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Abbreviation: cDNA
Appearance Frequency: 2292 time(s)
Long forms: 57

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
complementary DNA
(2028 times)
Molecular Biology
(286 times)
mRNA (273 times)
PCR (138 times)
RT-PCR (114 times)
1975 Complexity of cytoplasmic RNA in different mouse tissues measured by hybridization of polyadenylated RNA to complementary DNA.
complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
(146 times)
Molecular Biology
(18 times)
mRNA (36 times)
PCR (15 times)
RNA (15 times)
1977 The syntheiss of high yields of full-length reverse transcripts of globin mRNA.
copy DNA
(20 times)
Botany
(6 times)
mRNA (3 times)
PCR (2 times)
RT (2 times)
1981 Sea urchin tube feet: unique structures that allow a cytological and molecular approach to the study of actin and its gene expression.
capture DNA
(13 times)
Biotechnology
(8 times)
tDNA (6 times)
ECL (4 times)
pDNA (3 times)
2010 Electrochemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots as labels at nanoporous gold leaf electrodes for ultrasensitive DNA analysis.
copy deoxyribonucleic acid
(7 times)
Microbiological Phenomena
(1 time)
AIDS (1 time)
apo (1 time)
BDNF (1 time)
1987 Screening of a bovine genomic library for myosin heavy-chain genes.
complementary strand
(5 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
dsDNA (2 times)
LCs (1 time)
MNPs (1 time)
2010 Using liquid crystals to detect DNA hybridization on polymeric surfaces with continuous wavy features.
aptamer-complementary DNA
(4 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
EIS (2 times)
CD (1 time)
dsDNA (1 time)
2008 Aptamer-based electrochemical sensors with aptamer-complementary DNA oligonucleotides as probe.
circular DNA
(4 times)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
ELISA (1 time)
ESCC (1 time)
hFIX (1 time)
2009 Eliminating bacteria backbone of naked DNA enhanced hFIX expression and reduced inflammatory response in mice.
complementary target DNA
(4 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
ssDNA (2 times)
ECL (1 time)
Fc (1 time)
2008 Detection of mismatched DNA on partially negatively charged diamond surfaces by optical and potentiometric methods.
10  circulating DNA
(3 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
CRP (1 time)
HLA-DR (1 time)
N/L (1 time)
2011 Increased levels of circulating DNA in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases: A possible marker of disease activity in Sjogren's syndrome.
11  complementary single-stranded DNA
(3 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
EIS (3 times)
CV (2 times)
DPV (2 times)
2007 A DNA electrochemical sensor based on nanogold-modified poly-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid film and detection of PAT gene fragment.
12  cyclic DNA
(3 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
ACLs (1 time)
ATC (1 time)
OEATC-1 (1 time)
2003 Preproglucagon mRNA expression in adult rat submandibular glands.
13  cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression
(2 times)
Biology
(2 times)
dnd (2 times)
PGC (2 times)
RM (1 time)
2017 Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.
14  complementary DNA fragments
(2 times)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
P. aeruginosa (1 time)
SERS (1 time)
ssDNA (1 time)
2008 Multisegment nanowire sensors for the detection of DNA molecules.
15  complementary minor DNA
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
pDNA (1 time)
PL (1 time)
PO (1 time)
2009 Optical antisense tumor targeting in vivo with an improved fluorescent DNA duplex probe.
16  copy of their DNA
(2 times)
LTR (2 times)
2015 The Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
17  corresponding DNA
(2 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
MDCK (1 time)
RT-PCR (1 time)
1995 Expression of a renal Na/Pi cotransporter (NaPi-1) in MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells.
18  cytoplasmic DNA
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
bHLH (1 time)
EB (1 time)
THC (1 time)
1979 Effect of tetrahydrocannabinol and ethidium bromide on DNA metabolism and embryogenesis in Volvox.
19  DNA copy
(2 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
DSB (1 time)
mRNAs (1 time)
RNase (1 time)
1974 In situ localization of globin messenger RNA formation. I. During mouse fetal liver development.
20  C mu and C gamma V gene
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1995 Evidence for the overexpression of the VH4-34 (VH4.21) Ig gene segment in the normal adult human peripheral blood B cell repertoire.
21  C-dots served as a label for the complementary oligonucleotide
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
beta-LG (1 time)
C-dots (1 time)
2017 Aptamer based fluorometric beta-lactoglobulin assay based on the use of magnetic nanoparticles and carbon dots.
22  capacity for interpreting vertebrate genomic and transcript
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
--- 1999 Computational methods for the identification of differential and coordinated gene expression.
23  carrier DNA
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
ET-1 (1 time)
ETA (1 time)
HO-1 (1 time)
2003 Intragraft gene expression profiles by cDNA microarray in small-for-size liver grafts.
24  cells have been estimated by in situ hybridization of DNA copy
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
DMSO (1 time)
mRNA (1 time)
1974 In situ localization of globin messenger RNA formation. II. After treatment of Friend virus-transformed mouse cells with dimethyl sulfoxide.
25  channels were found in venoms or mRNA
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
CRISP-Vs (1 time)
CRISPs (1 time)
2009 Cysteine-rich venom proteins from the snakes of Viperinae subfamily - molecular cloning and phylogenetic relationship.
26  characterization of a gamma-3 hordein mRNA
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
qRT (1 time)
2004 Cloning and characterization of a gamma-3 hordein mRNA (cDNA) from Hordeum chilense (Roem. et Schult.).
27  Characterization of two different genes
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
--- 1988 Characterization of two different genes (cDNA) for cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa from heart and liver of the rat.
