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Abbreviation: rat
Appearance Frequency: 189 time(s)
Long forms: 177

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Rattus norvegicus
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
6-MSA (1 time)
BaP (1 time)
BMP-2 (1 time)
1982 Nucleotide sequence of Rattus norvegicus mitochondrial DNA that includes the genes for tRNAile, tRNAgln and tRNAf-met.
Rattus
(2 times)
Anatomy
(1 time)
--- 1987 Immunological relationships between Artemia RNA polymerases and between RNA polymerases II from different eukaryotic organisms.
recombinant
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
CD (1 time)
CYP1B1 (1 time)
SCR (1 time)
2000 Roles of NADPH-P450 reductase in the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin by recombinant human cytochrome P450 1B1 variants in Escherichia coli.
retina
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
RGCs (1 time)
2011 During glaucoma, alpha2-macroglobulin accumulates in aqueous humor and binds to nerve growth factor, neutralizing neuroprotection.
A1-receptors and with 1800-fold
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
--- 1997 Synthesis and biological evaluation of the enantiomers of the potent and selective A1-adenosine antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-[2-(5,6-epoxynorbonyl)]-xanthine.
ADP-ribose on isolated heart of frog and warm-blooded animal
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
ADP-ribose (1 time)
cADP-ribose (1 time)
2006 [ADP-ribose and cADP-ribose--endogenous regulators of cellular ionic balance. Cardiotropic effects of ADP-ribose].
afferents and cortico-tectal efferents of the mammalian
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
--- 1985 Development of cortical afferents and cortico-tectal efferents of the mammalian (rat) primary visual cortex.
cross-reacts with mammalian
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1998 Immunological detection of ecto-ATPase in chicken and rat tissues: characterization, distribution, and a cautionary note.
down-regulation of Fyn expression in a granulosa cell line
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
miR (1 time)
2015 A novel regulatory pathway in granulosa cells, the LH/human chorionic gonadotropin-microRNA-125a-3p-Fyn pathway, is required for ovulation.
10  dynorphin-related neuropeptides from spinal astrocytes
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 2013 Spinal astrocytes produce and secrete dynorphin neuropeptides.
11  fos-related antigens Fra-1
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
--- 1990 Isolation and characterization of fra-2, an additional member of the fos gene family.
12  gene-related peptide
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
CGRP (1 time)
1985 Central nervous system actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide on gastric acid secretion in the rat.
13  gene-related peptide 28-37
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
CGRP (1 time)
IAS (1 time)
1990 [Tyr0]-calcitonin gene-related peptide 28-37 (rat) as a putative antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide responses on opossum internal anal sphincter smooth muscle.
14  Gray-type-I and type-II synapses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
(1 time)
Brain
(1 time)
SCN (1 time)
1978 Retinal afferents form Gray-type-I and type-II synapses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (rat).
15  inhibitor at these nicotinic receptors
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
nAChRs (1 time)
PTX (1 time)
2004 Picrotoxin-mediated antagonism of alpha3beta4 and alpha7 acetylcholine receptors.
16  mole-rat as well as from epigeic mammals
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 2019 Brain atlas of the African mole-rat Fukomys anselli.
17  N-ras oncogenes although exogenous
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
BPL (1 time)
DMCC (1 time)
MMS (1 time)
1985 Carcinogen specificity in the activation of transforming genes by direct-acting alkylating agents.
18  organic anion transporters oatpl
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
--- 1997 Substrate specificity of sinusoidal bile acid and organic anion uptake systems in rat and human liver.
19  organic anion transporting polypeptides oatpl
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
--- 1996 Sinusoidal (basolateral) bile salt uptake systems of hepatocytes.
20  rabbit anti-MAG
(1 time)
Chemistry
(1 time)
MAG (1 time)
1982 Myelin-associated glycoprotein is the antigen for a monoclonal IgM in polyneuropathy.
21  rabbits showed that toxic
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1976 Pre-clinical toxicological studies with muzolimine.
22  rabbits with heterologous
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
--- 1984 Decreased ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in rabbit lymphocytes during experimental lens-induced uveitis.
23  Radiation damage of the brain
(1 time)
Radiotherapy
(1 time)
--- 1973 [Radiation damage of the brain (rat) in the postnatal period].
24  radioactivity were present in the liver
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 1979 Studies on the absorption, distribution and elimination of 6-o-chlorophenyl-2,4-dihydro-2(N-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methylene-8-nitro-1H-imidazo[1,2-a] [1,4]benzodiazepin-1-one methanesulphonate in the male rat and rabbit.
