A Search Service for Abbreviation / Long Form

■ Search Result - Abbreviation : SSA

Search Conditions:
Search Keyword : SSA
Search Method : Exact match.
Research Area:

Results:  
Hit abbr.: 2 kinds.
(Click one to see its hit entries.)

(Appearance freq, Descending)
Abbreviation: SSA
Appearance Frequency: 4804 time(s)
Long forms: 602

Display Settings:
[Display Entries]
Long Form, 100 entries
    (Appearance freq, Descending)
Long Form, all entries
[Entries Per Page]
 per page
Page Control
Page: of
Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
sub-Saharan Africa
(1903 times)
Public Health
(259 times)
ART (111 times)
CI (99 times)
HIV (64 times)
1990 International migration of health manpower in Sub-Saharan Africa.
specific surface area
(400 times)
Environmental Health
(99 times)
SEM (33 times)
XRD (33 times)
FTIR (21 times)
1976 The growth of calcium phosphates on natural enamel.
somatostatin analogs
(211 times)
Endocrinology
(106 times)
NET (29 times)
NETs (24 times)
PRRT (22 times)
2001 Effects and mechanisms of somatostatin analogs on apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells in acute pancreatitis in mice.
single-strand annealing
(195 times)
Molecular Biology
(48 times)
HR (77 times)
DSBs (63 times)
NHEJ (63 times)
1992 Mechanisms of intermolecular homologous recombination in plants as studied with single- and double-stranded DNA molecules.
Social Security Administration
(124 times)
Health Services Research
(37 times)
SSI (30 times)
DI (5 times)
SSDI (5 times)
1980 Health Care Financing Administration--Medicare program; technical amendments on reconsideration and appeals under the hospital insurance program. Final regulation.
singular spectrum analysis
(92 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(22 times)
EEG (13 times)
ECG (8 times)
MSS (4 times)
1996 Method for single-trial readiness potential identification, based on singular spectrum analysis.
sessile serrated adenoma
(90 times)
Pathology
(35 times)
HP (33 times)
TSA (29 times)
CRC (10 times)
2004 BRAF mutation is associated with DNA methylation in serrated polyps and cancers of the colorectum.
stimulus-specific adaptation
(84 times)
Neurology
(34 times)
MMN (17 times)
IC (16 times)
MGB (8 times)
1994 Stimulus specific adaptation in excited but not in inhibited cells in inferotemporal cortex of macaque.
stochastic simulation algorithm
(83 times)
Biophysics
(35 times)
CME (14 times)
FSP (3 times)
DCFTP (2 times)
2002 Modeling a hox gene network in silico using a stochastic simulation algorithm.
10  senile systemic amyloidosis
(68 times)
Biochemistry
(22 times)
TTR (46 times)
FAP (31 times)
WT (9 times)
1985 Prealbumin in Swedish patients with senile systemic amyloidosis and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.
11  succinic semialdehyde
(66 times)
Biochemistry
(19 times)
GABA (19 times)
GHB (17 times)
SSADH (17 times)
1975 The effect of succinic semialdehyde and sodium succinate on the higher nervous activity in normal subjects.
12  sewage sludge ash
(65 times)
Environmental Health
(46 times)
AWA (3 times)
FSA (3 times)
HWA (3 times)
2002 Rare earth element content in various waste ashes and the potential risk to Japanese soils.
13  single scattering albedo
(63 times)
Environmental Health
(43 times)
AOD (28 times)
BC (11 times)
AERONET (10 times)
2004 Aerosol optical and radiative properties observed at Anmyeon and Jeju, Korea in the spring of 2000 and 2001.
14  sea spray aerosol
(51 times)
Environmental Health
(20 times)
AFM (3 times)
SSML (3 times)
BCL (2 times)
2013 Raman microspectroscopy and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy as probes of the bulk and surface compositions of size-resolved sea spray aerosol particles.
15  sulfosalicylic acid
(48 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(13 times)
SA (4 times)
TCA (3 times)
UP (3 times)
1975 Immunogenicity of aryl esters of salicylic or acetylsalicylic acid in guinea pigs.
16  Sjogren's syndrome A
(34 times)
Rheumatology
(9 times)
SSB (17 times)
SLE (13 times)
pSS (9 times)
1983 Sialographic study in patients with and without antibodies to Sjögren's syndrome A (Ro).
17  spinosacral angle
(33 times)
Orthopedics
(18 times)
SS (20 times)
PI (19 times)
PT (19 times)
2010 Sagittal parameters of global spinal balance: normative values from a prospective cohort of seven hundred nine Caucasian asymptomatic adults.
18  subjective straight ahead
(29 times)
Neurology
(17 times)
LBA (3 times)
NMV (2 times)
PA (2 times)
2000 Contrasting spatial hearing deficits in hemianopia and spatial neglect.
19  saikosaponin A
(23 times)
Pharmacology
(6 times)
IL (3 times)
SSD (3 times)
AB4 (2 times)
1995 Saikosaponin A-induced cell death of a human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7): the significance of the 'sub-G1 peak' in a DNA histogram.
20  seronegative spondyloarthropathies
(23 times)
Rheumatology
(8 times)
RA (7 times)
SF (4 times)
AS (3 times)
1982 Rheumatic diseases in Western Canadian Indian children.
21  standardized swallowing assessment
(21 times)
Complementary Therapies
(11 times)
VFSS (8 times)
SWAL-QOL (4 times)
WST (3 times)
2011 Treatment of post-stroke dysphagia by vitalstim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training.
22  Smallest Space Analysis
(19 times)
Psychology
(6 times)
AST (1 time)
BPR (1 time)
BSI (1 time)
1976 A Smallest Space Analysis (Ssa) Of Potential Work Mobility.
23  sequence symmetry analysis
(18 times)
Drug Therapy
(8 times)
ASR (4 times)
CI (4 times)
ADRs (3 times)
2013 The validity of sequence symmetry analysis (SSA) for adverse drug reaction signal detection.
24  spliceostatin A
(16 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
snRNP (2 times)
APP (1 time)
CAM (1 time)
2010 Spliceostatin A inhibits spliceosome assembly subsequent to prespliceosome formation.
25  superoxide scavenging activity
(16 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(2 times)
SOD (5 times)
BD (3 times)
MNC (3 times)
1990 Superoxide scavenging activity of leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis and Behcet's diseases.
26  anti-Sjogren's syndrome-related antigen A
(15 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
ANA (5 times)
SLE (4 times)
SSB (4 times)
2015 Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes autophagy and apoptosis leading to cellular redistribution of the autoantigens Ro/Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) and La/SSB in salivary gland epithelial cells.
27  Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin
(15 times)
Biochemistry
(7 times)
Tf (4 times)
CEA (2 times)
Con A (2 times)
1995 Determination of the interactions between lectins and glycoproteins by surface plasmon resonance.
28  same-sex attraction
(15 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(7 times)
aOR (1 time)
GBQ (1 time)
LGB (1 time)
2005 Invisibility, safety and psycho-social distress among same-sex attracted women in rural South Australia.
29  Sjogren's syndrome A antigen
(13 times)
Rheumatology
(4 times)
SS-A (4 times)
SSB (3 times)
CAVB (1 time)
1984 Identification and purification of a 55K polypeptide in Sjögren's syndrome A antigen.
30  salp swarm algorithm
(12 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(5 times)
MPPT (2 times)
WOA (2 times)
ABSR (1 time)
2018 Swarm intelligence-based approach for optimal design of CMOS differential amplifier and comparator circuit using a hybrid salp swarm algorithm.
31  scleral spur angle
(10 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
AS-OCT (7 times)
AOD (6 times)
TISA (6 times)
2012 [Assessment of anterior segment anatomy by OCT after non penetrating deep sclerectomy].
32  sex steroid ablation
(10 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(5 times)
BM (3 times)
KGF (2 times)
allo-HSCT (1 time)
2009 Withdrawal of sex steroids reverses age- and chemotherapy-related defects in bone marrow lymphopoiesis.
33  streptococcal superantigen
(10 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
GAS (3 times)
SPEA (3 times)
PFGE (2 times)
1994 Molecular characterization and phylogenetic distribution of the streptococcal superantigen gene (ssa) from Streptococcus pyogenes.
34  sulfasalazine
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
CAPE (3 times)
IL (3 times)
LPS (3 times)
1976 Effect of sulfasalazine on digoxin bioavailability.
35  serum-soft agar
(9 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
CCFA (1 time)
CCFAS (1 time)
CIE (1 time)
1974 Detection of capsular antigen production in unencapsulated strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
36  silica sulfuric acid
(9 times)
Biology
(2 times)
DCM (1 time)
OneSTEP (1 time)
2011 Silica sulfuric acid as mild and efficient catalyst for the preparation of poly-hydroxyl aromatic compounds under mild and heterogeneous conditions.
