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Abbreviation: TBR
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Long forms: 115

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
target-to-background ratio
(245 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(76 times)
PET (44 times)
FDG (32 times)
SUV (26 times)
1997 Uptake of Tc-99m MIBI related to tumour size and type.
tumor-to-brain ratio
(41 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(18 times)
PET (9 times)
NSCLC (7 times)
SUV (7 times)
1982 Dynamics of contrast enhancement in delayed computed tomography of brain tumors: tissue-blood ratio and differential diagnosis.
to-be-remembered
(40 times)
Psychology
(24 times)
TBF (27 times)
DF (3 times)
ERPs (3 times)
1974 Positive forgetting of sentence material.
theta/beta ratio
(22 times)
Psychophysiology
(6 times)
EEG (12 times)
ADHD (10 times)
NF (2 times)
2013 A decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: a meta-analysis.
tumor-bearing rats
(20 times)
General Surgery
(6 times)
CTR (3 times)
RSV (3 times)
GLUT4 (2 times)
1982 Monoclonal antibody against the carboxy terminal peptide of pp60src of Rous sarcoma virus reacts with native pp60src.
trickle bed reactor
(13 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(5 times)
BF (4 times)
AAO (2 times)
AC (1 time)
2002 Bioreactor design studies for a hydrogen-producing bacterium.
tracheobronchial remnants
(11 times)
Pediatrics
(8 times)
CES (9 times)
FMS (4 times)
EA (2 times)
2001 Congenital esophageal stenosis: report of three cases, literature review, and a proposed classification.
tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium
(11 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(7 times)
ECL (9 times)
PCR (3 times)
GNP (2 times)
1998 Detection of tyrosinase mRNA in melanoma by reverse transcription-PCR and electrochemiluminescence.
theobromine
(9 times)
Toxicology
(5 times)
6-AMMU (2 times)
CAF (2 times)
CP (2 times)
1983 Theobromine metabolism and pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant Sprague-Dawley rats.
10  tree bisection and reconnection
(9 times)
Medical Informatics
(4 times)
SPR (6 times)
NNI (5 times)
NJ (3 times)
1998 A genetic algorithm for maximum-likelihood phylogeny inference using nucleotide sequence data.
11  total bilirubin
(8 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
ALB (2 times)
ASAT (2 times)
DENA (2 times)
1990 [Changes in bile components during the formation and prevention of black pigment gallstone in a guinea pig model].
12  thermal boundary resistance
(6 times)
Nanotechnology
(2 times)
DNTT (2 times)
GaN (1 time)
NEMD (1 time)
2009 The role of interface thermal boundary resistance in the overall thermal conductivity of Si-Ge multilayered structures.
13  target-to-background
(5 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
PET (3 times)
CNR (2 times)
MATV (2 times)
2014 Systemic vascular inflammation in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients: a contrast-enhanced PET/CT study.
14  temporal bone resection
(5 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
DSS (1 time)
OS (1 time)
RFS (1 time)
1994 Efficacy of surgical treatments for squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone: a literature review.
15  tracheobronchial rupture
(4 times)
Wounds and Injuries
(1 time)
ECMO (1 time)
NIV (1 time)
2005 Nonoperative management of tracheobronchial injuries in severely injured patients.
16  transverse Bragg resonance
(4 times)
Ophthalmology
(4 times)
BAL (2 times)
VBG (1 time)
2004 Loss optimization of transverse Bragg resonance waveguides.
17  tumor-to-background
(4 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
NIR (2 times)
cSCC (1 time)
EGFR (1 time)
2013 Identification of the optimal therapeutic antibody for fluorescent imaging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
18  teen birth rate
(3 times)
Public Health
(2 times)
GWR (1 time)
PTB (1 time)
1998 Utility of percentage of births to teenagers as a surrogate for the teen birth rate.
19  tongue base retraction
(3 times)
Radiotherapy
(2 times)
FSUs (2 times)
HLE (2 times)
SWOARs (2 times)
2011 Transoral robotic geniohyoidpexy as an additional step of transoral robotic tongue base reduction and supraglottoplasty: feasibility in a cadaver model.
20  tubular biofilm reactor
(3 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
MABRs (1 time)
2011 Factors influencing 4-fluorobenzoate degradation in biofilm cultures of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13.
21  tulobuterol
(3 times)
Pharmacy
(2 times)
MLRSM (1 time)
NIRI (1 time)
NIRS (1 time)
2009 Chemical mapping of tulobuterol in transdermal tapes using microscopic laser Raman spectroscopy.
22  tumor-to-background fluorescence ratio
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
NIR (3 times)
CW800 (1 time)
FGS (1 time)
2015 Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin C-terminal domain labeled to fluorescent dyes for in vivo visualization of micrometastatic chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer.
23  tumour-to-background activity concentration ratio
(3 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
AC (1 time)
PEM (1 time)
PET/CT (1 time)
2008 Evaluation of the combined effects of target size, respiratory motion and background activity on 3D and 4D PET/CT images.
24  Taiwan Birth Registry
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
OR (1 time)
TMR (1 time)
2004 Validation of the Taiwan Birth Registry using obstetric records.
25  target-to-blood ratio
(2 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(2 times)
18F-FDG PET (1 time)
68Ga (1 time)
CRP (1 time)
2017 Relation between thoracic aortic inflammation and features of plaque vulnerability in the coronary tree in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. An FDG-positron emission tomography and optical coherence tomography study.
26  TGF-beta receptors
(2 times)
Rheumatology
(2 times)
MSC (1 time)
OA (1 time)
TBB (1 time)
2008 Abnormal transforming growth factor-beta expression in mesenchymal stem cells from patients with osteoarthritis.
27  thalidomide-based regimens
(2 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
ISS (1 time)
PR (1 time)
2004 Discordant response or progression in patients with myeloma treated with thalidomide-based regimens.
28  thoracoscopic bleb resection
(2 times)
Anesthesiology
(2 times)
RR (1 time)
TE (1 time)
2001 [Anesthetic management for thoracoscopic bullae resection using epidural anesthesia].
29  three-body recombination
(2 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
--- 2017 Cold atom-atom-ion three-body recombination of 4He-4He-X- (X = H or D).
30  time below range
(2 times)
Stroke
(1 time)
AF (1 time)
CGM (1 time)
COGI (1 time)
2018 Quality of Chronic Anticoagulation Control in Patients with Intracranial Haemorrhage due to Vitamin K Antagonists.
31  total body reserves
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
VA (1 time)
2000 Vitamin A status assessment in rats with (13)C(4)-retinyl acetate and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
32  total body retention
(2 times)
Rheumatology
(2 times)
99TcmDP (1 time)
AP (1 time)
HOP (1 time)
1982 Generalized skeletal response to 99mtechnetium methylene diphosphonate in rheumatoid arthritis.
33  toxin-binding region
(2 times)
Zoology
(1 time)
ACB (1 time)
Bt (1 time)
CR (1 time)
2014 Downregulation and mutation of a Cadherin gene associated with Cry1Ac resistance in the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee).
34  trabecular bone ratio
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
BMD (1 time)
2010 Trabecular bone ratio of mandible using micro-computed tomography in Korean.
35  translocation breakpoint region
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(2 times)
NF1 (1 time)
1990 Deletions and a translocation interrupt a cloned gene at the neurofibromatosis type 1 locus.
36  treatment benefit rate
(2 times)
Statistics as Topic
(2 times)
ICD (1 time)
THR (1 time)
2013 Treatment benefit and treatment harm rate to characterize heterogeneity in treatment effect.
37  TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE
(2 times)
Botany
(2 times)
CesA (1 time)
DUF231 (1 time)
GLH (1 time)
2010 Involvement of TBL/DUF231 proteins into cell wall biology.
38  trickling biofilter reactor
(2 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
HRT (1 time)
2004 Thermophilic biohydrogen production from glucose with trickling biofilter.
39  tris(bipyridine) ruthenium
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
ECL (1 time)
ECL-PCR (1 time)
OLA (1 time)
2007 An improved electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction method for highly sensitive detection of plant viruses.
40  tumor-bearing
(2 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
LPL (1 time)
NTBR (1 time)
1991 [Does varied parenteral zinc administration modify interaction between tumor and host? Studies based on an animal model].
41  tumor-to-blood
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
FMISO (1 time)
NSCLC (1 time)
SERP (1 time)
2013 Preparation and evaluation of a ⁹⁹mTcN-PNP complex of sanazole analogue for detecting tumor hypoxia.
42  tumor-to-breast volume ratio
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CSS (1 time)
HR (1 time)
TNM (1 time)
2016 The tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) predicts cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy.
43  2,4,5,7-tetrabromorhodamine 123 bromide
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DNase (1 time)
2003 Ca(2+)-dependent and caspase-3-independent apoptosis caused by damage in Golgi apparatus due to 2,4,5,7-tetrabromorhodamine 123 bromide-induced photodynamic effects.
44  BU-pretreated KMT-17-bearing rats
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
BU (1 time)
1981 Augmentation of specific cell-mediated immune responses to tumor cells in tumor-bearing rats pretreated wih the antileukemia drug busulfan.
45  FMISO-tumor to background ratio
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 2017 Impact of hybrid PET/MR technology on multiparametric imaging and treatment response assessment of cervix cancer.
46  KMT-17-bearing rats
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CY (1 time)
1982 Diminution of cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of antitumor immunity by an immunomodulator PS-K and combined therapeutic effects of PS-K and cyclophosphamide on transplanted tumor in rats.
47  T. brucei species specific primers
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
HCT (1 time)
ITS-PCR (1 time)
PCR (1 time)
2012 Apparent lack of a domestic animal reservoir in Gambiense sleeping sickness in northwest Uganda.
48  tanning-bed radiation
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
SSR (1 time)
2008 Effect of UVA fluence rate on indicators of oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts.
49  tap-induced blink reflex
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 1990 Tap-induced blink reflex and central nervous system dysfunction in diabetics with hyperosmolality.
50  target binding region
(1 time)
Synthetic Biology
(1 time)
asRNA (1 time)
2016 Development of Design Rules for Reliable Antisense RNA Behavior in E. coli.
51  target-to-background (SUVmax/ SUVmin) ratio
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
FVC (1 time)
IPF (1 time)
2018 Pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake helps refine current risk stratification in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
52  target-to-background signal ratio
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
Av (1 time)
PET (1 time)
TRA (1 time)
2010 High sensitivity detection of cancer in vivo using a dual-controlled activation fluorescent imaging probe based on H-dimer formation and pH activation.
53  Target-to-liver background ratio
(1 time)
Nanomedicine
(1 time)
CRC (1 time)
HCC (1 time)
MET (1 time)
2016 Optical Imaging of Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition Factor (MET) for Enhanced Detection and Characterization of Primary and Metastatic Hepatic Tumors.
54  taurine biosynthesis rate
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
SAA (1 time)
2007 Differences in taurine synthesis rate among dogs relate to differences in their maintenance energy requirement.
55  TB resection
(1 time)
Natural Science Disciplines
(1 time)
OSA (1 time)
PAS (1 time)
TB (1 time)
2019 Robot-assisted Tongue Base Resection ensures favorable therapeutic outcome to Obstructive Sleep Apnea patients with Lingual tonsil hypertrophy.
56  TBRDelta
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
DTC (1 time)
2015 Prediction of the success of thyroid remnant ablation using preablative 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy and postablative dual 131I scintigraphy.
57  temperance board registration
(1 time)
Psychology
(1 time)
EO-MCR (1 time)
LCA (1 time)
SCR-D (1 time)
1998 Latent class analysis of temperance board registrations in Swedish male-male twin pairs born 1902 to 1949: searching for subtypes of alcoholism.
58  template-based registration
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
APR (1 time)
IPD (1 time)
MR (1 time)
2006 Quantification analysis of 123I-IPT single photon emission computed tomography uptake in the striatum of parkinsonism with the standard magnetic resonance template.
59  Template-Based Rotation
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
FPCN (1 time)
2015 Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults.
60  Temporary Bridge Resin
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
ES (1 time)
LA (1 time)
LS (1 time)
2004 Influence of dietary simulating solvents on the hardness of provisional restorative materials.
61  Ten male F-344 rats, subcutaneously inoculated with methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma cells
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
CTR (1 time)
1994 Ultrastructural alterations of hepatocytes in the tumour-bearing, cachectic rat.
62  Test of Behavioral Rigidity
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
WES (1 time)
2001 Perceived work environment and cognitive style.
63  Text-Based Restudy
(1 time)
Education
(1 time)
DBR (1 time)
2015 Using diagrams versus text for spaced restudy: Effects on learning in 10th grade biology classes.
64  TGF-beta receptor type I
(1 time)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
SSc (1 time)
SUMO (1 time)
2012 Inhibition of sumoylation prevents experimental fibrosis.
65  theobromine content
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
CAF (1 time)
CTR (1 time)
QTL (1 time)
2018 Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Theobromine and Caffeine Contents in Tea Plant ( Camellia sinensis).
66  thermo-balance reactor
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
HC (1 time)
TG (1 time)
WC (1 time)
2014 Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions.
67  Thoroughbred racehorses
(1 time)
Wounds and Injuries
(1 time)
NRSH (1 time)
STR (1 time)
2019 Distribution of Pelvic Fractures in Racing and Non-racing Sport Horses: A Retrospective Study of 86 Cases Examined in a Referral Centre.
68  thyroid bed recurrence
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
DTC (1 time)
LR (1 time)
NR (1 time)
2007 Total thyroidectomy and adjuvant radioiodine treatment independently decrease locoregional recurrence risk in childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer.
69  Tilt Board Reach
(1 time)
Rehabilitation
(1 time)
FBR (1 time)
TBT (1 time)
1988 Adult performance on three tests of equilibrium.
70  time between recordings
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
AHI (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
OSA (1 time)
2009 Progression of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: the role of increasing weight and time.
71  time-based readout
(1 time)
ADC (1 time)
CFD (1 time)
2011 Energy and Timing Measurement with Time-Based Detector Readout for PET Applications: Principle and Validation with Discrete Circuit Components.
72  time-to-brain recurrence
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
BM (1 time)
CNS (1 time)
LAD-NSCLC (1 time)
2002 Brain metastases in locally advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma after multimodality treatment: risk factors analysis.
73  tipping bucket rain gauge
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2007 The effect of rainfall measurement uncertainties on rainfall-runoff processes modelling.
74  Tirimbina Biological Reserve
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2016 Understory bat roosts, availability and occupation patterns in a Neotropical rainforest of Costa Rica.
75  tissue bioreactor
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2013 A PET-compatible tissue bioreactor for research, discovery, and validation of imaging biomarkers and radiopharmaceuticals: system design and proof-of-concept studies.
76  Tissue-to-Background
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
SSc-GIT (1 time)
2018 18F-FDG PET-MRI with T1 MOLLI mapping to detect systemic sclerosis bowel inflammation and fibrosis.
77  tissue-to-blood radioactivity ratio
(1 time)
Pulmonary Medicine
(1 time)
ETX (1 time)
TLRs (1 time)
2005 Molecular imaging of lung glucose uptake after endotoxin in mice.
78  Tissue/blood Al ratios
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
Al (1 time)
1991 Aluminum distribution into brain and liver of rats and rabbits following intravenous aluminum lactate or citrate: a microdialysis study.
79  to-be-remembered items
(1 time)
Cognitive Science
(1 time)
DF (1 time)
TBF (1 time)
UI (1 time)
2015 'Forget me (not)?' - Remembering Forget-Items Versus Un-Cued Items in Directed Forgetting.
80  tobramycin
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CIP (1 time)
ENO (1 time)
NA (1 time)
1985 In vitro activity of the newer quinolones compared with the classic ones and tobramycin.
81  topography-based reconstruction
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
ET (1 time)
WBP (1 time)
2013 Rapid method for electron tomographic reconstruction and three-dimensional modeling of the murine synapse using an automated fiducial marker-free system.
82  total body radiotherapy
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
AML (1 time)
BMAT (1 time)
CP (1 time)
1990 [Bone marrow autotransplantation in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia in primary remission].
83  total body residue
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
SPME (1 time)
2004 Baseline toxicity of a chlorobenzene mixture and total body residues measured and estimated with solid-phase microextraction.
84  total body resistance
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
LTCF (1 time)
2005 Early identification of hypovolemia using total body resistance measurements in long-term care facility residents.
85  total plant area/bounding rectangle area ratio
(1 time)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
GPAR (1 time)
PAR (1 time)
TCR (1 time)
2018 Novel Digital Features Discriminate Between Drought Resistant and Drought Sensitive Rice Under Controlled and Field Conditions.
86  total rate of BFR and RTR
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
beta-TCP (1 time)
BFR (1 time)
PRP (1 time)
2009 Combination with allogenic bone reduces early absorption of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and enhances the role as a bone regeneration scaffold. Experimental animal study in rat mandibular bone defects.
87  total-body gamma-radiation
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
beta-CAR (1 time)
VitA (1 time)
1984 Morbidity and mortality reduction by supplemental vitamin A or beta-carotene in CBA mice given total-body gamma-radiation.
88  Total-Body-Rhythm™
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
SAP (1 time)
2013 Combinatorial treatment of tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids reduces cognitive impairments and inflammation in the mu-p75 saporin-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
89  Touriga Brasileira
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
MG (1 time)
TA (1 time)
TB (1 time)
2004 Effect of some viticultural parameters on the grape carotenoid profile.
90  trabecular bone remodeling
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
--- 2010 Short-term zoledronic acid reduces trabecular bone remodeling in dogs.
91  trabecular-to-cortical bone ratio
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
--- 2015 Anatomic Study of the Dorsalis Pedis Artery, First Metatarsal Artery, and Second Metatarsal Bone for Mandibular Reconstruction.
92  tracheobronchial resistance
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
DMU (1 time)
HR (1 time)
1989 Non-specific cardiovascular depressant effect of methyl isocyanate (MIC) in rats.
93  traditional block rotation
(1 time)
Education, Medical
(1 time)
LIC (1 time)
2014 Challenges in transformation of the "traditional block rotation" medical student clinical education into a longitudinal integrated clerkship model.
94  transformed bauxite residue
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
BR (1 time)
BRDAs (1 time)
2017 Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.
95  transient binding release
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
SBP (1 time)
SPs (1 time)
WBP (1 time)
2005 Probing the "annealing" mechanism of GroEL minichaperone using molecular dynamics simulations.
96  transnational biomedical research
(1 time)
Ethics
(1 time)
--- 2017 The Vulnerability of Study Participants in the Context of Transnational Biomedical Research: From Conceptual Considerations to Practical Implications.
97  transoral bisected resection
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
SCC (1 time)
TER (1 time)
2017 Transoral bisected resection for T1-2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma to secure adequate deep margin.
98  transplant-to-background-ratio
(1 time)
Nuclear Medicine
(1 time)
SBR (1 time)
2015 Salivary gland scintigraphy in patients suffering from severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Evaluation of the viability of submandibular glands before and after transfer into the temporal fossa.
99  treated before reperfusion
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
IR (1 time)
TBI (1 time)
TF (1 time)
2015 The effects of tacrolimus on the activity and expression of tissue factor in the rat ovary with ischemia-reperfusion induced injury.
100  trigeminal blink reflex
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
SBR (1 time)
2011 The somatosensory blink reflex in upper and lower brainstem lesions.