1 and MMP1 expression in a rabbit model of urethral stricture.
50  rapid-acting insulin analogs
(1 time)
Diabetes Mellitus
(1 time)
GLU (1 time)
2015 Efficacy and safety of switching to insulin glulisine from other rapid-acting insulin analogs in children with type 1 diabetes.
51  Rasht
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
AChE (1 time)
ALP (1 time)
Am (1 time)
2009 Diazinon resistance in different selected strains of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in northern Iran.
52  rat heart sarcolemma contains adenosine
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
Ado N'-oxide (1 time)
NECA (1 time)
PIA (1 time)
1985 Regulation of adenylate cyclase by adenosine and other agonists in rat myocardial sarcolemma.
53  rate (endogenous + exogenous)
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CHO (1 time)
1996 Fuel substrate turnover and oxidation and glycogen sparing with carbohydrate ingestion in non-carbohydrate-loaded cyclists.
54  rate of appearance in plasma
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
LC/HP (1 time)
2005 Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with high protein intake on protein metabolism and the somatotropic axis.
55  rate of endogenous glucose production
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
Rd (2 times)
TBG (1 time)
1998 Novel hepatoselective insulin analogues: studies with covalently linked thyroxyl-insulin complexes.
56  rate of monomer addition
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 2013 Semicontinuous monomer-starved emulsion polymerization as a means to produce nanolatexes: analysis of nucleation stage.
57  rate of turnover
(1 time)
Aerospace Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1999 Cold stress increases lipolysis, FFA Ra and TG/FFA cycling in humans.
58  rates in the atmosphere
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AN (1 time)
FL (1 time)
PH (1 time)
2002 Exposure chamber measurements of mass transfer and partitioning at the plant/air interface.
59  rates of endogenous glucose appearance
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
IGT (1 time)
ND (1 time)
1991 Insulin secretion and action in patients with pancreatic cancer.
60  rates of endogenous glucose turnover
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
FFM (1 time)
Rox (1 time)
1994 Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in euglycaemic and hyperglycaemic subjects.
61  rates of net ammonification
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2017 Long-term net transformation and quantitative molecular mechanisms of soil nitrogen during natural vegetation recovery of abandoned farmland on the Loess Plateau of China.
62  rates of peripheral appearance
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
--- 1978 Initial splanchnic extraction of ingested glucose in normal man.
63  rates of plasma FFA appearance
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
FFA (1 time)
TG (1 time)
2001 Thiazolidinediones increase plasma-adipose tissue FFA exchange capacity and enhance insulin-mediated control of systemic FFA availability.
64  Rates of whole-body glucose appearance
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
MCR (1 time)
2000 Alterations in tissue glucose uptake during the hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic phases of sepsis.
65  ratio C
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
GUM (1 time)
2012 Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in 210Pb and 210Po measurement in water by alpha spectrometry using 210Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk.
66  ratio of 1.40 E-06
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
--- 2019 Differential Diffusion of Helium Isotopes in Glass, Quantum-tunneling 3He Enrichment, and Portable 3He/4He Monitoring of Mantle Processes.
67  ratio of accumulation
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
BE (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DDI (1 time)
2014 Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of olmesartan medoxomil plus hydrochlorothiazide combination in healthy Chinese subjects: drug-drug interaction, bioequivalence, and accumulation.
68  ratios of pre-capillary
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
RT (1 time)
1979 Vertical gradient in regional vascular resistance and pre to post capillary resistance ratios in the dog lung.
69  Raven
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
Ro (1 time)
Tm (1 time)
1996 Altered maternal psychological profile as health risk factor in poor urban infants.
70  raw agreement
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
--- 2013 Point-of-care multiorgan ultrasonography for the evaluation of undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department.
71  RBC and the whole-cell access
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
LOC (1 time)
RBCs (1 time)
2015 A lab-on-a-chip for hypoxic patch clamp measurements combined with optical tweezers and spectroscopy- first investigations of single biological cells.
72  Re, autotrophic respiration
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
GLAI (1 time)
GPP (1 time)
Rab (1 time)
2017 Ecosystem respiration and its components in a rainfed spring maize cropland in the Loess Plateau, China.
73  reabsorption
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
CSF (1 time)
1991 Dose-related changes in the rate of CSF formation and resistance to reabsorption of CSF during administration of fentanyl, sufentanil, or alfentanil in dogs.