37  skin sympathetic activity
(9 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
BP (2 times)
HR (2 times)
MSA (2 times)
1985 Sympathetic outflow in man after anaesthesia of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.
38  Spinal subdural abscess
(9 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
MRI (2 times)
CSF (1 time)
IDEM (1 time)
2005 Spinal subdural Staphylococcus aureus abscess: case report and review of the literature.
39  Stationary Subspace Analysis
(9 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
BCI (2 times)
AR (1 time)
ASSA (1 time)
2010 Finding stationary subspaces in multivariate time series.
40  sibling sexual abuse
(8 times)
Social Sciences
(3 times)
CAC (2 times)
CACs (1 time)
CPOs (1 time)
2018 "Victim, Perpetrator, or Just My Brother?" Sibling Sexual Abuse in Large Families: A Child Advocacy Center Study.
41  Social Support Appraisal
(8 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
AAS (1 time)
AD (1 time)
BDI (1 time)
1997 Behaviour disturbance and other predictors of carer burden in Alzheimer's disease.
42  Subject Self-Assessment
(8 times)
Dermatology
(5 times)
CEA (3 times)
GL (3 times)
ILA (3 times)
2014 An aqueous gel fixed combination of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and benzoyl peroxide 3.75% for the once-daily treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris.
43  sewage sludge amendment
(7 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
VA (1 time)
2010 Variations in heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of rice plants grown at different sewage sludge amendment rates.
44  stem shaft angle
(7 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
CAS (2 times)
CT (2 times)
HRA (2 times)
2011 Hip resurfacing revision rates: radiological audit of risk factors.
45  steroid-sparing agents
(7 times)
Pediatrics
(3 times)
NS (2 times)
AChR (1 time)
autoAbs (1 time)
2011 The Effect of Long-term Steroid Therapy on Linear Growth of Nephrotic Children.
46  sulfosuccinic acid
(7 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
PVA (5 times)
AFM (1 time)
BTEB (1 time)
2009 Effect of morphology and pore size of sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas in the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hybrid nanocomposite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell application.
47  sagittal segmental alignment
(6 times)
Orthopedics
(4 times)
SACS (4 times)
ACDF (3 times)
ASD (2 times)
2010 Cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis surgically treated by Cloward procedure: a 10-year-minimum follow-up study.
48  selective spatial attention
(6 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(3 times)
ADHD (5 times)
NHE (5 times)
PFC (4 times)
2008 Differential prepuberal handling modifies behaviour and excitatory amino acids in the forebrain of the Naples High-Excitability rats.
49  selective spinal anesthesia
(6 times)
Anesthesiology
(4 times)
DES (2 times)
GA (2 times)
PACU (2 times)
2001 Small-dose selective spinal anaesthesia for short-duration outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy: recovery characteristics compared with propofol anaesthesia.
50  serum sialic acid
(6 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
CRP (1 time)
CV (1 time)
EAC (1 time)
1996 Serum sialic acid and the long-term complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
51  somatosensory amplification
(6 times)
Psychology
(3 times)
IEI-EMF (2 times)
MHWs (2 times)
CAM (1 time)
2010 Somatosensory amplification as a possible source of subjective symptoms behind modern health worries.
52  statistical shape analysis
(6 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
PCA (2 times)
AF (1 time)
AS (1 time)
2011 Detecting the shape differences of the corpus callosum in Behcet's disease by statistical shape analysis.
53  steroid-sensitive asthma
(6 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(2 times)
SRA (6 times)
ELISA (2 times)
SR (2 times)
1999 The CD4+ T lymphocyte is a site of steroid resistance in asthma.
54  stunting syndrome agent
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
SS (3 times)
BCV (1 time)
dpi (1 time)
1998 Stunting syndrome in turkey poults: isolation and identification of the etiologic agent.
55  supplementary sensory area
(6 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
SMA (3 times)
IT (2 times)
ACA (1 time)
1987 [Infarct in the area of the left anterior cerebral artery. II. Language disorders].
56  sacral slope angle
(5 times)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
LLA (2 times)
LS (2 times)
SIA (2 times)
2007 New prognostic factors for adjacent-segment degeneration after one-stage 360 degrees fixation for spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: special reference to the usefulness of pelvic incidence angle.
57  Salmonella-Shigella agar
(5 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(3 times)
BSA (2 times)
BAM (1 time)
BGA (1 time)
1993 The occurrence of salmonellae in bean sprouts in Thailand.
58  Sambucus sieboldiana
(5 times)
Biophysics
(1 time)
MAM (3 times)
Sia (2 times)
BPL (1 time)
1999 New detection method after cellulose acetate membrane isoelectric focusing: activity staining for lactate dehydrogenase, detection for sugar chains using lectin and simple western blotting.
59  sea-salt aerosols
(5 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(3 times)
CCN (1 time)
CHIANRE (1 time)
CTL (1 time)
2017 Insight into Generation and Evolution of Sea-Salt Aerosols from Field Measurements in Diversified Marine and Coastal Atmospheres.
60  sheep serum albumin
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(4 times)
DLS (2 times)
PSA (2 times)
ANS (1 time)
2001 Modulation in the photosensitivity of albumin-bound bilirubin.
61  side-to-side anastomosis
(5 times)
Gastroenterology
(3 times)
CD (2 times)
EEA (2 times)
ESA (2 times)
2011 [Impact of anastomosis type on postoperative recurrence after bowel resection for Crohn disease].
62  Silorane System Adhesive
(5 times)
Dentistry
(5 times)
SB (2 times)
CMF (1 time)
EB (1 time)
2012 Elution of TEGDMA and HEMA from polymerized resin-based bonding systems.
63  Social Security Agency
(5 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
ASE (1 time)
CCS (1 time)
CSHCN (1 time)
2008 Using subjective expectations to forecast longevity: do survey respondents know something we don't know?
64  sperm selection assay
(5 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(5 times)
ART (2 times)
ROS (1 time)
UPA (1 time)
2013 Picomolar gradients of progesterone select functional human sperm even in subfertile samples.
65  sulindac sulfide amide
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
COX (2 times)
NSAIDs (2 times)
AR (1 time)
2010 A novel sulindac derivative lacking cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activities suppresses carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model.
66  suprascapular artery
(5 times)
Anatomy
(3 times)
AA (1 time)
CP (1 time)
CSA (1 time)
2010 Branching patterns of the lateral thoracic, subscapular, and posterior circumflex humeral arteries and their relationship to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
67  syntactic structure analysis
(5 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
CIN (1 time)
FIGO (1 time)
IMD (1 time)
1999 Computer-assisted differential diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma based on syntactic structure analysis.
68  systemic senile amyloidosis
(5 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
FAP (2 times)
ATTR (1 time)
CTS (1 time)
1988 Methods for staining amyloid in tissues: a review.
69  sagittal section angle
(4 times)
Bone and Bones
(1 time)
TSA (3 times)
CT (1 time)
EPIA (1 time)
2005 [Fabrication and application in vitro of pedicle guide device for pedicle screws insertion].
70  Salmonella Serotyping Assay
(4 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
WGS (2 times)
GPP (1 time)
HOT (1 time)
2014 Luminex() multiplex bead suspension arrays for the detection and serotyping of Salmonella spp.
71  semi solid agar
(4 times)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
HAM (1 time)
MAM (1 time)
PGP (1 time)
1996 Experimental model for Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in animals.
72  single-site-access
(4 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ADs (1 time)
ANOVA (1 time)
IP (1 time)
2010 Analysis of standard multiport versus single-site access for laparoscopic skills training.
73  single-strand assembly
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
RBS (1 time)
2014 One step DNA assembly for combinatorial metabolic engineering.
74  Society for the Study of Addiction
(4 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(2 times)
AATOD (1 time)
CCT (1 time)
CENTRAL (1 time)
1985 The Society for the Study of Addiction: temperance, treatment or tolerance? (1930-1961).
75  sound spectral analysis
(4 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
B-SP (1 time)
NICUs (1 time)
RAS (1 time)
1983 Evaluation of transplant renal artery blood flow by Doppler sound-spectrum analysis.
76  sparrow search algorithm
(4 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(2 times)
VMD (2 times)
ABC (1 time)
BPNN (1 time)
2021 A Modified Sparrow Search Algorithm with Application in 3d Route Planning for UAV.
77  spontaneous spike activity
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
APV (1 time)
CDPs (1 time)
DFA (1 time)
1981 Spontaneous discharges from muscle receptors of various functional types.
78  spontaneous synchronous activity
(4 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
GABA (1 time)
TTX (1 time)
2006 The self-regulating nature of spontaneous synchronized activity in developing mouse cortical neurones.
79  Sub-Saharan
(4 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
AR (1 time)
LBD (1 time)
LISA (1 time)
2021 COVID-19 and stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: case series from Dar es Salaam.
80  sunflower seed albumin
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
CaMV35S (1 time)
ER (1 time)
OAS (1 time)
2000 Transgenic Trifolium repens with foliage accumulating the high sulphur protein, sunflower seed albumin.
81  surgical segmental angle
(4 times)
Orthopedics
(2 times)
DH (3 times)
ACDF (2 times)
ASD (2 times)
2017 Single-Level Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Using a New 3D-Printed Anatomy-Adaptive Titanium Mesh Cage for Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A Retrospective Case Series Study.
