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Abbreviation: UR
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Long forms: 245

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
unconditioned response
(52 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(22 times)
CS (29 times)
US (28 times)
CR (27 times)
1981 Priming-produced facilitation or diminution of responding to a Pavlovian unconditioned stimulus.
urinary retention
(50 times)
Urology
(15 times)
PVR (8 times)
UTI (8 times)
CI (5 times)
1994 Prostalase: basic clinical research and preliminary clinical results with laser thermotherapy for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.
urea
(42 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(11 times)
UA (6 times)
Cr (5 times)
TP (4 times)
1987 Effect of feeding Sarsaponin in cattle and swine diets.
uncertainty range
(41 times)
Medicine
(17 times)
TB (7 times)
ART (5 times)
HIV (3 times)
2001 Cost-effectiveness of prescribing statins according to pharmaceutical benefits scheme criteria.
uptake ratio
(41 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(17 times)
ER (6 times)
MA (5 times)
TAO (3 times)
1986 99Tcm-(tin) colloid scans in the evaluation of renal transplant rejection.
utilization review
(41 times)
Health Services
(17 times)
QA (5 times)
SNF (2 times)
ACGs (1 time)
1975 The PSRO hospital review system.
uridine
(20 times)
Neoplasms
(6 times)
5-FU (3 times)
UMP (3 times)
5'-DFUR (2 times)
1978 Pyrimidine Metabolism in Lemna minor: I. Functional Compartmentation of Chloroplast Pyrimidine Metabolism in a Higher Plant.
uterine rupture
(19 times)
Obstetrics
(11 times)
CS (4 times)
TOLAC (3 times)
VBAC (3 times)
2000 Use of hospital discharge data to monitor uterine rupture--Massachusetts, 1990-1997.
Uncaria rhynchophylla
(17 times)
Complementary Therapies
(7 times)
KA (4 times)
AD (2 times)
i.p (2 times)
1999 Anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack. in rats with kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure.
10  under-reporters
(16 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(12 times)
EI (9 times)
AR (4 times)
OR (3 times)
2004 Validation of energy intake by dietary recall against different methods to assess energy expenditure.
11  use reports
(16 times)
Social Sciences
(14 times)
UV (5 times)
FC (4 times)
FL (4 times)
2014 Medicinal plants traditionally used in the northwest of the Basque Country (Biscay and Alava), Iberian Peninsula.
12  urethral recurrence
(15 times)
Urology
(9 times)
RC (8 times)
CIS (2 times)
CSS (2 times)
2003 Management of urethral recurrence in patients with Studer ileal neobladder.
13  ureteral reimplantation
(13 times)
Urology
(8 times)
VUR (7 times)
ET (2 times)
RU (2 times)
2007 The effectiveness of ureteric reimplantation during bladder augmentation for high-grade vesicoureteric reflux in patients with neurogenic bladder: long-term outcome.
14  urine
(13 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
OF (3 times)
Ca (2 times)
CAN (2 times)
1996 [Usefulness of body surface cultures in newborns with early infection risk. Study of 735 neonates].
15  urease
(12 times)
Environmental Health
(3 times)
AP (4 times)
PR (2 times)
ADH (1 time)
1989 Carbonic anhydrase and urease: an investigation in vitro on the possibility of a synergic action.
16  urethane
(12 times)
Toxicology
(4 times)
BHT (2 times)
LI (2 times)
4NQO (1 time)
1976 Selective effect on T and B cell subpopulations in rat lymphoid organs after urethan treatment.
17  undergraduate research
(10 times)
Education
(9 times)
GPA (2 times)
URSSA (2 times)
PBL (1 time)
2011 How well do undergraduate research programs promote engagement and success of students?
18  unresectable
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
BR (4 times)
PDAC (4 times)
OS (3 times)
2013 [Study of unresectable pancreatic cancer - successful resections after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy].
19  utilization ratio
(9 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
CI (2 times)
AA (1 time)
CLE (1 time)
2002 Modeling the public health response to bioterrorism: using discrete event simulation to design antibiotic distribution centers.
20  unplanned readmission
(7 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
AHs (1 time)
BI (1 time)
CHs (1 time)
2007 Can we predict unplanned hospital readmission after colectomy for ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis?
21  upward rotation
(7 times)
Rehabilitation
(3 times)
IR (4 times)
AT (3 times)
PRO (3 times)
2012 Scapular kinematics and subacromial-impingement syndrome: a meta-analysis.
22  unrelated
(6 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
PO (2 times)
ADHD (1 time)
ADRs (1 time)
2001 Analysis of risk factors for the development of GVHD after T cell-depleted allogeneic BMT: effect of HLA disparity, ABO incompatibility, and method of T-cell depletion.
23  urbanization rate
(6 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
BMI (2 times)
PAL (2 times)
AR (1 time)
2001 Urbanisation and coronary heart disease risk factors in South Asian children.
24  useful result
(6 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(4 times)
CBC (2 times)
CRP (1 time)
ELT (1 time)
1999 Common diagnostic test panels for clinical evaluation of new primary care outpatients in Japan: a cost-effectiveness evaluation.
25  umbrella review
(5 times)
Public Health
(3 times)
SRs (3 times)
AAIs (1 time)
MAs (1 time)
2017 'First 1000 days' health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: alignment of South African policies with high-quality evidence.
26  unemployment rates
(5 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
GDP (2 times)
APE (1 time)
AR (1 time)
2011 The relationship between spatial patterns of illnesses and unemployment in Iraq-2007.
27  Urology
(5 times)
Urology
(3 times)
JU (3 times)
NU (2 times)
ACGME (1 time)
2003 [The medical care in internal medicine in relation to consultations].
28  unaffected first-degree relatives
(4 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
HC (4 times)
BD (3 times)
PSQI (2 times)
2013 Reduced neuro-integration from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the whole brain and executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients and their relatives.
29  unconditioned eyeblink response
(4 times)
Nervous System
(1 time)
US (3 times)
CR (2 times)
CS (2 times)
2007 Ethanol-exposed neonatal rats are impaired as adults in classical eyeblink conditioning at multiple unconditioned stimulus intensities.
30  underreplication
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
aa (1 time)
endo-S (1 time)
SUUR (1 time)
1992 The molecular through ecological genetics of abnormal abdomen. IV. Components of genetic variation in a natural population of Drosophila mercatorum.
31  unrestricted
(4 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
CR (1 time)
FO (1 time)
HFLC (1 time)
2006 Caloric restriction in C57BL/6J mice mimics therapeutic fasting in humans.
32  upfront resection
(4 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
NAT (2 times)
CIs (1 time)
CSS (1 time)
2017 Neoadjuvant Therapy Followed by Resection Versus Upfront Resection for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.
33  uphill running
(4 times)
Sports Medicine
(3 times)
DR (3 times)
LR (3 times)
BLa (1 time)
2007 Muscle activities of the lower limb during level and uphill running.
34  urachal remnant
(4 times)
Pediatrics
(2 times)
LA (1 time)
OA (1 time)
1996 Urachal remnants: sonographic assessment.
35  urinary recovery
(4 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
AUC (1 time)
CLR (1 time)
ddI (1 time)
1983 Pharmacokinetics of imipenem in healthy volunteers.
36  usual rehabilitation
(4 times)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
BMI (1 time)
ES (1 time)
IMR (1 time)
2006 Improvement in quadriceps strength and dyspnea in daily tasks after 1 month of electrical stimulation in severely deconditioned and malnourished COPD.
37  ultradistal radius
(3 times)
Science
(1 time)
BMD (3 times)
DXA (2 times)
ALP (1 time)
2003 Long-term follow-up of bone mineral density in Addison's disease.
38  ultraviolet radiation
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
AFM (1 time)
DMF (1 time)
EE (1 time)
1985 [Ultraviolet radiation (UR) of living room sunlight and its biological effects].
39  unaffected relatives
(3 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
HC (3 times)
BD (2 times)
CT (1 time)
2019 Associations and Heritability of Auditory Encoding, Gray Matter, and Attention in Schizophrenia.
40  underrepresented
(3 times)
Science
(2 times)
CNV (1 time)
MSIs (1 time)
TGCs (1 time)
0 Fine-Tuning Summer Research Programs to Promote Underrepresented Students' Persistence in the STEM Pathway.
41  unilateral resection
(3 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
BR (3 times)
AHCVR (1 time)
BH (1 time)
1979 Decreased exercise hyperpnea in patients with bilateral carotid chemoreceptor resection.
42  unique region
(3 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CMV (2 times)
MIE (2 times)
CDP (1 time)
2005 The unique region of surrogate light chain component lambda5 is a heavy chain-specific regulator of precursor B cell receptor signaling.
43  unit response
(3 times)
Audiology
(3 times)
CAP (2 times)
AUCD (1 time)
CDLD (1 time)
1980 Deconvolution of compound action potentials and nonlinear features of the PST histogram.
44  universal reporter
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DoE (1 time)
MP (1 time)
MP PCR (1 time)
2007 Stem-loop probe with universal reporter for sensing unlabeled nucleic acids.
45  University of Rwanda
(3 times)
Zoology
(1 time)
DFGF (1 time)
EBCRs (1 time)
HRH (1 time)
2018 A Case Study Optimizing Human Resources in Rwanda's First Dental School: Three Innovative Management Tools.
46  unoccupied repeat
(3 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
BS (1 time)
ev (1 time)
HYB (1 time)
1990 Molecular analysis of endogenous virus ev21-slow feathering complex of chickens. 1. Cloning of proviral-cell junction fragment and unoccupied integration site.
47  unplanned reoperation
(3 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ACS-NSQIP (2 times)
ASA (1 time)
FTR (1 time)
2014 Predictors and causes of unplanned re-operations in outpatient plastic surgery: a multi-institutional analysis of 6749 patients using the 2011 NSQIP database.
48  untranslated region
(3 times)
Virology
(1 time)
HCV (1 time)
LiPA (1 time)
MHV (1 time)
1994 Coronavirus translational regulation: leader affects mRNA efficiency.
49  untwisting rate
(3 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
LV (3 times)
BR (1 time)
EF (1 time)
2007 Left ventricular untwisting rate by speckle tracking echocardiography.
50  upper right
(3 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
LR (2 times)
UL (2 times)
BDR (1 time)
2014 Changes in positive end-expiratory pressure alter the distribution of ventilation within the lung immediately after birth in newborn rabbits.
51  uranaffin reaction
(3 times)
Dermatology
(1 time)
NS (2 times)
CEA (1 time)
CT (1 time)
1986 Staining of Merkel cells of pig snout epidermis using the uranaffin reaction. Morphometric analysis of neuroendocrine granules.
52  urban rich
(3 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
EIB (3 times)
UP (3 times)
CI (2 times)
1997 Exercise induced bronchospasm in Ghana: differences in prevalence between urban and rural schoolchildren.
53  urgent revascularization
(3 times)
Therapeutics
(1 time)
MI (2 times)
ESSENCE (1 time)
GPI (1 time)
1996 Urgent revascularization of liver allografts after early hepatic artery thrombosis.
54  use ratio
(3 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
M-TURP (2 times)
anterior lobe (1 time)
CIMT (1 time)
2013 The Effect of Modified TURP (M-TURP) in Intra and Postoperative Complications.
55  ubiquitous receptor
(2 times)
Science
(1 time)
CAT (1 time)
hRXR alpha (1 time)
LXRalpha (1 time)
1994 Ubiquitous receptor: a receptor that modulates gene activation by retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors.
56  Udmurt Republic
(2 times)
Gastrointestinal Diseases
(1 time)
--- 2007 [Comparative analysis of tuberculosis morbidity trends in the penitentiary and civil health care systems of the Udmurt Republic over 10 years].
57  ultra-red light
(2 times)
Dermatology
(1 time)
GABA (1 time)
IR-AVP (1 time)
1985 [Effects of infrared and UVA rays on the human skin and their efficacy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis].
58  UncertRadio
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
--- 2016 Generalized evaluation of environmental radioactivity measurements with UncertRadio. Part I: Methods without linear unfolding.