25  raised a vigorous T cell response both to 65-kDa self
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
DDA (1 time)
DIA (1 time)
LEW (1 time)
2005 Heat shock protein 65-reactive T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of non-antigenic dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide-induced arthritis.
26  raised to the tumor-secreted phosphoprotein
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 1988 Secreted phosphoproteins associated with neoplastic transformation: close homology with plasma proteins cleaved during blood coagulation.
27  Rana castabiena, were compared to those of a mammalian system
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 1998 Metabolic adaptations of a lower vertebrate to long-term hypothermic hypoxia provide clues to successful clinical liver preservation.
28  range up to approximately 0.5-1 Hz
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
CaM (1 time)
FFR (1 time)
SERCA2a (1 time)
2004 Force-frequency relationship in intact mammalian ventricular myocardium: physiological and pathophysiological relevance.
29  rapid temperature jumps in intact mammalian
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
T-jumps (1 time)
2003 Force generation induced by rapid temperature jumps in intact mammalian (rat) skeletal muscle fibres.
30  rapidly than that to the homologous
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
AChR (1 time)
EAMG (1 time)
1980 Lymphocyte responsiveness to acetylcholine receptor in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.
31  rat and dog urine were the 2- and 8-hydroxy analogs
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
a,d (1 time)
1983 Disposition and metabolism of (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine in rats, dogs, and monkeys.
32  rat ANF 103-123: 1.0
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
ANF (1 time)
1991 Different inhibitory potencies of various ANF-analogues in the isolated aorta from four rodent species.
33  rat ANF 99-126: 2.6
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
ANF (1 time)
1991 Different inhibitory potencies of various ANF-analogues in the isolated aorta from four rodent species.
34  rat cellular gene, c-mos
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
M-MSV (1 time)
1982 Molecularly cloned c-mos(rat) is biologically active.
35  rat embryos were cultured in homologous
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
HA (1 time)
WEC (1 time)
1993 Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of citrinin using Hydra attenuata and postimplantation rat whole embryo culture.
36  rat home cage
(1 time)
Behavior
(1 time)
TPH2 (1 time)
2014 Chronic exposure to a predator or its scent does not inhibit male-male competition in male mice lacking brain serotonin.
37  rat liver cytosol nor purified GSH transferase
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
--- 2006 Limited reactivity of formyl chloride with glutathione and relevance to metabolism and toxicity of dichloromethane.
38  rat organotypic cultures incorporate and clear host
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
IgG (1 time)
2009 Cerebellar Purkinje cells incorporate immunoglobulins and immunotoxins in vitro: implications for human neurological disease and immunotherapeutics.
39  rat pial arterioles in vivo, and with incomplete cerebral ischemia model
(1 time)
Complementary Therapies
(1 time)
--- 1993 Increased plasma endothelin-1 concentration in patients with acute cerebral infarction and actions of endothelin-1 on pial arterioles of rat.
40  rat/human uPA, and PA-III
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
CM (1 time)
GR (1 time)
IGF-I (1 time)
1997 Growth factors mediate glucocorticoid receptor function and dexamethasone-induced regression of osteoblastic lesions in hormone refractory prostate cancer.
41  rate constants for the distribution and elimination of the enzymes
(1 time)
Laboratory Techniques and Procedures
(1 time)
--- 1977 Release of enzymes from cells: transport and distribution within the extracellular space.
42  rate of resorption
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
NK (1 time)
TNF (1 time)
1998 Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA-positive cells in spontaneous resorption in rodents.
43  rather than modeling
(1 time)
Bone Diseases
(1 time)
2AMD (1 time)
2MD (1 time)
2014 The development of a bone- and parathyroid-specific analog of vitamin D: 2-methylene-19-Nor-(20S)-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
44  ratios of 70-280
(1 time)
Antineoplastic Agents
(1 time)
IVBD (1 time)
MPD (1 time)
s.c (1 time)
2018 Continuous low-dose infusion of patupilone increases the therapeutic index in mouse and rat tumour models.
45  rats and mice and examined DC in pseudoafferent lymph
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
DCs (1 time)
ilDCs (1 time)
MLNs (1 time)
2006 Regulation of intestinal dendritic cell migration and activation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, TNF-alpha and type 1 IFNs after feeding a TLR7/8 ligand.
46  rats suppressed for native
(1 time)
Transplantation
(1 time)
EPO (1 time)
2008 Generation of a transplantable erythropoietin-producer derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.
47  rats to self
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1991 In vitro unresponsiveness to autologous sequences of the immunopathogenic autoantigen, S-antigen.
48  rats was higher than that of mammalian
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CGRP (1 time)
rCT (1 time)
sCT (1 time)
2000 Amylin receptors mediate the anorectic action of salmon calcitonin (sCT).
49  rats with a peptide of self
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
AA (1 time)
Bhsp65 (1 time)
LEW (1 time)
2008 Regulation of autoimmune arthritis by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma.
50  rats with self
(1 time)
Immune System Diseases
(1 time)
AA (1 time)
HSPs (1 time)
JIA (1 time)
2016 Modulation of Adjuvant Arthritis by Cellular and Humoral Immunity to Hsp65.
51  rats, has been shown to inhibit thyroid activity both in vivo
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 1981 Use of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of L-tyrosine to assess antithyroid activity of a factor present in certain tissues of mammals.
52  re-development were examined in intact mammalian
(1 time)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
--- 2001 The effects of ramp stretches on active contractions in intact mammalian fast and slow muscle fibres.
53  re-uptake inhibitor
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
PET (1 time)
SERT (1 time)
2002 Synthesis of a fluorine-18-labelled derivative of 6-nitroquipazine, as a radioligand for the in vivo serotonin transporter imaging with PET.
54  reacted with anti-HTLV-I envelope monoclonal antibody
(1 time)
Laboratory Techniques and Procedures
(1 time)
HTLV-I (1 time)
1993 Simple assay system for detecting human T cell leukemia virus type I-binding cells and its application in titrating binding inhibitory antibodies.
55  reacted with homologous cysts
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1989 Antigenic conservation and variation in Giardia cysts from various vertebrate hosts.
56  reaction of mammalian
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
GFAP (1 time)
1995 Glial reactivity in the retina of adult rats.
57  reaction sequence leading to the formation and release of SRS-A
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1968 Antigen-induced release of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A rat) in rats prepared with homologous antibody.
58  reactive to xenoantigens
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CTL-P (1 time)
CTLs (1 time)
1977 Histocompatibility antigen-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. II. Estimates of the frequency and specificity of precursors.
59  readily produced in the experimental animal
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 1977 Lumbo-sacral radiculopathy induced by radiation.
60  reagin-like antibodies to CAP as detected by the heterologous
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
CAP (1 time)
CFA (1 time)
1976 Induction of cellular and humoral immunological responsiveness to a soluble cercarial antigen preparation from Schistosoma mansoni.
61  real-time polymerase chain reaction
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
IVD (1 time)
tRAS (1 time)
2013 Tissue renin-angiotensin system in the intervertebral disc.
62  receiving more than six weekly injections of partially purified homologous
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
MHC (1 time)
1985 In vivo prevention of thyroid and pancreatic autoimmunity in the BB rat by antibody to class II major histocompatibility complex gene products.
63  Recently we described the isolation of c-mos
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1984 Complete c-mos (rat) nucleotide sequence: presence of conserved domains in c-mos proteins.
64  receptor mRNA is decreased
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
CRF (1 time)
GH (1 time)
1994 The use of recombinant human growth hormone in short children with chronic renal failure.
65  receptors are their specificity for homologous
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1977 Receptors for C3 on rat peritoneal mast cells.
66  receptors including activation of: (1) myocardial 5-HT(2A)
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
CNS (1 time)
i.v (1 time)
2007 Cardiovascular responses produced by 5-hydroxytriptamine:a pharmacological update on the receptors/mechanisms involved and therapeutic implications.
67  receptors, with little-no affinity at 5-HT(4), 5-HT(6), alpha(1), and alpha(2)
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 2007 SLV313 (1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4- [5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine monohydrochloride): a novel dopamine D2 receptor antagonist and 5-HT1A receptor agonist potential antipsychotic drug.
68  recessive mutations fa
(1 time)
Science
(1 time)
db (1 time)
fa (1 time)
1991 Rat obesity gene fatty (fa) maps to chromosome 5: evidence for homology with the mouse gene diabetes (db).
69  recirculation
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1991 Lipolysis exposes unreactive endogenous apolipoprotein E-3 in human and rat plasma very low density lipoprotein.
70  recombinant GSH transferases in the the order
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
AFB1 (1 time)
1997 Conjugation of highly reactive aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide catalyzed by rat and human glutathione transferases: estimation of kinetic parameters.
71  Recombinant species-specific
(1 time)
Metabolism
(1 time)
GH (1 time)
IGF-1 (1 time)
PDLLA (1 time)
2002 Improvement of fracture healing by systemic administration of growth hormone and local application of insulin-like growth factor-1 and transforming growth factor-beta1.
72  recording artifact in a chronic tetanus toxin animal model
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
fPSPs (1 time)
2009 Seizure entrainment with polarizing low-frequency electric fields in a chronic animal epilepsy model.
73  recovered from an abnormal host
(1 time)
Parasitology
(1 time)
--- 1989 Studies on host specificity in Paragonimus westermani: II. Histochemical and cytochemical characterization of metacercariae and worms from rats and dogs.
74  reduced by intracerebroventricular administration of homologous
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
--- 1988 Evidence for the involvement of endogenous opioids in the inhibition of luteinizing hormone by corticotropin-releasing factor.
75  reestablishment of the equilibrium between the extra and intravascular compartments
(1 time)
Laboratory Techniques and Procedures
(1 time)
--- 1977 Release of enzymes from cells: transport and distribution within the extracellular space.
76  refractory animal
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 1966 [Experimental xanthomathosis induced by tween 80 and cholesterol in a "refractory" animal (rat) and the effects of peritoneal Speicherung on the distribution of thesaurisic phenomena in the organism].
77  regenerating cornea
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
--- 1969 [Histochemical investigations on the cholinesterase activity of the regenerating cornea (rat) after electrocauterization of the epithelium].
78  region from the mammalian
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
ACP (1 time)
FAS (1 time)
PKSs (1 time)
2003 The type I rat fatty acid synthase ACP shows structural homology and analogous biochemical properties to type II ACPs.
79  regions of a newly identified genetic
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
GAD (1 time)
1984 Alterations in cerebellar glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in a genetic model of torsion dystonia (rat).
80  regulations at various ages
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 1967 Ranges of heart rates and their regulations at various ages (rat).
81  related
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
EAE (1 time)
IL (1 time)
MOGs (1 time)
2009 Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by mouse, but not rat, antigens.
82  related murine species that, due to their altricial
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 1986 Hormones in perinatal rat and spiny mouse: relation to altricial and precocial timing of birth.
83  related species
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
--- 2013 BRANCH: boosting RNA-Seq assemblies with partial or related genomic sequences.
84  related to an inhibition
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
GI (1 time)
1988 Action of opiates on gastrointestinal function.
85  relation to arterial thrombosis
(1 time)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
--- 1983 Dietary-fat-induced changes in the formation of prostanoids of the 2 and 3 series in relation to arterial thrombosis (rat) and atherosclerosis (rabbit).
86  relative autoregulatory behavior was maintained
(1 time)
Cardiology
(1 time)
GP (1 time)
1994 Alteration of vascular endothelium and endothelium smooth muscle interaction after carbogen gas perfusion of isolated rat and guinea pig heart.
87  relatively digitalis-insensitive species
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
--- 1981 Do membrane lipids modify the ouabain-sensitivity of cardiac (Na,K)ATPase?
88  relaxation
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
--- 1984 Effect of histamine on aorta preparations of different species.
89  relaxed preparations, histamine either had no effect
(1 time)
Drug Therapy
(1 time)
--- 1984 Effect of histamine on aorta preparations of different species.
90  relaxin action in vertebrates
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
AC (1 time)
2008 [Adenylyl cyclase signaling mechanisms of the insulin superfamily peptide action and their impairment in myometrium of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes].
91  relaxivities in water and in blood
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
--- 2001 Mixed micelles containing lipophilic gadolinium complexes as MRA contrast agents.
92  release of histamine and SRS-A
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
--- 1968 Antigen-induced release of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A rat) in rats prepared with homologous antibody.
93  released, it activated both syngeneic
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
MAF (1 time)
1976 In vitro activation of mouse macrophages by rat lymphocyte mediators.
94  relevant for the species used
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
DRG (1 time)
SJs (1 time)
SNL (1 time)
2010 mRNA-seq with agnostic splice site discovery for nervous system transcriptomics tested in chronic pain.
95  renal excretion amounted to 6-14
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
--- 1986 Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin. 1st communication: absorption, concentrations in plasma, metabolism and excretion after a single administration of [14C]ciprofloxacin in albino rats and rhesus monkeys.
96  renal mineralization
(1 time)
Toxicology
(1 time)
--- 2014 Nonclinical safety of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin.
97  render cells of a heterologous species
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
mAb (1 time)
MuIFN-gamma (1 time)
1986 Purification and further characterization of an anti-murine interferon-gamma monoclonal neutralizing antibody.
98  renin mRNA and either GAPDH mRNA
(1 time)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
--- 1996 Renin regulation in cultured proximal tubular cells.
99  renovascular hypertension
(1 time)
Nephrology
(1 time)
Cand (1 time)
COX (1 time)
PGES (1 time)
2006 Renal cortical regulation of COX-1 and functionally related products in early renovascular hypertension (rat).
100  repair was evaluated by employing an experimental animal
(1 time)
Allergy and Immunology
(1 time)
MOs (1 time)
PMNs (1 time)
1992 Potential role of heterologous collagen in promoting cutaneous wound repair in rats.