74  reactance
(1 time)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
AHF (1 time)
BIVA (1 time)
BNP (1 time)
2015 Bioelectrical impedance analysis for heart failure diagnosis in the ED.
75  readings using a roughness tester
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
ES (1 time)
FZ2 (1 time)
2012 Impact of filler size and distribution on roughness and wear of composite resin after simulated toothbrushing.
76  receptors depending upon the activation
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
L-PIA (1 time)
1985 Evidence suggesting an Ra-type adenosine receptor in bovine coronary arteries.
77  recorded profile, the average roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
SEM (1 time)
2013 Surface properties of dental nanocomposites after finishing with rigid rotary instruments.
78  rectal cancer
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
CR (1 time)
RPMI (1 time)
2009 [A case report of complete response to RPMI regimen for multiple lymph node metastases following rectal cancer surgery].
79  rectal colon
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
--- 2007 [A case of advanced colon cancer invading the rectum effectively treated with chemoradiation therapy before surgery].
80  rectum above the peritoneal reflection
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
--- 2019 [Curative endoscopic submucosal dissection of laterally spreading sporadic tumor in ulcerative colitis:a case report].
81  reduced the mean roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
XRD (1 time)
2015 Extended glaze firing improves flexural strength of a glass ceramic.
82  reducing significantly the surface roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
--- 1991 Refinishing of porcelain by using a refinishing kit.
83  reduction in surface roughness
(1 time)
Prosthodontics
(1 time)
EOW (1 time)
PVS (1 time)
2019 Comparative evaluation of the effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water on surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and Surface texture of poly vinyl siloxane impressions.
84  referent hand aperture
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
GF (1 time)
Re (1 time)
2019 Referent control of anticipatory grip force during reaching in stroke: an experimental and modeling study.
85  reflectance
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
ChlF (1 time)
2008 Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance.
86  region at the upper rectum
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
IMA (1 time)
ISR (1 time)
2015 [A Case of Concurrent Cancer in a Giant Rectal Villous Adenoma That Resulted in Extensive Lymph Node Metastases].
87  regional blood flow, precapillary
(1 time)
Critical Care
(1 time)
WP (1 time)
1989 Pulmonary capillary pressures during hypoxia and hypoxemia: experimental and clinical studies.
88  related to each agent
(1 time)
Epidemiology
(1 time)
Rb (1 time)
Rc (1 time)
2008 [The LaboRisCh algorithm, a tool for the assessing chemical risk for health: scientific uncertainty management].
89  relation to the main roughness
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
AFM (1 time)
DSC (1 time)
FS (1 time)
2008 Phase changes in supported planar bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.
90  relationship between surface roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
TiNi (1 time)
2001 Surface characterizations of variously treated titanium materials.
91  relative to albumin
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1985 Identification of androgen-induced proteins in human epididymis.
92  release
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
IDDM (1 time)
1995 Lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in IDDM during moderate and intense exercise.
93  release but also surface roughness
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
--- 2009 Effects of passivation treatments on titanium alloy with nanometric scale roughness and induced changes in fibroblast initial adhesion evaluated by a cytodetacher.
94  removal, tooth surface roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
--- 2001 A comparative in vitro study of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling instrument.
95  rendering index value
(1 time)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
CCTs (1 time)
CDs (1 time)
PVP (1 time)
2018 Modulation of the photoluminescence in carbon dots through surface modification: from mechanism to white light-emitting diodes.
96  repeated measures ANOVA
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
ANOVA (1 time)
CSMH (1 time)
HP (1 time)
2019 Effect of Mouth Rinse Treatments on Bleached Enamel Properties, Surface Morphology, and Tooth Color.
97  replicas with surface roughnesses
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
OPG (1 time)
RANKL (1 time)
VEGF (1 time)
2016 Proliferation, behavior, and differentiation of osteoblasts on surfaces of different microroughness.
98  representativity of obtained EC
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2012 Measuring effective radium concentration with large numbers of samples. Part II--general properties and representativity.
99  requirement translates into U
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
--- 2014 Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system.
100  Resin Types on Surface Roughness
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
AFM (1 time)
2018 The effect of different finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness and gloss of two nanocomposites.