59  unconditional reflexes
(2 times)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
EB (1 time)
US (1 time)
1987 Pavlov's conceptualization of unconditional reflexes, or instincts, within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.
60  underestimation rate
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
MR (2 times)
FEA (1 time)
FU (1 time)
2013 Flat epithelial atypia: comparison between 9-gauge and 11-gauge devices.
61  underreporting rate
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
AF (1 time)
CDHC (1 time)
CHC (1 time)
2018 The gap between cause-of-death statistics and Household Registration reports in Shandong, China during 2011-2013: Evaluation and adjustment for underreporting in the mortality data for 262 subcounty level populations.
62  understory removal
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
ACp (1 time)
CA (1 time)
EOC (1 time)
2011 Forest soil CO2 fluxes as a function of understory removal and N-fixing species addition.
63  unfilled resin
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
HF (2 times)
EMX (1 time)
EST (1 time)
2013 The impact of hydrofluoric acid etching followed by unfilled resin on the biaxial strength of a glass-ceramic.
64  unit risk
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
BaP (1 time)
DEPs (1 time)
PAHs (1 time)
1999 Meta-analysis of rat lung tumors from lifetime inhalation of diesel exhaust.
65  universal rotation
(2 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
PP (1 time)
RF (1 time)
2012 Exploring the limits of broadband 90 and 180 universal rotation pulses.
66  University of Rochester
(2 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
FSHD1 (1 time)
kb (1 time)
SVR (1 time)
2013 Coats syndrome in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy type 1: frequency and D4Z4 contraction size.
67  University Restaurant
(2 times)
Food
(1 time)
FV (1 time)
2018 Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables by Low-Income Brazilian Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.
68  unrelated individuals
(2 times)
Jurisprudence
(1 time)
FS (1 time)
FSI (1 time)
HS (1 time)
2009 [Application of ITO method and discriminant functions in full sibling and half sibling identification].
69  unreliability region
(2 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
BFRs (1 time)
DL (1 time)
FI (1 time)
2008 Bromine determination in polymers by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its potential for fast first screening of brominated flame retardants in polymers and paintings.
70  unresisted
(2 times)
Physical Fitness
(1 time)
WS (3 times)
WV (1 time)
2010 The longitudinal effects of resisted sprint training using weighted sleds vs. weighted vests.
71  unrestrained
(2 times)
Traumatology
(1 time)
--- 1989 Patterns of maxillofacial injuries in restrained and unrestrained motor vehicle crash victims.
72  up regulation
(2 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
DR (2 times)
CC (1 time)
CDM (1 time)
2009 Proliferation and bystander suppression induced by membrane and flagellar antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi.
73  up-regulated
(2 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
DR (2 times)
DE (1 time)
GO (1 time)
2014 Microarray analysis of gene expression in parthenotes and invitro-derived goat embryos.
74  upland rice
(2 times)
Botany
(2 times)
ABA (1 time)
PEG (1 time)
2015 Variation and impact of drought-stress patterns across upland rice target population of environments in Brazil.
75  upper reaches
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
BJD (1 time)
d-excess (1 time)
GBS (1 time)
2012 Origins of groundwater inferred from isotopic patterns of the Badain Jaran Desert, northwestern China.
76  upper rectal cancer
(2 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
LR (1 time)
M-LR (1 time)
SC (1 time)
1998 Total mesorectal excision is not necessary for cancers of the upper rectum.
77  upper rectum
(2 times)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
LR (2 times)
BFS (1 time)
DC (1 time)
1999 Comparison of two abdominal training devices with an abdominal crunch using strength and EMG measurements.
78  upper respiratory
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
BASE (1 time)
BRS (1 time)
GI (1 time)
2008 Outdoor ozone and building-related symptoms in the BASE study.
79  upright
(2 times)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
BLESP (1 time)
ES (1 time)
KN (1 time)
2011 Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is impaired in older patients with dysphagia.
80  upright row
(2 times)
Sports Medicine
(1 time)
AP (1 time)
BP (1 time)
ES (1 time)
2013 Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.
81  urban residential
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
AW (1 time)
C/S (1 time)
DET (1 time)
2013 Biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to the herbicide terbuthylazine in agriculture workers and in the general population using urine and hair specimens.
82  urban runoff
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
NP (1 time)
2016 Quality of urban runoff in wet and dry seasons: a case study in a semi-arid zone.
83  Urea rebound
(2 times)
Nephrology
(1 time)
HD (2 times)
nPCR (1 time)
UKM (1 time)
2000 Effects of postdialysis urea rebound on the quantification of pediatric hemodialysis.
84  uremic patients
(2 times)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
CON (1 time)
CRF (1 time)
CRP (1 time)
1999 Hemodialysis-related lymphomononuclear release of interleukin-12 in patients with end-stage renal disease.
85  ureteral reimplant
(2 times)
Male Urogenital Diseases
(2 times)
BBD (1 time)
HRQoL (1 time)
ICCS (1 time)
2011 Quality of life in children with vesicoureteral reflux as perceived by children and parents.
86  urethral reconstruction
(2 times)
Urology
(2 times)
AIS (1 time)
BMG (1 time)
ISS (1 time)
2012 Urethral reconstruction using buccal mucosa or penile skin grafts: systematic review and meta-analysis.
87  urine replacement
(2 times)
Transplantation
(1 time)
URC (2 times)
DAMPs (1 time)
DBD (1 time)
2020 Urine Recirculation Improves Hemodynamics and Enhances Function in Normothermic Kidney Perfusion.
88  urologists
(2 times)
Epidemiology
(1 time)
ATTEND (1 time)
ONC (1 time)
PSA (1 time)
2001 Retrospective classification of prostate-specific antigen tests: differentiating screening from diagnostic clinical encounters.
89  urology residents
(2 times)
Urology
(1 time)
BMU (1 time)
DUC (1 time)
US (1 time)
2010 The approach to the difficult urethral catheterization among urology residents in the United States.
90  usage range
(2 times)
Neurosurgery
(1 time)
TTS (2 times)
AI (1 time)
C-C (1 time)
2011 The effect of pulse width and contact configuration on paresthesia coverage in spinal cord stimulation.
91  feed-restricted U animals
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
REF (1 time)
2016 Early postnatal feed restriction reduces liver connective tissue levels and affects H3K9 acetylation state of regulated genes associated with protein metabolism in low birth weight pigs.
92  follow-up, whereas segments with SWT
(1 time)
Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular
(1 time)
CI (1 time)
CMR (1 time)
CTO (1 time)
2010 Contractile reserve in segments with nontransmural infarction in chronic dysfunctional myocardium using low-dose dobutamine CMR.
93  LNCaP-unresponsive
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
NE (1 time)
2004 Androgen signaling and post-transcriptional downregulation of Bcl-2 in androgen-unresponsive prostate cancer.
94  MHC-unrestricted
(1 time)
Virology
(1 time)
HIV (1 time)
MHC (1 time)
PBMC (1 time)
1999 High major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted lysis of simian immunodeficiency virus envelope-expressing cells predisposes macaques to rapid AIDS progression.
95  renal uptake
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
PR (2 times)
ER (1 time)
2012 The role of the kidney in the systemic elimination of interleukin 6, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta.
96  U-shape wrapping the timber element
(1 time)
--- 2017 Experimental Comparison of Different Carbon Fiber Composites in Reinforcement Layouts for Wooden Beams of Historical Buildings.
97  ulna and radius
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
DP (1 time)
2019 Automatic Segmentation of Ulna and Radius in Forearm Radiographs.
98  ultimate responders
(1 time)
Psychology
(1 time)
ENR (1 time)
ER (1 time)
GMM (1 time)
2011 The heterogeneity of antipsychotic response in the treatment of schizophrenia.
99  Ultra Rice
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
FOS (1 time)
FP (1 time)
RBV (1 time)
2013 Iron bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with fortified rice by Ultra Rice technology with or without addition of yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius).
100  Ultra-rush
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
LLR (1 time)
SR (1 time)
VIT (1 time)
2019 Venom Immunotherapy: a 20-year experience with an ultra-rush protocol (210-min).