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Abbreviation: SHAM
Appearance Frequency: 1498 time(s)
Long forms: 120

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
sham-operated
(665 times)
Physiology
(119 times)
BMD (66 times)
MAP (18 times)
HF (15 times)
1975 Relationships between dietary and plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in intact and ultimobranchialectomized chickens.
salicylhydroxamic acid
(184 times)
Botany
(44 times)
AOX (34 times)
ROS (16 times)
DPI (8 times)
1975 Oxidation processes and ubiquinone localization in the branched respiratory system of mi-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa.
sham surgery
(131 times)
Physiology
(19 times)
IL (6 times)
Ang II (4 times)
DA (4 times)
1985 Mouse vomeronasal organ: effects on chemosignal production and maternal behavior.
sham-operated group
(100 times)
Medicine
(16 times)
BMD (14 times)
OVX (10 times)
TC (9 times)
1995 [Effect of natural calcium against osteopenia in ovariectomized rats].
sham-operated controls
(94 times)
Physiology
(14 times)
PVN (7 times)
BMD (6 times)
CHF (6 times)
1975 The pathogenesis of post-obstructive diuresis. The role of circulating natriuretic and diuretic factors, including urea.
sham-operated rats
(79 times)
Physiology
(17 times)
CHF (6 times)
HF (4 times)
MAP (4 times)
1980 Autoradiographic studies of the rat renotropic system.
sham control
(22 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
IR (3 times)
AD (2 times)
HI (2 times)
1991 Serotonin-depleting midbrain lesions do not prevent ovariectomy-induced weight gain.
salicylhydroxamate
(14 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
AOX (2 times)
HA (2 times)
NOS (2 times)
1979 Purification of Leucine tRNA Isoaccepting Species from Soybean Cotyledons: I. Benzoylated Diethylamino Cellulose Fractionation, N-Hydroxysuccinimide Modification, and Characterization of Product.
sham-ovariectomized
(14 times)
Orthopedics
(5 times)
BMD (3 times)
PGE2 (2 times)
3D-HF-PDU (1 time)
1984 Effect of unilateral ovariectomy on compensatory ovarian hypertrophy, peripheral concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and ovarian venous concentrations of estradiol-17 beta in prepuberal gilts.
10  sham-operated animals
(13 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
CHF (2 times)
CKD (2 times)
MAL (2 times)
1997 Importance of the medial amygdala in rat penile erection evoked by remote stimuli from estrous females.
11  sham lesions
(8 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
AP (2 times)
BNST (2 times)
BP (2 times)
1991 Intrahippocampal transplants of septal cholinergic neurons: high-affinity choline uptake and spatial memory function.
12  sham control group
(7 times)
Metabolism
(1 time)
AKI (1 time)
ALP (1 time)
ATF4 (1 time)
2006 Estradiol and phytoestrogens differently influence the rodent postmenopausal mammary gland.
13  sham-treated
(7 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
AEs (1 time)
BW (1 time)
CaBP-9k (1 time)
1996 Pinealectomy, melatonin, and courtship behavior in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).
14  Sham rats
(6 times)
Physiological Phenomena
(2 times)
CHF (4 times)
AD (2 times)
CTL (2 times)
2005 Influence of pinealectomy on the amygdala kindling development in rats.
15  sham stimulation
(6 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
tDCS (2 times)
A-FMS (1 time)
aMCI (1 time)
2006 Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS): a tool for double-blind sham-controlled clinical studies in brain stimulation.
16  sham treatment
(6 times)
Wounds and Injuries
(1 time)
CO (1 time)
DG (1 time)
EHBF (1 time)
1987 Flow redistribution in a hyperdynamic small animal burn: comparison to patterns in sepsis.
17  Sham-operated animals served as controls
(6 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
AMI (2 times)
IR (2 times)
BAL (1 time)
1995 Pulmonary thromboxane release following intestinal reperfusion.
18  sham castration
(5 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
CAST (3 times)
LIG (2 times)
BAND (1 time)
2012 Effects of a local anaesthetic and NSAID in castration of piglets, on the acute pain responses, growth and mortality.