28  chromosomal DNA
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
LPS (1 time)
PMMA (1 time)
1997 X-ray microscopy and imaging of Escherichia coli, LPS and DNA.
29  clearly enhanced when the target DNA
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 2018 The detection of a mismatched DNA by using hairpin DNA-templated silver nanoclusters.
30  cloned both as a DNA copy
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 1982 The human fibroblast and human immune interferon genes and their expression in homologous and heterologous cells.
31  cloned DNAs complementary
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
DBH (1 time)
mRNAs (1 time)
PNMT (1 time)
1984 Molecular biology of catecholamine neurons. Similar gene hypothesis.
32  co-expressed, since mRNA
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
aa (1 time)
IR (1 time)
nt (1 time)
1989 Aspergillus oryzae has two nearly identical Taka-amylase genes, each containing eight introns.
33  coding DNA
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
CHAPS (1 time)
mRNA (1 time)
RT-PCR (1 time)
2008 Purification, molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of pig CYP1A2.
34  coding region for application to either DNA or mRNA
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
SNPs (1 time)
2015 Allele Quantification Pyrosequencing at Designated SNP Sites to Detect Allelic Expression Imbalance and Loss-of-Heterozygosity.
35  combine most of the advantages of very long
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
--- 2002 Historical background and anticipated developments.
36  combined DNA- and RNA
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
--- 2014 The bacterial microbiota of Stolotermes ruficeps (Stolotermitidae), a phylogenetically basal termite endemic to New Zealand.
37  compared mRNA
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
SSH (1 time)
UBCEP-1 (1 time)
2005 A novel component of the ubiquitin pathway, ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein 1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer.
38  comparing RT-PCR products
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
ADPN (1 time)
IVS (1 time)
2013 Coding region of adiponectin contains a silent intron reactivated by the adjacent intervening sequence of vector.
39  comparison of its rabbit orthologous DNA complementary to RNA
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
BFIC (1 time)
ICCA (1 time)
2002 New human sodium/glucose cotransporter gene (KST1): identification, characterization, and mutation analysis in ICCA (infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis) and BFIC (benign familial infantile convulsions) families.
40  competitive DNA
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
cRNA (1 time)
cRT-PCR (1 time)
2007 [Quantification of class 1 integrase gene expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm].
41  competitive reassociation and EST
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
EST (1 time)
IGCR (1 time)
2003 Screening of gene-associated polymorphisms by use of in-gel competitive reassociation and EST (cDNA) array hybridization.
42  complementary 21-mer oligonucleotide
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
DPV (1 time)
GCE (1 time)
MB (1 time)
2007 A new scheme of hybridization based on the Au(nano)-DNA modified glassy carbon electrode.
43  complementary DNA copy
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1976 The synthesis and properties of the complete complementary DNA transcript of ovalbumin mRNA.
44  complementary DNA probes
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
--- 1978 Hormonal control of mRNA synthesis studied by nucleic acid hybridization.
45  complementary DNA sequences
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
MB (1 time)
SCF (1 time)
2012 Molecular beacons immobilized within suspended core optical fiber for specific DNA detection.
46  complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotides
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1988 Identification of defined sequences in domain V of E. coli 23S rRNA in the 50S subunit accessible for hybridization with complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotides.
47  complementary strand of human telomeric DNA
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
DNA-GNPs (1 time)
FRET (1 time)
2012 Identifying G-quadruplex-binding ligands using DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles.
48  complementary to the isolated mRNAs
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
pmRNA (1 time)
1979 Protamine messenger RNA: partial purification and characterization of a heterogeneous family of polyadenylated messenger components.
49  concentrations of standard mRNA
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
RT-PCR (1 time)
TCR (1 time)
1993 Quantitative measurement of human T-cell receptor V beta subfamilies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using synthetic internal mRNA standards.
50  constructed a multicomplementary DNA
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
Tet (1 time)
2009 A versatile nonviral vector system for tetracycline-dependent one-step conditional induction of transgene expression.
51  containing DNA complementary
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1984 Cloning of DNA complementary to rat liver fatty acid synthetase mRNA.
52  Contrary to DNA, mono-, oligoclonal RNA
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
MS (1 time)
TCR (1 time)
2001 Limited pattern of TCR delta chain gene rearrangement on the RNA level in multiple sclerosis.
53  contrast, tumor formation never occurred at sites of FRTL
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
PTCs (1 time)
TTF-1 (1 time)
2013 Concurrent overexpression of RET/PTC1 and TTF1 confers tumorigenicity to thyrocytes.
54  correspond to the most abundant Hydrolagus spleen
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
IgH (1 time)
1998 Distinct patterns of IgH structure and organization in a divergent lineage of chrondrichthyan fishes.
55  creation of a DNA copy of the desired message
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
IL-2 (1 time)
mRNA (1 time)
PCR (1 time)
1990 Amplification, detection, and automated sequencing of gibbon interleukin-2 mRNA by Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction.
56  genomic-complementary DNA
(1 time)
Genetics, Medical
(1 time)
HGF (1 time)
HUVEC (1 time)
VEGF (1 time)
2010 Naked DNA expressing two isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor induces collateral artery augmentation in a rabbit model of limb ischemia.
57  oligo-complementary DNA
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
mRNA (1 time)
NSHD (1 time)
TGF (1 time)
1995 Transforming growth factor beta 1 messenger RNA in Reed-Sternberg cells in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease.