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Abbreviation: TUNEL
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
transferase dUTP nick end labeling
(5185 times)
Neurology
(533 times)
PCNA (203 times)
RT-PCR (170 times)
MDA (152 times)
1994 Androgen enhances neuronal degeneration in the developing preoptic area: apoptosis in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPvN-POA).
TdT-dUTP nick-end labeling
(20 times)
Pathology
(4 times)
RT-PCR (2 times)
ACCs (1 time)
AI (1 time)
1997 Tumour growth fraction and apoptosis in salivary gland acinic cell carcinomas. Prognostic implications of Ki-67 and bcl-2 expression and of in situ end labelling (TUNEL).
deoxyuridine-triphosphate nick-end labeling
(17 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
AEC (1 time)
AI (1 time)
AMPK (1 time)
1999 Characterization of two distinct mechanisms for induction of apoptosis in human vascular endothelial cells.
triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling
(13 times)
Gastroenterology
(6 times)
AI (5 times)
LI (4 times)
5-FU (3 times)
2000 Transmissible gastroenteritis virus induces apoptosis in swine testicular cell lines but not in intestinal enterocytes.
triphosphate in situ nick end-labeling
(8 times)
Histocytochemistry
(2 times)
DCM (1 time)
DNA (1 time)
FasL (1 time)
2000 Prognostic significance of apoptosis in synovial sarcoma: correlation with clinicopathologic parameters, cell proliferative activity, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins.
triphosphate nick end labelling technique
(7 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
PCNA (3 times)
FasL (2 times)
AP (1 time)
2001 Apoptosis in different cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus.
using the in situ end-labeling
(5 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
DLB (1 time)
HT (1 time)
NT (1 time)
1997 On the question of apoptosis in the parkinsonian substantia nigra.
terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase
(3 times)
Flow Cytometry
(1 time)
4-HC (1 time)
AMs (1 time)
AT-2 (1 time)
2007 Flow cytometry analysis of single-strand DNA damage in neuroblastoma cell lines using the F7-26 monoclonal antibody.
terminal dUTP-biotin nick end labeling of DNA fragments
(3 times)
Brain
(3 times)
DAPI (1 time)
IDO (1 time)
NMDA (1 time)
2004 Fragmented DNA transport in dendrites of retinal neurons during apoptotic cell death.
10  biotin-16-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
ICAM-1 (1 time)
MBP (1 time)
mRNA (1 time)
1999 Apoptotic cells associated with Wallerian degeneration after experimental spinal cord injury: a possible mechanism of oligodendroglial death.
11  biotinylated UTP nick end labeling
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
i.c.v (1 time)
MCAO (1 time)
p-Stat3 (1 time)
2001 Induction of phosphorylated-Stat3 following focal cerebral ischemia in mice.
12  TdT nick end mediated dUTP labeling
(2 times)
Hematology
(1 time)
FCM (1 time)
GVHD (1 time)
sFasL (1 time)
2002 [Apoptosis of the allo-antigen specific T cells induced by CD34(+) cells transfected with exogenous gene FasL].
13  TdT-mediated deoxy-uracil nick end labeling
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
AO (1 time)
EB (1 time)
MMS (1 time)
2016 Thymoquinone Could Increase The Efficacy of Tamoxifen Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells: An In Vitro Study.
14  transmission electron microscope, in situ end labeling
(2 times)
Surgical Wound Infection
(1 time)
7-AAD (1 time)
bax (1 time)
Bcl-2 (1 time)
2000 Apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells induced by alendronate is related to Fas gene expression.
15  transmission electron microscopy and counted by in situ nick end labeling
(2 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
OD (1 time)
2002 Effect of ginsenoside-Rb1 on cardiomyocyte apoptosis after ischemia and reperfusion in rats.
16  triphosphate dUTP nick end-labelling
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
AIF (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
EndoG (1 time)
2015 Modulation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and Bcl-2 Family Proteins Involved in Chicken's Tubular Apoptosis Induced by Nickel Chloride (NiCl₂).
17  tumors, significantly more apoptotic cells
(2 times)
Radiology
(1 time)
DCE-CT (1 time)
2012 Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging biomarkers correlated with immunohistochemistry for monitoring the effects of sorafenib on experimental prostate carcinomas.
18  5H7-treated PBMC using a TdT-mediated end-labeling
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
ICE (1 time)
VCR (1 time)
1997 Anti-human class I MHC antibodies induce apoptosis by a pathway that is distinct from the Fas antigen-mediated pathway.