19  sham intervention
(4 times)
Sports Medicine
(2 times)
IPC (2 times)
CaMKII (1 time)
CMJ (1 time)
2012 Lower limbs power and stiffness after whole-body vibration.
20  sham laparotomy
(4 times)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
AIR (3 times)
MDA (3 times)
MPO (2 times)
2002 Pentoxifylline reduces biochemical markers of ischemia-reperfusion induced spinal cord injury in rabbits.
21  sham-lesioned
(4 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
AME (1 time)
AP (1 time)
AP/NTS (1 time)
1992 Changes in male copulatory behavior after sexual exciting stimuli: effects of medial amygdala lesions.
22  sham-operated mice
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CETP (1 time)
CHOP (1 time)
CTLA-4Ig (1 time)
1998 Short-term treatment of recombinant murine interleukin-4 rapidly inhibits bone formation in normal and ovariectomized mice.
23  sham-ovariectomy
(4 times)
Science
(1 time)
CpFF (1 time)
FSH (1 time)
GnRH (1 time)
1985 Effect of follicular fluid treatment on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and compensatory ovarian hypertrophy in prepuberal gilts.
24  sham acupuncture
(3 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
ACU (1 time)
COT (1 time)
CSP (1 time)
2007 Acupuncture in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind controlled pilot study.
25  sham thoracotomy
(3 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
CTR (2 times)
CDH (1 time)
DH (1 time)
1990 Effect of diet-induced sodium deficiency on normal and compensatory growth of the lung in young rats.
26  sham-exercise
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
MCAO (2 times)
SE (2 times)
SNE (2 times)
2003 Moderate exercise training slows mammary tumour growth in adolescent rats.
27  severe hemophilia A and moyamoya
(2 times)
Hematology
(1 time)
AR (1 time)
STR (1 time)
2014 Novel severe hemophilia A and moyamoya (SHAM) syndrome caused by Xq28 deletions encompassing F8 and BRCC3 genes.
28  sham denervation
(2 times)
Brain
(1 time)
NESGR (1 time)
PHY (1 time)
SAD (1 time)
1999 Pancreatic innervation is not essential for exercise-induced changes in glucagon and insulin or glucose kinetics.
29  sham HYPOX
(2 times)
Brain
(1 time)
CL (1 time)
EtOH (1 time)
LHAS (1 time)
1981 Hypophysectomy induced hypersensitivity to dopamine: antagonism by estrogen.
30  sham point
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
ACUP (1 time)
iNOS (1 time)
LPS (1 time)
2006 Acupuncture stimulation of ST-36 (Zusanli) significantly mitigates acute lung injury in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rats.
31  sham surgery group
(2 times)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
BMMCs (1 time)
FG (1 time)
TG1 (1 time)
2017 The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
32  sham tDCS
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
tDCS (2 times)
FAC (1 time)
HR (1 time)
2016 The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation on Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments.
33  sham-handling
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
ADG (1 time)
CASP (1 time)
CAUT (1 time)
2016 Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs-Impacts on Behavior and Welfare.
34  SHAM-operated mice treated with vehicle
(2 times)
Orthopedics
(2 times)
CGRP (2 times)
DRG (2 times)
TRPV1 (2 times)
2017 Alendronate inhibits hyperalgesia and suppresses neuropeptide markers of pain in a mouse model of osteoporosis.
35  rats-sham-operated group
(1 time)
Social Sciences
(1 time)
AH (1 time)
MnPO (1 time)
PVN (1 time)
2012 Effects of black cohosh and estrogen on the hypothalamic nuclei of ovariectomized rats at different temperatures.
36  same level as the control group
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
ALD (1 time)
BA (1 time)
BIC (1 time)
2005 Alendronate therapy may be effective in the prevention of bone loss around titanium implants inserted in estrogen-deficient rats.
37  SBR or intestinal transection with reanastomosis
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
SBR (1 time)
1995 Increases in nup475 and c-jun are early molecular events that precede the adaptive hyperplastic response after small bowel resection.
