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Abbreviation: SPF
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Long forms: 172

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
specific pathogen-free
(1310 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(584 times)
GF (102 times)
IBDV (55 times)
ELISA (49 times)
1961 Swine repopulation. IV. Influence of management upon the growth of specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs.
S-phase fraction
(488 times)
Neoplasms
(270 times)
FCM (54 times)
DI (38 times)
PI (28 times)
1978 Subpopulations of breast carcinoma defined by S-phase fraction, morphology, and estrogen receptor content.
sun protection factor
(361 times)
Dermatology
(184 times)
UV (70 times)
UVR (24 times)
MED (18 times)
1968 Passive transfer of acquired resistance in mice to group B Arboviruses by serum protective factor(s) (SPF) independent of serum neutralizing antibody or interferon.
Supernatant protein factor
(21 times)
Biochemistry
(14 times)
alpha-TTP (4 times)
CRALBP (2 times)
PG (2 times)
1977 Purification and properties of a soluble protein activator of rat liver squalene epoxidase.
synthetic phase fraction
(19 times)
Pathology
(5 times)
PI (5 times)
PCNA (3 times)
EGFR (2 times)
1991 Multiparametric evaluation of flow cytometric synthesis phase fraction determination in dual-labelled breast carcinomas.
sphenopalatine foramen
(12 times)
Otolaryngology
(8 times)
FR (3 times)
PPF (3 times)
PC (2 times)
1998 Osteologic classification of the sphenopalatine foramen.
side-polished fiber
(11 times)
Ophthalmology
(8 times)
RH (2 times)
SA (2 times)
CD (1 time)
1997 Fabrication of a side-polished fiber polarizer with a biref ringent polymer overlay.
sustained pain free
(11 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
SNAE (5 times)
PF (4 times)
PR (4 times)
2005 Focus on trial endpoints of clinical relevance and the use of almotriptan for the acute treatment of migraine.
subparafascicular thalamic nucleus
(9 times)
Brain
(6 times)
DPB (3 times)
IC (3 times)
LC (3 times)
1988 Single thalamic dopaminergic neurons project to both the neocortex and spinal cord.
10  sodefrin precursor-like factor
(8 times)
Biology
(3 times)
PRF (4 times)
PMF (3 times)
ESTs (1 time)
2007 In situ localization of plethodontid courtship pheromone mRNA in formalin-fixed tissue.
11  Subarachnoid pleural fistula
(8 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
CSF (3 times)
MR (1 time)
NPPV (1 time)
2002 Massive pleural effusion as the presenting feature of a subarachnoid-pleural fistula.
12  S-phase cell fraction
(6 times)
Complementary Therapies
(2 times)
PI (3 times)
FCM (2 times)
AI (1 time)
2004 Cell apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocellular carcinoma after transarterial chemoembolization.
13  Safety Performance Function
(6 times)
Traumatology
(6 times)
AADT (1 time)
BCA (1 time)
CMFs (1 time)
2012 Measuring safety treatment effects using full Bayes non-linear safety performance intervention functions.
14  short PCR fragment
(5 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
HPV (4 times)
HR-HPV (2 times)
PCR (2 times)
1998 Novel short-fragment PCR assay for highly sensitive broad-spectrum detection of anogenital human papillomaviruses.
15  signed pressure force
(5 times)
Medical Informatics
(3 times)
ACWE (1 time)
LBF (1 time)
MR (1 time)
2014 Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous brain MR images using active contours.
16  suprofen
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
BSA (1 time)
BZP (1 time)
CAL (1 time)
1984 [Interaction of suprofen and serum albumin].
17  sweet potato flour
(5 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
AME (1 time)
GG (1 time)
RS (1 time)
1999 Accurate estimation of sweetpotato amylase activity by flour viscosity analysis.
18  simulated physiological fluid
(4 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
MBG (2 times)
PLA (2 times)
AFM (1 time)
1994 In vitro dynamic solubility test: influence of various parameters.
19  social production function
(4 times)
Health Services
(1 time)
QofL (1 time)
1997 Quality of life and social production functions: a framework for understanding health effects.
20  soluble pectin fraction
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
ATR (1 time)
DRIFTS (1 time)
FT-IR (1 time)
1980 Roles of phospholipid and detergent in soluble protein activation of squalene epoxidase.
21  soymilk pellet fraction
(4 times)
Natural Science Disciplines
(2 times)
SSF (3 times)
GDL (1 time)
HPLC (1 time)
2015 Coagulation of beta-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk.
22  spectrofluorimetry
(4 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(2 times)
CPE (3 times)
FAAS (2 times)
BMW (1 time)
1987 Spectrofluorometric determination of BAY Vp 2674 residues in poultry tissues.
23  Spherical Polar Fourier
(4 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(3 times)
EAP (3 times)
CS (1 time)
DW-MRI (1 time)
2010 3D-blast: 3D protein structure alignment, comparison, and classification using spherical polar Fourier correlations.
24  spinopelvic fixation
(4 times)
Orthopedics
(3 times)
PPRF (2 times)
ACF (1 time)
ASCF (1 time)
2013 Fixation techniques for complex traumatic transverse sacral fractures: a systematic review.
25  subparafascicular nucleus
(4 times)
Brain
(2 times)
PHA-L (2 times)
CM (1 time)
MPL (1 time)
1983 Efferent connections of the subfascicular area of the mesodiencephalic junction and its possible involvement in stimulation-produced analgesia.
26  synthetic polyurethane foam
(4 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
GAIS (1 time)
PVAS (1 time)
VAS (1 time)
2011 A prospective, randomized, single-blinded controlled trial on biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam as a packing material after septoplasty.
27  S-phase promoting factor
(3 times)
Cell Biology
(1 time)
cdks (2 times)
MPF (1 time)
1993 Two potentially oncogenic cyclins, cyclin A and cyclin D1, share common properties of subunit configuration, tyrosine phosphorylation and physical association with the Rb protein.
28  single-photon fluorescence
(3 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
TPF (2 times)
2008 Autofluorescence of epithelial tissue: single-photon versus two-photon excitation.
29  slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship
(3 times)
Psychophysiology
(3 times)
OSAS (2 times)
NC (1 time)
NEP (1 time)
2008 Puberty and upper airway dynamics during sleep.
30  Sorin Pericarbon Freedom
(3 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
AVR (1 time)
PG (1 time)
2012 The Sorin freedom stentless pericardial valve: clinical and echocardiographic performance at 10 years.
31  soy protein formula
(3 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
CM (1 time)
CMA (1 time)
HF (1 time)
1999 Feeding high-risk infants with family history of allergy.
32  specefic pathogen free
(3 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
bFGF (1 time)
DPN (1 time)
IGF1 (1 time)
2006 [Mechanism of Shenqi compound recipe anti-earlier diabetic artherosclerosis in GK rats].
33  spectrophotofluorometry
(3 times)
Toxicology
(3 times)
SPP (1 time)
1967 Spectra and analyses of insecticide synergists and related compounds containing the methylenedioxyphenyl group by spectrophotofluorometry (SPF) and spectrophotophosphorimetry (SPP).
34  standard preterm formula
(3 times)
Pediatrics
(3 times)
AAF (1 time)
eHF (1 time)
eHPF (1 time)
2012 Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.
35  standard prognostic factors
(3 times)
Hematology
(2 times)
CA (2 times)
amp1q21 (1 time)
CR (1 time)
2003 MDS-type abnormalities within myeloma signature karyotype (MM-MDS): only 13% 1-year survival despite tandem transplants.
36  Strategic Prevention Framework
(3 times)
Psychology
(2 times)
CSAP (1 time)
EBPIs (1 time)
ISF (1 time)
2012 The interactive systems framework applied to the strategic prevention framework: the Rhode Island experience.
37  Strelley Pool Formation
(3 times)
Biology
(3 times)
EPT (1 time)
LREE (1 time)
NanoSIMS (1 time)
2010 Stromatolites in the approximately 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia: examining biogenicity from the macro- to the nano-scale.
38  S-phase of the cell cycle
(2 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
ER (1 time)
1990 Flow cytometry in primary breast cancer: improving the prognostic value of the fraction of cells in the S-phase by optimal categorisation of cut-off levels.
39  satisfaction with physical function
(2 times)
Public Health
(1 time)
GMCB (1 time)
PT (1 time)
SE (1 time)
2008 Enhancing quality of life in older adults: a comparison of muscular strength and power training.
40  Scale of Protective Factors
(2 times)
Psychology
(1 time)
CD-RISC (1 time)
CD-RISC-10 (1 time)
CD-RISC-25 (1 time)
2016 Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors.
41  sedentary pair-fed
(2 times)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
(1 time)
EC (2 times)
EPF (2 times)
ET (2 times)
2011 Hypothalamic inflammation is reversed by endurance training in anorectic-cachectic rats.
42  sham-operated pair-fed with Nx
(2 times)
Nephrology
(1 time)
SAL (2 times)
CRF (1 time)
ECM (1 time)
2001 Collagen metabolism is markedly altered in the hypertrophic cartilage of growth plates from rats with growth impairment secondary to chronic renal failure.
43  single peritoneal flap
(2 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(1 time)
FSFI (2 times)
MRKH (2 times)
2015 Laparoscopic vaginoplasty using a single peritoneal flap: 10 years of experience in the creation of a neovagina in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.
44  slate processing fines
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
GMC (1 time)
2005 Initial tree establishment on blocky quarry waste ameliorated with hydrogel or slate processing fines.
45  sparfloxacin
(2 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
AAS (2 times)
CdTe QDs (1 time)
GTF (1 time)
2008 Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of some fluoroquinolone antibacterials using ammonium reineckate.
46  speaker's formant
(2 times)
Otolaryngology
(2 times)
LTAS (2 times)
BC (1 time)
BM (1 time)
2006 The speaker's formant.
47  specific pathogen-free conditions
(2 times)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
FISH (1 time)
GCS (1 time)
iNOS (1 time)
2005 Reduction of colitis by prebiotics in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is associated with microflora changes and immunomodulation.
48  specific permeate flux
(2 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
CIP (1 time)
GAC (1 time)
MF (1 time)
2006 Permeate flux optimisation of a pilot microfiltration plant for cost-effectiveness of water reclamation for reuse.
49  specific-pathogen-free pigs
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
ET (1 time)
SW (1 time)
1981 [Bacteriological diagnosis of Haemophilus pleuropneumonia in swine].
50  Spinous process fixation
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
BL (1 time)
EBL (1 time)
IB (1 time)
2013 Outcomes and complications following spinous process fixation: a single-center analysis of 192 cases.
51  spiral phase filter
(2 times)
Ophthalmology
(2 times)
GPU (1 time)
2009 Spiral phase filtering and orientation-selective edge detection/enhancement.
52  Spray polyurethane foam
(2 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
VOCs (2 times)
ACC's (1 time)
CPI (1 time)
2014 Health effects associated with faulty application of spray polyurethane foam in residential homes.
53  stamen-promoting factor
(2 times)
Genetics
(1 time)
GSF (1 time)
GyM (1 time)
mF (1 time)
2012 Narrowing Down the Mapping of Plant Sex-Determination Regions Using New Y-Chromosome-Specific Markers and Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation-Induced Y-Deletion Mutants in Silene latifolia.
54  steam-processed, flaked
(2 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
BP (2 times)
OM (2 times)
CP (1 time)
1987 Site of protein digestion in steers fed sorghum grain diets. I. Effect of level of feed intake.
55  structure-property-function
(2 times)
Chemistry
(1 time)
ENMs (2 times)
SPH (2 times)
n-CuO (1 time)
2015 Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.
56  sugar palm fiber
(2 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CB (1 time)
CS (1 time)
FT-IR (1 time)
2017 Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.
57  superficial pectoral fascia
(2 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
BAA (1 time)
ET (1 time)
IL (1 time)
2005 Anatomy of pectoral fascia in relation to subfascial mammary augmentation.
58  superplastic forming
(2 times)
Dentistry
(2 times)
--- 2001 Measurement of the setting and thermal expansion of dental investments used for the superplastic forming of dental implant superstructures.
59  systemic pulmonary fistulae
(2 times)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
HR (1 time)
1987 [Systemic-pulmonary fistula. Percentage of children attaining corrective surgery].
60  Juvenile-specific pathogen-free
(1 time)
Veterinary Medicine
(1 time)
hpp (1 time)
proPO-2 (1 time)
TGase-1 (1 time)
2016 Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).
61  models-specific pathogen-free mice
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
GF (1 time)
GO (1 time)
IFN (1 time)
2012 A microarray analysis of gnotobiotic mice indicating that microbial exposure during the neonatal period plays an essential role in immune system development.
62  o-sulfophenylfluorone
(1 time)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(1 time)
HSA (1 time)
PR method (1 time)
2005 Spectrophotometric determination of urinary protein with o-sulfophenylfluorone-metal complex.
63  pylori-specific pathogen-free
(1 time)
Gastroenterology
(1 time)
WT (1 time)
2008 Helicobacter pylori induces an antimicrobial response in rhesus macaques in a cag pathogenicity island-dependent manner.
64  S-phase fraction of the primary tumour
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 1996 Growth rate of lung metastases and S-phase fraction as determined by flow cytometry from the primary tumour in 25 patients with bone or soft-tissue sarcomas.
65  S. platensis filtrates
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
NO (1 time)
ROS (1 time)
SP (1 time)
2017 The Influence of Spirulina platensis Filtrates on Caco-2 Proliferative Activity and Expression of Apoptosis-Related microRNAs and mRNA.
66  saline and pair-fed with COC
(1 time)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
BPD (1 time)
COC (1 time)
SAL (1 time)
2002 Developmental toxicity of cocaine exposure in mid-pregnancy mice.
67  saline vehicle and pair-fed with the COC dams
(1 time)
Neurology
(1 time)
--- 1998 Transplacental cocaine exposure. 1: A rodent model.
68  salmon peptide fraction
(1 time)
Nutritional Sciences
(1 time)
FO (1 time)
HFS (1 time)
MetS (1 time)
2015 Low-Molecular-Weight Peptides from Salmon Protein Prevent Obesity-Linked Glucose Intolerance, Inflammation, and Dyslipidemia in LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100 Mice.
69  sample presentation frequency
(1 time)
Behavioral Sciences
(1 time)
--- 1999 Sample frequency and sample duration as sources of stimulus control in delayed matching to sample.
70  Sante publique France
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
e-SIN (1 time)
HA (1 time)
ILI (1 time)
2017 Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.
71  satisfaction with their physical functioning
(1 time)
Public Health
(1 time)
COPD (1 time)
2004 Perceived difficulty, importance, and satisfaction with physical function in COPD patients.
72  scattering phase function
(1 time)
Ophthalmology
(1 time)
EM (1 time)
2015 Scattering phase function of a charged spherical particle.
73  schizotypal personality features
(1 time)
Psychiatry
(1 time)
CPT (1 time)
SOA (1 time)
WCST (1 time)
2006 Comparison of three computer-administered cognitive tasks as putative endophenotypes of schizophrenia.
74  SDS-PAGE, spectrofluorometry
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CZE (1 time)
EGFP (1 time)
TC (1 time)
2010 Detection of Escherichia coli enoyl-ACP reductase using biarsenical-tetracysteine motif.
75  second primary failure
(1 time)
DF (1 time)
DFS (1 time)
OS (1 time)
2011 Efficacy endpoints of RTOG 0247: A randomized phase II study of neoadjuvant capecitabine (C) and irinotecan (I) or C and oxaliplatin (O) with concurrent radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced rectal cancer.
76  Secondary-phase fraction
(1 time)
Environmental Health
(1 time)
PCs (1 time)
2011 Fraction distribution and bioavailability of soil heavy metals in the Yangtze River Delta--a case study of Kunshan City in Jiangsu Province, China.
77  sectored plaque frequency
(1 time)
Genetics
(1 time)
CYP1A (1 time)
MF (1 time)
1997 Mutant frequency of lacI in transgenic mice following benzo[a]pyrene treatment and partial hepatectomy.
78  segmental plexus fissioning
(1 time)
Physiology
(1 time)
--- 1975 Cephalic mechanism for social control of fissioning in planarians: III. Central nervous system centers of facilitation and inhibition.
79  segmental posterior fixation
(1 time)
Orthopedics
(1 time)
AR (1 time)
CC (1 time)
EPF (1 time)
2015 Stabilization of the craniocervical junction after an internal dislocation injury: an in vitro study.
80  segments PKLLETFLSKWIG
(1 time)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
SPFK (1 time)
1998 Structural features of helical aggregates of antibacterial peptides via simulated annealing and molecular modeling.
81  Seima Protection Forest
(1 time)
Medicine
(1 time)
--- 2012 Identifying conservation successes, failures and future opportunities; assessing recovery potential of wild ungulates and tigers in Eastern Cambodia.
82  self-propagated flaming
(1 time)
Biomedical Engineering
(1 time)
--- 2017 Self-Propagated Flaming Synthesis of Highly Active Layered CuO-delta-MnO2 Hybrid Composites for Catalytic Total Oxidation of Toluene Pollutant.
83  self-reported physical functioning
(1 time)
Rehabilitation
(1 time)
PPF (1 time)
2015 Genetic variations underlying self-reported physical functioning: a review.
84  semantic provenance framework
(1 time)
Medical Informatics
(1 time)
BKR (1 time)
2011 A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research.
85  Seminal plasma fraction
(1 time)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
IL-10 (1 time)
IL-8 (1 time)
PGE2 (1 time)
1999 Seminal plasma components stimulate interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 release.
86  seminalplasmin, PKLLETFLSKWIG
(1 time)
Anti-Bacterial Agents
(1 time)
--- 1992 Change of glutamic acid to lysine in a 13-residue antibacterial and hemolytic peptide results in enhanced antibacterial activity without increase in hemolytic activity.
87  Sensory Processing Features
(1 time)
Pediatrics
(1 time)
--- 2016 Are Sensory Processing Features Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Boys with an ASD?
88  separately for the fraction of cells in S-phase
(1 time)
Neoplasms
(1 time)
--- 1996 S-phase fraction identifies high-risk subgroups among DNA-diploid breast cancers.
89  SEPEC's permeabilizing factor
(1 time)
Communicable Diseases
(1 time)
HUVEC (1 time)
SEPEC (1 time)
2016 Cytotoxic factor secreted by Escherichia coli associated with sepsis facilitates transcytosis through human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers.
90  septal pivot flap
(1 time)
Dentistry
(1 time)
INL (1 time)
PMFF (1 time)
2011 Total nasal reconstruction: a 6-year experience with the three-stage forehead flap combined with the septal pivot flap.
91  serum pathogen-free
(1 time)
Biology
(1 time)
--- 2015 Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.
92  Several analogs of the 13-residue antimicrobial and hemolytic peptide PKLLETFLSKWIG
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
--- 1995 Structural and charge requirements for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity in the peptide PKLLETFLSKWIG, corresponding to the hydrophobic region of the antimicrobial protein bovine seminalplasmin.
93  severe pulmonary fibrosis
(1 time)
Rheumatology
(1 time)
ACA (1 time)
PAH (1 time)
2007 Pulmonary arterial hypertension and severe pulmonary fibrosis in systemic sclerosis patients with a nucleolar antibody.
94  sham-operated pair-fed
(1 time)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
EALT (1 time)
EPF (1 time)
GAD (1 time)
1984 Effect of estradiol on the oxalate metabolism in vitamin B6-deficient male rats.
95  short fragment polymerase chain reaction
(1 time)
Pathology
(1 time)
HPV (1 time)
LiPA (1 time)
1999 Short fragment polymerase chain reaction reverse hybridization line probe assay to detect and genotype a broad spectrum of human papillomavirus types. Clinical evaluation and follow-up.
96  short posterior fixation
(1 time)
Spinal Diseases
(1 time)
CaP (2 times)
AR (1 time)
BFs (1 time)
2014 Pedicle Screw Configuration for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture Treatment: Short versus Long Posterior Fixation Constructs with and without Anterior Column Augmentation.
97  short promoter fragment
(1 time)
Botany
(1 time)
NO (1 time)
NOS (1 time)
2015 Expression of the tetrahydrofolate-dependent nitric oxide synthase from the green alga Ostreococcus tauri increases tolerance to abiotic stresses and influences stomatal development in Arabidopsis.
98  Shortest Path Function
(1 time)
Computational Biology
(1 time)
eQTLs (1 time)
2015 On predicting regulatory genes by analysis of functional networks in C. elegans.
99  side polished optical fiber
(1 time)
Biophysics
(1 time)
--- 2014 Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing.
100  signed pressure function
(1 time)
Diagnostic Imaging
(1 time)
--- 2013 Level set method with automatic selective local statistics for brain tumor segmentation in MR images.