19  apoptosis using nick-end labeling
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
IL (1 time)
SD (1 time)
2004 Survival of subretinal pancreatic islet cell allografts and apoptosis in infiltrating lymphocytes in rats.
20  deoxynucleotidyl-transferase mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate and biotin nick-end labelling
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
IGF-1 (1 time)
TGF-beta1 (1 time)
2003 Growth factors and chemotherapeutic modulation of breast cancer cells.
21  digoxigenin-tagged 16-desoxy-uridine-triphosphate nick end-labeling
(1 time)
Urology
(1 time)
GS (1 time)
IHC (1 time)
LOH (1 time)
2008 HRK inactivation associated with promoter methylation and LOH in prostate cancer.
22  T lymphocyte infiltration, pulmonary apoptosis
(1 time)
General Surgery
(1 time)
IL (1 time)
IR (1 time)
PNs (1 time)
2018 A 30-Minute Supraceliac Aortic Clamping in the Rat Causes Death Due to an Inflammatory Response and Pulmonary Lesions.
23  taken for histology, immuno- and enzyme-histochemistry
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
IR (1 time)
2013 Levosimendan: a cardiovascular drug to prevent liver ischemia-reperfusion injury?
24  Taurine was found to significantly correlate with apoptotic cell density
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
HR-MAS (1 time)
MRS (1 time)
2009 Taurine: a potential marker of apoptosis in gliomas.
25  TdT dUTP mediated nick end labelling
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
ECs (1 time)
2002 Value of two mortality assessment techniques for organ cultured corneal endothelium: trypan blue versus TUNEL technique.
26  Tdt dUTP Nucleotide End Labeling
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
AI (1 time)
DMEM (1 time)
Gy (1 time)
2005 Programmed cell death as a prognostic indicator for radiation therapy in cervical carcinoma patients: a pilot study.
27  TdT uptake nick-end labelling
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
NAC (1 time)
2004 Sensory neuroprotection, mitochondrial preservation, and therapeutic potential of N-acetyl-cysteine after nerve injury.
28  TdT-dUTP-terminal nick-end labeling
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
AB1.0-PAS (1 time)
AB2.5-PAS (1 time)
2006 Conjunctival changes induced by LASIK suction ring in a rabbit model.
29  TdT-mediated dUTP/dATP in situ 3'OH--end labeling
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CB/CC (1 time)
FCC (1 time)
GC (1 time)
1996 Prognostic significance of proliferative and apoptotic fractions in low grade follicle center cell-derived non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
30  TdT-UTP nick end-labelling method
(1 time)
Radiology
(1 time)
NeuN (1 time)
2005 Sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis and neuron loss declines rapidly in the postnatal mouse neocortex.
31  TDT/Dutp nick end labelling
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
CVB3m (1 time)
RB (1 time)
RT-PCR (1 time)
2005 [Effect of radix bupleuri extract on cardiomyocyte apoptosis related genes expression in mouse infected with coxsackie virus B3m].
32  technique using terminal deoxy-transferase
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
MC (1 time)
1996 Apoptosis in mesangial cells induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs.
33  terminal biotin-dUTP nick labeling
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
GFAP (1 time)
SEE (1 time)
2018 Helper CD4 T cells expressing granzyme B cause glial fibrillary acidic protein fragmentation in astrocytes in an MHCII-independent manner.
34  terminal deoxynucleotidyl
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
CA-4 (1 time)
EMT (1 time)
2016 Combretastatin A4 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Apoptosis of Thyroid Cancer Cells via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.
35  terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
TGF-beta1 (1 time)
1995 Role of transforming growth factor beta 1 on hepatic regeneration and apoptosis in liver diseases.
36  terminal deoxytransferase digoxigenin-dUTP nick end labeling
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
TGEV (1 time)
1998 Transmissible gastroenteritis virus induced apoptosis in swine testes cell cultures.
37  terminal digoxigenin-labeled dUTP nick end labeling
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
--- 2005 Lens epithelial apoptosis and cell proliferation in human age-related cortical cataract.
38  terminal DNA breakpoints in situ 3-hydroxy end labeling
(1 time)
Epidemiology
(1 time)
--- 2012 Expressions of p53, c-MYC, BCL-2 and apoptotic index in human osteosarcoma and their correlations with prognosis of patients.
39  terminal dUTP labeling
(1 time)
Geriatrics
(1 time)
AD (1 time)
2000 Avoidance of Apoptosis in Alzheimer's Disease.
40  Terminal dUTP Nick End Labeling Assay
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
AIF (1 time)
Cyt C (1 time)
MDA (1 time)
2014 N-acetyl-serotonin protects HepG2 cells from oxidative stress injury induced by hydrogen peroxide.
41  Terminal dUTP nick-end
(1 time)
Zoology
(1 time)
NA (1 time)
2011 In vitro effects of noradrenaline on Akoya pearl oyster (Pinctada imbricata) haemocytes.
42  terminal dUTP nick-end labeling of DNA
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 2012 Tipifarnib and tanespimycin show synergic proapoptotic activity in U937 cells.
43  Terminal-dUTP-Transferase-Nick-End Labelling
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
ERK (1 time)
PKC (1 time)
2000 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase suppression is not involved in apoptosis of neuroblastoma N2a cells induced by protein kinase C inhibition.
44  tested factors reduced the number of apoptotic cells
(1 time)
Embryology
(1 time)
eCG (1 time)
EGF (1 time)
ICM (1 time)
2004 Growth factors protect in vitro cultured embryos from the consequences of oxidative stress.
45  tested using the terminal transferase-mediated DNA end labelling
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
--- 1998 Annexin V labelling and terminal transferase-mediated DNA end labelling (TUNEL) assay in human arrested embryos.
46  Testicular histopathology, morphometric analysis and deoxy-UTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
DEX (1 time)
GCs (1 time)
2010 Toxic effects of dexamethasone on mouse testicular germ cells.
47  testis was detected by in situ end labeling method
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
ELISA (1 time)
FSH (1 time)
KLH (1 time)
2012 The effect of induced anti-follicle-stimulating hormone autoantibody on serum hormone level and apoptosis in rat testis.
48  through TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
CC3 (1 time)
PE (1 time)
2018 [99mTc]Tc-duramycin, a potential molecular probe for early prediction of tumor response after chemotherapy.
49  time point using in situ end-labeling of DNA strand breaks
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
CM (1 time)
EBD (1 time)
LV (1 time)
2002 Apoptosis and oncosis in the early progression of left ventricular dysfunction in the cardiomyopathic hamster.
50  times after feeding by DNA fragmentation and in situ immunohistochemical staining
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
--- 2001 Programmed cell death in rat intestine: effect of feeding and fasting.
51  times that of carboplatin control group
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
--- 2003 Molecule action mechanisms of NM-3 on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in vivo or in vitro.
52  tissue with in situ DNA end labeling
(1 time)
Drug Discovery
(1 time)
--- 2011 Therapeutic time window of YGY-E neuroprotection of cerebral ischemic injury in rats.
53  tissues for apoptosis-related DNA fragmentation using in situ nick end labeling
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
HIV (1 time)
IEUs (1 time)
1997 A role for apoptosis in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related idiopathic esophageal ulcers.
54  tissues showed significantly increased intraepithelial apoptosis
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 2012 Evaluation of a mucoadhesive fenretinide patch for local intraoral delivery: a strategy to reintroduce fenretinide for oral cancer chemoprevention.
55  total number of apoptotic nuclei
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
NOS (1 time)
2001 Acute cardiac allograft rejection in nitric oxide synthase-2(-/-) and nitric oxide synthase-2(+/+) mice: effects of cellular chimeras on myocardial inflammation and cardiomyocyte damage and apoptosis.
56  transaminases, liver graft histology, immunostaining
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
NC-LV (1 time)
RNAi (1 time)
2014 [Lentiviral-mediated RNA interference of LXRalpha gene in donor rats with fatty liver enhances liver graft function after transplantation].
57  transfer-mediated end-labeling of fragmented nuclei
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
LV (1 time)
LVR (1 time)
MI (1 time)
2004 Down-regulation of endothelin-1 and alteration of apoptosis signaling following left ventricular volume reduction surgery in heart failure of adult rats.
58  transferase deoxyuridine end labeling
(1 time)
Urology
(1 time)
PSA (1 time)
2000 Racial differences in prostate cancer growth: apoptosis and cell proliferation in Caucasian and African-American patients.
59  transferase deoxyuridine nick-end labeling method
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
deltaPhim (1 time)
2005 Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by a novel amphipathic photochemotherapeutic agent ZnPcS2P2 in HL60 cells.
60  transferase dUTP nick end labeling of nuclei
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
HEI-OC1 (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
2016 Protective Effect of Tempol against Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity.
61  transferase-driven dUTP nick labeling assay
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
AhR (1 time)
POPs (1 time)
2007 Relation between serum xenobiotic-induced receptor activities and sperm DNA damage and sperm apoptotic markers in European and Inuit populations.
62  transferase-mediated DNA end-labelling procedure
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2001 Sperm swim-up techniques and DNA fragmentation.
63  transferase-mediated dUDP-biotin catalysed DNA nick-end labelling
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
FasL (1 time)
1998 Protection of islet allografts transplanted together with Fas ligand expressing testicular allografts.
64  transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling dUTP nick end labeling
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
AGT (1 time)
iNOS (1 time)
IRC (1 time)
2010 Effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on islet function in diabetic rats.
65  transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cardiomyocytes
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
--- 2000 Dystrophin disruption might be related to myocardial cell apoptosis caused by isoproterenol.
66  transferase-mediated dUTP-peroxidase nick end-labeling of DNA
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
ECM (1 time)
ERK (1 time)
mAb (1 time)
2012 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase plays a proapoptotic role in podocytes after reactive oxygen species treatment and inhibition of integrin-extracellular matrix interaction.
67  transferase-mediated FITC-linked dUTP nick-end DNA labeling
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
CCh (1 time)
MMP-1 (1 time)
NNGH (1 time)
2012 PTX3 controls activation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and apoptosis in conjunctivochalasis fibroblasts.
68  transferase-mediated nick end labeling technique
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
BLISS (1 time)
2003 Identifying and quantifying apoptosis: navigating technical pitfalls.
69  transferase-uridine nucleotide end-labeling
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
ALLM (1 time)
CI III (1 time)
SCI (1 time)
2005 Calpain inhibitors prevent neuronal cell death and ameliorate motor disturbances after compression-induced spinal cord injury in rats.
70  transverse sections showed abundant in situ end-labelling of DNA strand breaks
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
--- 2000 Nuclear DNA fragmentation and morphological alterations in adult rabbit skeletal muscle after short-term immobilization.
71  triphosphate-(dUTP)-biotin nick end labeling
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
aCSF (1 time)
MLP (1 time)
SCI (1 time)
2015 Hydrogen peroxide administered into the rat spinal cord at the level elevated by contusion spinal cord injury oxidizes proteins, DNA and membrane phospholipids, and induces cell death: attenuation by a metalloporphyrin.
72  trypan blue exclusion, 3'-OH end labeling of DNA
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
Ucn (1 time)
2000 Urocortin protects against ischemic and reperfusion injury via a MAPK-dependent pathway.
73  trypan blue, and dUTP nick end labeling
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
AAV5 (1 time)
CCFs (1 time)
GFP (1 time)
2012 Canine corneal fibroblast and myofibroblast transduction with AAV5.
74  tTG and in situ 3'-end labeling
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
AF (1 time)
tTG (1 time)
2003 Differential expression of tissue transglutaminase protein in mouse ovarian follicle.
75  tumor volume, apoptotic index
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
5-FU (1 time)
2018 Peri-tumor administration of 5-fluorouracil sol-gel using a hollow microneedle for treatment of gastric cancer.
76  tumor was analyzed immunohistochemically for apoptosis
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
PDAC (1 time)
2004 [Autocrine IL-1beta secretion leads to NF-kappabeta-mediated chemoresistance in pancreatic carcinoma cells in vivo].
77  tumors clearly correlated with immunohistochemistry results
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
CC3 (1 time)
PE (1 time)
2018 [99mTc]Tc-duramycin, a potential molecular probe for early prediction of tumor response after chemotherapy.
78  tumors underwent immunohistochemical analysis for tumor cell apoptosis
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
OI (1 time)
SNR (1 time)
2015 Monitoring Cell Death in Regorafenib-Treated Experimental Colon Carcinomas Using Annexin-Based Optical Fluorescence Imaging Validated by Perfusion MRI.
79  tumors were examined by using in situ 3'-end labeling of DNA
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
AIs (1 time)
2000 Atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoids show a tendency toward increased apoptotic and proliferative activity.
80  TUNEL method and flow cytometry analysis compared with the controls
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
AI (1 time)
LI (1 time)
RT-PCR (1 time)
2002 Effects of Chinese Jianpi herbs on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human gastric cancer grafted onto nude mice.
81  TUNEL-negative
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
4-HC (1 time)
mAb (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
2007 Flow cytometry analysis of single-strand DNA damage in neuroblastoma cell lines using the F7-26 monoclonal antibody.
82  Twenty-four hours later, serum AST, ALT, LDH, and hepatocyte apoptosis
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
PAAF (1 time)
2003 Liver injury during acute pancreatitis: the role of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF), p38-MAPK, and caspase-3 in inducing hepatocyte apoptosis.
83  using the dUTP nick-end labelling
(1 time)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1998 Apoptosis and bcl-2 expression in normal human endometrium, endometriosis and adenomyosis.