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Abbreviation : 6-TGN
Long Form : 6-thioguanine nucleotides
No. Year Title Co-occurring Abbreviation
2022 Case Report: Azathioprine: An Old and Wronged Immunosuppressant. 6-MMP, AZA
2022 Discontinuation of Azathioprine could be considered in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who have sustained clinical and deep remission. AZA, CD, CR, IFX
2022 DNA-thioguanine nucleotides as a maker for thiopurine induced late leukopenia after dose optimizing by NUDT15 C415T in Chinese patients with IBD. DNA-TG, IBD, TPMT
2022 Inosine Triphosphate Pyrophosphatase and NUDT15 are Good Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Thiopurine-Treated Chinese Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. ---
2022 Intestinal microbiota-mediated biotransformations alter the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of azathioprine in rats after oral administration. 6-MMP, AZA, PGF
2022 NUDT15 intermediate metabolisers are associated with lower loss of response in paediatric Crohn's disease patients treated by combination treatment with infliximab and azathioprine. ATIs, AZA, BR, CD, CR, HR, IFX, LOR, MH, TLs
2022 Therapeutic drug monitoring of thiopurines: Effect of reduced 6-thioguanine nucleotide target levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients. AT, FT, RBC
2021 Adverse Events of Thiopurine Therapy in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Correlations with Metabolites: A Cohort Study. 6-MMP, AE, IBD
2021 Allopurinol to Prevent Mercaptopurine Adverse Effects in Children and Young Adults With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. 6-MMP, ALL
10  2021 Association of genetic variants in TPMT, ITPA, and NUDT15 with azathioprine-induced myelosuppression in southwest china patients with autoimmune hepatitis. AIH, AZA
11  2021 Differential effects of mesalazine formulations on thiopurine metabolism through thiopurine S-methyltransferase inhibition. 5-ASA, 6-MMP, MMX, N-Ac-5-ASA, TPMT, UC
12  2021 Increased DNA-incorporated thiopurine metabolite as a possible mechanism for leukocytopenia through cell apoptosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients with NUDT15 mutation. 6-TG, dTG, IBD, NUDT15, PBMCs
13  2021 Optimizing Thiopurine Therapy with a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor in Patients with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: A Single-Centre Experience. XOI
14  2021 Simultaneous Monitoring of Azathioprine Metabolites in Erythrocytes of Crohn's Disease Patients by HPLC-UV. 6-MMP, AZA, CD, RBCs
15  2021 Usefulness of Measuring Thiopurine Metabolites in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autoimmunological Hepatitis, Treated with Azathioprine. 6-MMP, 6-MP, AIH, AZA, CD, HPLC, IBD, UC
16  2020 Adjustment of azathioprine dose should be based on a lower 6-TGN target level to avoid leucopenia in NUDT15 intermediate metabolisers. IBD
17  2020 Allopurinol use during pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia maintenance therapy safely corrects skewed 6-mercaptopurine metabolism, improving inadequate myelosuppression and reducing gastrointestinal toxicity. 6-MP, ALL, ALT, ANC, GI
18  2020 Are changes in the blood count clinically useful marker of azathioprine dose? AZA
19  2020 Population pharmacokinetics of azathioprine active metabolite in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and dosage regimens optimisation. IBD
20  2020 Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Thiopurine Metabolite Levels and Biochemical Remission in Autoimmune Hepatitis. 6-MMP, AIH, CI, RBC, TM, WMD
21  2020 Thiopurines' Metabolites and Drug Toxicity: A Meta-Analysis. 6-MMPR, MD, OR, TDM
22  2019 Allopurinol reverses mercaptopurine-induced hypoglycemia in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 6-MMP, ALL, TPMT
23  2019 Highly sensitive and rapid determination of azathioprine metabolites in whole blood lysate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 6-MMPr
24  2019 Importance of 6-Thioguanine Nucleotide Metabolite Monitoring in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Treated with Azathioprine. IBD
25  2019 Nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X-type motif 15 R139C genotypes impact 6-thioguanine nucleotide cut-off levels to predict thiopurine-induced leukopenia in Crohn's disease patients. NUDT15, RBC, TIL
26  2019 pH-Dependent 5-Aminosalicylates Releasing Preparations Do Not Affect Thiopurine Metabolism. 5-ASA, 6-MMP, IBD
27  2019 Systematic review with meta-analysis: risk factors for thiopurine-induced leukopenia in IBD. 6-MMP, OR
28  2019 Thiopurine Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy Is Not Associated with Anemia in the Infant. IBD
29  2018 6-Thioguanine Nucleotide Levels Are Associated With Mucosal Healing in Patients With Crohn's Disease. AUC, CD, CI, MH, OR, RBC
30  2018 Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis. CsA, IBD, TDM, TMPT, UC
31  2018 Fecal calprotectin is significantly linked to azathioprine metabolite concentrations in Crohn's disease. AZA, CD, FC
32  2018 Idiopathic portal hypertension with regard to thiopurine treatment. IPH
33  2018 Late-onset Rise of 6-MMP Metabolites in IBD Patients on Azathioprine or Mercaptopurine. 6-MMP, IBD
34  2018 Low 6-thioguanine nucleotide level: Effective in maintaining remission in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease. AZA, CD, RBC
35  2018 Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in Guanine Monophosphate Synthetase Is a Risk Factor for Unfavorable Thiopurine Metabolite Ratios in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 6-MMP, GMPS, IBD, nsSNPs
36  2018 NUDT15 R139C variation increases the risk of azathioprine-induced toxicity in Chinese subjects: Case report and literature review. AZA, IBD, SS
37  2018 Pharmacokinetics and Immune Reconstitution Following Discontinuation of Thiopurine Analogues: Implications for Drug Withdrawal Strategies. 6-MP, IBD, TSST-1
38  2018 Randomised clinical trial: efficacy, safety and dosage of adjunctive allopurinol in azathioprine/mercaptopurine nonresponders (AAA Study). 6-MMP
39  2018 Red Blood cell IMPDH activity in adults and children with or without azathioprine: Relationship between thiopurine metabolites, ITPA and TPMT activities. 6-MeMPN, AZA, IMPDH, ITPA, TPMT
40  2018 The Impact of Thiopurine Metabolite Monitoring on the Durability of Thiopurine Monotherapy in Pediatric IBD. pMS, SFR
41  2017 A Role for Thiopurine Metabolites in the Synergism Between Thiopurines and Infliximab in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Abs, IFX, OR, RBC
42  2017 Analytical Pitfalls of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Thiopurines in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 6-MMP, IBD
43  2017 Higher Thioguanine Nucleotide Metabolite Levels are Associated With Better Long-term Outcomes in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. IBD, RBCs
44  2017 ITPA Activity in Adults and Children Treated With or Without Azathioprine: Relationship Between TPMT Activity, Thiopurine Metabolites, and Co-medications. 6-MeMPN, AZA, ITPA, TPMT
45  2017 Machine Learning Algorithms for Objective Remission and Clinical Outcomes with Thiopurines. 6-MMP, APR, AUROC, IBD, MLA, OR, RCTs
46  2017 Measurements of 6-thioguanine nucleotide levels with TPMT and NUDT15 genotyping in patients with Crohn's disease. CD
47  2017 Metabolite monitoring to guide thiopurine therapy in systemic autoimmune diseases. 6-MMP
48  2017 NUDT15 Variants Cause Hematopoietic Toxicity with Low 6-TGN Levels in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. 6-MP, ALL
49  2017 Pharmacology of Thiopurine Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Complete Blood Cell Count Outcomes: A 5-Year Database Study. AZA, IBD
50  2017 The glutathione transferase Mu null genotype leads to lower 6-MMPR levels in patients treated with azathioprine but not with mercaptopurine. 6-MMPR, AZA, GSTM1, MP
51  2017 Thiopurine metabolite level and toxicity in Indians with inflammatory bowel disease. IBD
52  2017 Thiopurine metabolite levels in patients with atopic dermatitis and/or chronic hand/foot eczema treated with azathioprine. 6-MMP, Part I
53  2016 Allopurinol Use During Maintenance Therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Avoids Mercaptopurine-related Hepatotoxicity. 6-MMPN, 6-MP
54  2016 Determination of Concentrations of Azathioprine Metabolites 6-Thioguanine and 6-Methylmercaptopurine in Whole Blood With the Use of Liquid Chromatography Combined With Mass Spectrometry. 6-MMP, 6-MP, ALAT, AZA, RBC
55  2016 Early Assessment of Thiopurine Metabolites Identifies Patients at Risk of Thiopurine-induced Leukopenia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 6-MMPR, IBD, OR, TNF
56  2016 Measurement of red blood cell 6-thioguanine nucleotide is beneficial in azathioprine maintenance therapy of Chinese Crohn's disease patients. AZA, CD, TPMT
57  2016 Prospective Evaluation of Pharmacogenomics and Metabolite Measurements upon Azathioprine Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Observational Study. AZA, CD, IBD, OR, TPMT
58  2016 Usefulness of mean corpuscular volume as a surrogate marker for monitoring thiopurine treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. MCV
59  2016 Weight and Body Composition Compartments do Not Predict Therapeutic Thiopurine Metabolite Levels in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 6-MMP, FFM, IBD
60  2015 A Prospective Study Evaluating Metabolic Capacity of Thiopurine and Associated Adverse Reactions in Japanese Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). AZA, IBD, ITPA, TPMT, WBC
61  2015 Body Mass Index and Smoking Affect Thioguanine Nucleotide Levels in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. BMI, CI, IBD, TPMT
62  2015 Model-Based Individualized Treatment of Chemotherapeutics: Bayesian Population Modeling and Dose Optimization. 6-MP, TPMT
63  2015 NUDT15 R139C-related thiopurine leukocytopenia is mediated by 6-thioguanine nucleotide-independent mechanism in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease. IBD
64  2015 Relationship between azathioprine dosage, 6-thioguanine nucleotide levels, and therapeutic response in pediatric patients with IBD treated with azathioprine. AZA
65  2015 Routinely Established Skewed Thiopurine Metabolism Leads to a Strikingly High Rate of Early Therapeutic Failure in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 6-MMPR, AEs, IBD
66  2015 Safety of Tioguanine During Pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. IBD, TG
67  2014 Febuxostat as a novel option to optimize thiopurines' metabolism in patients with inadequate metabolite levels. 6-MMP, AZA, XO
68  2014 Hematologic indices as surrogate markers for monitoring thiopurine therapy in IBD. 6-MMP
69  2014 Monitoring thiopurine metabolites in korean pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AZA, IBD, TPMT
70  2014 The association between fasting hypoglycemia and methylated mercaptopurine metabolites in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 6-MMP, 6-MP, ALL
71  2014 The role of thiopurine metabolites in inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatological disorders. 6-MMP, IBD
72  2014 Thiopurine monitoring in children with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. 6-MMPR, IBD, RCTs, WBC
73  2013 Gene expression and thiopurine metabolite profiling in inflammatory bowel disease - novel clues to drug targets and disease mechanisms? IBD, meTIMP
74  2013 Improved method for therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methylmercaptopurine in whole-blood by LC/MSMS using isotope-labeled internal standards. 6-MMP, Ery
75  2013 Intrauterine exposure and pharmacology of conventional thiopurine therapy in pregnant patients with inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MMP, IBD
76  2013 Randomised clinical trial: individualised vs. weight-based dosing of azathioprine in Crohn's disease. AZA, CD, CR, PP, RBC, TPMT
77  2013 Role of thiopurine metabolite testing and thiopurine methyltransferase determination in pediatric IBD. 6-MMP, IBD, NASPGHAN, TP, TPMT
78  2013 Successful azathioprine treatment with metabolite monitoring in a pediatric inflammatory bowel disease patient homozygous for TPMT*3C. AZA, TPMT
79  2013 The pharmacokinetic effect of adalimumab on thiopurine metabolism in Crohn's disease patients. 6-MMPR, HGPRT, ITPase, TPMT
80  2013 Usefulness of thiopurine metabolites in predicting azathioprine resistance in pediatric IBD patients. AZA, IBD
81  2013 Utility of maternal 6-thioguanine nucleotide levels in predicting neonatal pancytopenia. AZA
82  2012 A validated HPLC method for the monitoring of thiopurine metabolites in whole blood in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MMP, HPLC, IBD, RBC, TDM, WB
83  2012 Establishment of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene knockdown in jurkat T-lymphocytes: an in vitro model of TPMT polymorphism. 6-MeMP, 6-MP, 6-TG, 6-TG, KD, TPMT, WT
84  2012 High TPMT enzyme activity does not explain drug resistance due to preferential 6-methylmercaptopurine production in patients on thiopurine treatment. 6-mMP, TPMT
85  2012 Pharmacogenetic determinants of mercaptopurine disposition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 6-MP, ALL, SNPs, TPMT
86  2012 The potential influence of 5-aminosalicylic acid on the induction of myelotoxicity during thiopurine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients. 5-ASA, 6-MP, AZA, TPMT
87  2012 Therapeutic drug monitoring of thiopurine metabolites in adult thiopurine tolerant IBD patients on maintenance therapy. ---
88  2011 Azathioprine metabolite measurements are not useful in following treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in Alaska Native and other non-Caucasian people. 6-MMP, AIH, Texas, USA, TPMT
89  2011 Biotransformation of 6-thioguanine in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a comparison of oral and intravenous administration of 6-thioguanine. 6-TG, AUC, IBD, RBC
90  2011 Evaluating the use of metabolite measurement in children receiving treatment with a thiopurine. 6-MMP, MCV, TPMT
91  2011 Optimizing 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MMP, 6-MP, IBD
92  2011 Thiopurine methyl-transferase activity and azathioprine metabolite concentrations do not predict clinical outcome in thiopurine-treated inflammatory bowel disease patients. 6-MMP, ROC, TPMT
93  2011 Two brothers with skewed thiopurine metabolism in ulcerative colitis treated successfully with allopurinol and mercaptopurine dose reduction. 6-MMP, MP, TPMT, UC
94  2011 Use of thiopurine testing in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases in clinical practice: a worldwide survey of experts. 6-MMP, IBDs, TPMT
95  2010 A prospective evaluation of the impact of allopurinol in pediatric and adult IBD patients with preferential metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine to 6-methylmercaptopurine. 6-MMP, 6-MP, IBD
96  2010 Allopurinol might improve response to azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine by correcting an unfavorable metabolite ratio. 6-MMPN, 6-MP, RBC
97  2010 Clinical usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring of thiopurines in patients with inadequately controlled inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MMP, IBD
98  2010 Influence of 5-aminosalicylic acid on 6-thioguanosine phosphate metabolite levels: a prospective study in patients under steady thiopurine therapy. 5-ASA, 6-MMPR, AZA, N-Ac-5-ASA
99  2010 Limited stability of thiopurine metabolites in blood samples: relevant in research and clinical practise. 6-MMP
100  2010 Monitoring 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations in Japanese children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MP, AZA, CD, IBD, UC