82  suspect screening analysis
(4 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
NTA (4 times)
LCMs (1 time)
PEGs (1 time)
2020 A Proposed Quality Control Standard Mixture and Its Uses for Evaluating Nontargeted and Suspect Screening LC/HR-MS Method Performance.
83  Synchronized Spontaneous Activity
(4 times)
Biology
(1 time)
SEF (1 time)
1987 Neuromagnetic evidence of synchronized spontaneous activity in the brain following repetitive sensory stimulation.
84  synthetic somatostatin analog
(4 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
BC (1 time)
HCP (1 time)
LAR (1 time)
2013 Lanreotide extended-release aqueous-gel formulation, injected by patient, partner or healthcare provider in patients with acromegaly in the United States: 1-year data from the SODA registry.
85  S. sclerotiorum agglutinin
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
--- 2003 Structural and functional characterization of the GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.
86  sagittal screw angle
(3 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
CT (1 time)
PLIF (1 time)
SBA (1 time)
2005 Quantitative anatomic evaluation of cervical lateral mass fixation with a comparison of the Roy-Camille and the Magerl screw techniques.
87  Sante des Armees
(3 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
COVID-19 (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2001 Dual-mode gradient HPLC procedure for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and proguanil.
88  sarcocyst surface apparatus
(3 times)
Cell Biology
(3 times)
gs (1 time)
2002 [The structure of the surface apparatus in sarcocysts of Sarcosporidia in the persistence process].
89  segmental sagittal angle
(3 times)
Central Nervous System
(1 time)
ALIF (1 time)
CI (1 time)
DS (1 time)
2018 Comparison of sagittal values between lateral decubitus plain radiography and supine computed tomography in thoracolumbar fractures: a greater degree of kyphosis is observed in plain radiography than CT.
90  self-sensing actuation
(3 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(2 times)
IPMC (1 time)
PEA (1 time)
2013 Differential resistance feedback control of a self-sensing shape memory alloy actuated system.
91  serious suicide attempt
(3 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
--- 2018 Serious Suicide Attempts: Systematic Review of Psychological Risk Factors.
92  sex-selective abortion
(3 times)
Anthropology
(1 time)
--- 2007 Is sex-selective abortion morally justified and should it be prohibited?
93  sex-specific analysis
(3 times)
Arthroscopy
(2 times)
AANA (1 time)
AJSM (1 time)
AOSSM (1 time)
2019 Foot and Ankle Related Sex-Specific Analysis Within High-Impact Journals.
94  shared supported accommodation
(3 times)
Rehabilitation
(2 times)
CIQ-R (1 time)
EAT (1 time)
EATs (1 time)
2017 Electronic assistive technology use in Australian shared supported accommodation: rates and user characteristics.
95  significant scientific agreement
(3 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
FDA (3 times)
FDAMA (1 time)
NLEA (1 time)
2006 FDA perspectives on health claims for food labels.
96  single strand adaptor
(3 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
NGS (2 times)
SALP (2 times)
BTA (1 time)
2018 SALP, a new single-stranded DNA library preparation method especially useful for the high-throughput characterization of chromatin openness states.
97  single suicide attempts
(3 times)
Psychiatry
(3 times)
mSA (2 times)
BD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
2008 Factors associated with multiple versus single episode suicide attempts in the 1990-1992 and 2001-2003 United States national comorbidity surveys.
98  single-scattering approximation
(3 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
MUSSA (1 time)
2005 Light propagation through a monolayer of discrete scatterers: analysis of coherent transmission and reflection coefficients.
99  Southwick slip angle
(3 times)
Orthopedics
(2 times)
SCFE (3 times)
AVN (1 time)
HNA (1 time)
2013 Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
100  Space Situational Awareness
(3 times)
Optics and Photonics
(1 time)
DP (1 time)
GEO (1 time)
GEODSS (1 time)
2015 Information Space Receding Horizon Control for Multisensor Tasking Problems.