38  semantic hashing autoencoder module
(1 time)
Cybernetics
(1 time)
CVH (1 time)
DCHN (1 time)
MHNs (1 time)
2020 Joint Versus Independent Multiview Hashing for Cross-View Retrieval.
39  Serious Harm and Morbidity
(1 time)
Anesthesiology
(1 time)
--- 2012 Anaesthetists' risk assessment of placebo nerve block studies using the SHAM (Serious Harm and Morbidity) scale.
40  sham AC
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
AC (1 time)
EA (1 time)
LTPz (1 time)
2014 Two-dimensional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography imaging of trigger points in women with myofascial pain syndrome treated by acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study.
41  Sham animals underwent a similar surgery but no injury
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
TBI (1 time)
2013 Effects of traumatic brain injury on intestinal contractility.
42  sham block
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
BCSS (1 time)
DFS (1 time)
DRFS (1 time)
2016 Perioperative Paravertebral Regional Anaesthesia and Breast Cancer Recurrence.
43  sham control surgery
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
cAMP (1 time)
LHIP (1 time)
SCN (1 time)
1991 Olfactory bulbectomy increases basal suprachiasmatic cyclic AMP levels in male rats.
44  sham craniotomy
(1 time)
Wounds and Injuries
(1 time)
ATIII (1 time)
VEH (1 time)
2021 POST-TBI ANTITHROMBIN III RECOVERS MORRIS WATER MAZE COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, IMPROVING CUED AND SPATIAL LEARNING.
45  sham deafferentation
(1 time)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
HCA (1 time)
SDA (1 time)
2004 Subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation fails to block the anorectic effect of hydroxycitrate.
46  sham demedullated
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
--- 1985 Peripheral epinephrine modulates the effects of post-training amygdala stimulation on memory.
47  sham disbud
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
HRV (1 time)
MED (1 time)
2019 Short communication: Assessment of disbudding pain in dairy calves using nonlinear measures of heart rate variability.
48  sham disbudding
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
CASP (1 time)
CAUT (1 time)
CLOV (1 time)
2018 Evaluation of alternatives to cautery disbudding of dairy goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain.
49  sham DN
(1 time)
DN (1 time)
SP (1 time)
TP (1 time)
2021 Acute Effects of Dry Needling on Myofascial Trigger Points in the Triceps Surae of Ballet Dancers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
50  sham epidural
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
BUP (1 time)
BUP/MOR (1 time)
UO (1 time)
2020 A prospective randomized, double-blinded clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of bupivacaine versus morphine-bupivacaine in caudal epidurals in cats with urethral obstruction.
51  sham EWATx
(1 time)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
eWAT (1 time)
iWAT (1 time)
RWAT (1 time)
1997 Temporal changes in fat pad mass and cellularity after lipectomy in Siberian hamsters.
52  sham feedback
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
NFB (1 time)
NIRS (1 time)
2016 Task-based neurofeedback training: A novel approach toward training executive functions.
53  sham fluid percussion TBI
(1 time)
Traumatology
(1 time)
BEC (1 time)
EC (1 time)
TBI (1 time)
1994 Combined fluid percussion brain injury and entorhinal cortical lesion: a model for assessing the interaction between neuroexcitation and deafferentation.
54  sham gastrectomy
(1 time)
Food
(1 time)
FPT (1 time)
Hct (1 time)
Hgb (1 time)
2018 Intake of Polydextrose Alters Hematology and the Profile of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Partially Gastrectomized Rats.
55  sham group + standardized education and exercise
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CRYO (1 time)
KOOS (1 time)
OA (1 time)
2021 Cryoneurolysis for the management of chronic pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis; a double-blinded randomized controlled sham trial.
56  sham hemorrhage
(1 time)
Emergency Medicine
(1 time)
RBC (1 time)
SHOCK (1 time)
2008 Effects of different resuscitation fluids on the rheologic behavior of red blood cells, blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in experimental hemorrhagic shock.
57  sham hemorrhagic shock
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
EA (1 time)
SEA (1 time)
2018 Heart Protective Effects of Electroacupuncture in an Animal Experimental Study with Delayed Fluid Resuscitation after Hemorrhagic Shock.
58  sham injections
(1 time)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
PCr (2 times)
31P-MRS (1 time)
CTL (1 time)
2006 Effects of knee injection on skeletal muscle metabolism and contractile force in rats.
59  sham irradiated
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
GAG (1 time)
HLU (1 time)
MMP-13 (1 time)
2016 Spaceflight-Relevant Challenges of Radiation and/or Reduced Weight Bearing Cause Arthritic Responses in Knee Articular Cartilage.
60  sham laparotomy which was immediately closed by sutures
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
AWD (1 time)
CTR (1 time)
GAS (1 time)
2004 Pulmonary effects of gastroschisis in a fetal rabbit model.
61  Sham light
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
NIT (1 time)
NO (1 time)
2014 Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists.
62  sham mask
(1 time)
Respiratory Tract Diseases
(1 time)
EIB (1 time)
HME (1 time)
IQR (1 time)
2020 The impact of a heat and moisture exchange mask on respiratory symptoms and airway response to exercise in asthma.
63  Sham nephrectomized rats
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
AW (1 time)
BW (1 time)
DOCA (1 time)
2003 Chronic endopeptidase inhibition in DOCA-salt hypertension: mechanism of cardiovascular protection.
64  sham occlusions
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
MCAO (1 time)
MCAO/CCAO (1 time)
NE (1 time)
1989 Autonomic and myocardial changes in middle cerebral artery occlusion: stroke models in the rat.
65  sham operated ferrets
(1 time)
Otolaryngology
(1 time)
LAB (1 time)
MHC (1 time)
2006 Neonatal bilabyrinthectomy leads to changes in skeletal muscle fiber form and function.
66  sham operated pups
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
INT (1 time)
MOB (1 time)
2016 Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits.
67  sham operated, non-myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
BOS (1 time)
CK-MB (1 time)
CON (1 time)
2006 Cardioprotective effects of bosentan, a mixed endothelin type A and B receptor antagonist, during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.
68  sham operated, receiving vehicle
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
INFE (1 time)
SHAME (1 time)
2007 Effect of enalapril treatment on the sensitivity of cardiopulmonary reflexes in rats with myocardial infarction.
69  sham operation applied
(1 time)
Surgical Procedures, Operative
(1 time)
MDA (1 time)
2019 Effect of taxifolin on oxidative gastric injury induced by celiac artery ligation in rats.
70  sham operation without AT
(1 time)
Cerebrovascular Disorders
(1 time)
ICH (2 times)
AMPAR (1 time)
AT (1 time)
2017 Motor Skills Training Enhances alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Subunit mRNA Expression in the Ipsilateral Sensorimotor Cortex and Striatum of Rats Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
71  sham ovariectomized, untreated
(1 time)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
--- 1999 Behavioral responses to ovariectomy and chronic anabolic steroid treatment in female cynomolgus macaques.
72  sham placebo
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
GF (1 time)
PLA (1 time)
2016 Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.
73  SHAM rats treated with saline
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
OVX (1 time)
RIS (1 time)
2017 Protective effect of low-dose risedronate against osteocyte apoptosis and bone loss in ovariectomized rats.
74  Sham rats, no pressure exposure
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
CAT (1 time)
CNS-OT (1 time)
CONV (1 time)
2014 A comparison of factors involved in the development of central nervous system and pulmonary oxygen toxicity in the rat.
75  sham renal denervation
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 1989 Role of renal nerves in renal sodium retention of nephrotic syndrome.
76  sham rTMS
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
FLX (1 time)
FST (1 time)
LTP (1 time)
2006 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protects hippocampal plasticity in an animal model of depression.
77  sham sciatic nerve transactions
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
DRG (1 time)
EB (1 time)
PPT (1 time)
2001 Short-term estrogen replacement increases beta-preprotachykinin mRNA levels in uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons, but not in axotomized neurons.
78  sham stimulation+exercise
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
tDCS (2 times)
BP (1 time)
HRV (1 time)
2019 Postexercise blood pressure and autonomic responses after aerobic exercise following anodal tDCS applied over the medial prefrontal cortex.
79  sham surgery + empty implant
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
T-IMP (1 time)
1999 Ovarian hormones influence territorial aggression in free-living female mountain spiny lizards.
80  sham surgery ovariectomy
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
--- 2015 Alveolar bone dynamics in osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene or alendronate: confocal microscopy analysis.
81  sham surgical procedures
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
OPG (1 time)
2019 Teriparatide improves alveolar bone modelling after tooth extraction in orchiectomized rats.
82  sham tDCS with MT
(1 time)
Rehabilitation
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
MT (1 time)
SEQ (1 time)
2020 Timing-dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation with mirror therapy on daily function and motor control in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.
83  sham to the hyperpnea
(1 time)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
2014 Effects of altered airway function on exercise ventilation in asthmatic adults.
84  sham training group
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
HH (1 time)
LL (1 time)
WBV (1 time)
2010 Optimal whole-body vibration settings for muscle strength and power enhancement in human knee extensors.
85  sham transect
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
dg (1 time)
HPA (1 time)
2006 Fetal fornix transection and gestation length in sheep.
86  sham ultrasound
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
CT (1 time)
HRV (1 time)
IPC (1 time)
2018 Ischemic preconditioning boosts post-exercise but not resting cardiac vagal control in endurance runners.
87  sham ultrasound group
(1 time)
Sports
(1 time)
CK (1 time)
CMJ (1 time)
CRP (1 time)
2017 The Effects of Compression-Garment Pressure on Recovery After Strenuous Exercise.
88  sham-cooled
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
COOL (1 time)
NHGU (1 time)
2007 The effect of vagal cooling on canine hepatic glucose metabolism in the presence of hyperglycemia of peripheral origin.
89  sham-exercise groups
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
DOA (1 time)
EX (1 time)
TEB (1 time)
2002 Effect of exercise on the rat mammary gland: implications for carcinogenesis.
90  sham-lesion rats
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
CORT (1 time)
HPA (1 time)
PVN (1 time)
1995 Contribution of the ventral subiculum to inhibitory regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.
91  sham-muscle injury
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
CTX (2 times)
TBI (2 times)
MULTI (1 time)
2019 A Concomitant Muscle Injury Does Not Worsen Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes in Mice.
92  sham-nephrectomized
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
NO (1 time)
1987 Enhanced thermolability in anephric rabbits.
93  sham-operated adult females rats
(1 time)
Psychophysiology
(1 time)
BPPV (1 time)
2008 Ultrastructural changes in otoconia of osteoporotic rats.
94  sham-operated animals received empty microimplants in the PMH
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
PMH (1 time)
1998 Evidence that melatonin acts in the premammillary hypothalamic area to control reproduction in the ewe: presence of binding sites and stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by in situ microimplant delivery.
95  sham-operated fed a casein-based diet
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
--- 1998 Bone-sparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content.
96  sham-operated for adrenalectomy
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
ALDO (1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
SHRSP (1 time)
2003 Aldosterone plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of thrombotic microangiopathy in SHRSP.
97  sham-operated ischemia-reperfusion subgroup
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
DOX (1 time)
ICMP (1 time)
TAC (1 time)
2009 Myocardial protective effect of tezosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, for ischemia-reperfusion injury in experimental heart failure models.
98  sham-operated normotensive
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
MA (1 time)
MLC (1 time)
2007 Increased PDZ-RhoGEF/RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in small mesenteric arteries of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats.
99  sham-operated rats serving as controls
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
AMI (1 time)
REM (1 time)
TH (1 time)
2011 [Type 1 diabetes impairs compensatory response after myocardial infarction; role of tissue hypothyroidism and effects of thyroid hormone administration].
100  sham-operated SHR
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
ALDO (1 time)
DEX (1 time)
MAP (1 time)
1989 Effect of glucocorticoid deficiency on arterial pressure in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats.