A Search Service for Abbreviation / Long Form

■ Search Result - Abbreviation : CAD

Search Conditions:
Search Keyword : CAD
Search Method : Exact match.
Research Area:

Results:  
Hit abbr.: 3 kinds.
(Click one to see its hit entries.)

(Appearance freq, Descending)
Abbreviation: CAD
Appearance Frequency: 30160 time(s)
Long forms: 453

Display Settings:
[Display Entries]
Long Form, 100 entries
    (Appearance freq, Descending)
Long Form, all entries
[Entries Per Page]
 per page
Page Control
Page: of
Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
coronary artery disease
(24404 times)
Cardiology
(8930 times)
CI (1467 times)
MI (1387 times)
PCI (1128 times)
1975 Mechanical and electrical causes for lack of frequency potentiation in normal patients, in coronary artery disease and in left bundle branch block.
computer-aided detection
(1718 times)
Radiology
(386 times)
CT (182 times)
CAM (138 times)
CTC (59 times)
1986 Cloning simulation in the cage environment.
computer-aided diagnosis
(1293 times)
Radiology
(300 times)
ROC (109 times)
SVM (96 times)
CT (95 times)
1975 [Classification of computer aided diagnosis (CAD)].
collisionally activated dissociation
(328 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(251 times)
ECD (51 times)
ESI (29 times)
MS (28 times)
1983 Rapid detection of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains by quadrupole mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.
cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase
(163 times)
Botany
(84 times)
PAL (32 times)
CCR (23 times)
POD (11 times)
1988 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, a molecular marker specific for lignin synthesis: cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor.
charged aerosol detector
(135 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(75 times)
ELSD (27 times)
HPLC (25 times)
HILIC (16 times)
2005 Evaluation of column bleed by using an ultraviolet and a charged aerosol detector coupled to a high-temperature liquid chromatographic system.
caspase-activated DNase
(112 times)
Biochemistry
(39 times)
ICAD (13 times)
DFF (7 times)
AIF (4 times)
1998 Molecular cloning and characterization of human caspase-activated DNase.
cold agglutinin disease
(107 times)
Hematology
(52 times)
AIHA (21 times)
CA (7 times)
CR (6 times)
1979 [Cold agglutinin disease (CAD), paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) and intravascular hemolysis].
cervical artery dissection
(105 times)
Neurology
(44 times)
MRI (7 times)
VAD (7 times)
ICA (6 times)
1997 Cervical artery dissections.
10  canine atopic dermatitis
(93 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(78 times)
CADESI (8 times)
PVAS (6 times)
AD (5 times)
2005 The Influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on total lipid fatty acid composition of a canine mastocytoma cell line.
11  chronic allograft dysfunction
(87 times)
Transplantation
(44 times)
AR (7 times)
CNI (6 times)
DGF (6 times)
2000 Cyclosporine withdrawal in stable renal transplant recipients after azathioprine-mycophenolate mofetil conversion.
12  coronary heart disease
(86 times)
Cardiology
(28 times)
PCI (5 times)
HR (4 times)
MI (4 times)
1976 Effects of isometric exercise on the end-diastolic pressure, volumes, and function of the left ventricle in man.
13  coronary atherosclerotic disease
(75 times)
Cardiology
(16 times)
AMI (5 times)
MI (5 times)
OR (5 times)
1991 Relation of extent of extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis as measured by B-mode ultrasound to the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.
14  chronic actinic dermatitis
(70 times)
Dermatology
(54 times)
PLE (8 times)
UV (7 times)
MED (4 times)
1984 Patch and photopatch testing in chronic actinic dermatitis.
15  carotid artery dissection
(68 times)
Neurology
(13 times)
KD (14 times)
VAD (9 times)
ICA (7 times)
1996 [Cerebral artery dissection].
16  Canadian dollars
(51 times)
Health Services
(4 times)
QALYs (9 times)
QALY (5 times)
WTP (5 times)
2002 Clinical aspects and cost of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children: resistant vs. susceptible strains.
17  caries-affected dentin
(48 times)
Dentistry
(33 times)
SD (9 times)
ND (7 times)
ANOVA (5 times)
2004 Micro-tensile bond strength of self-etching primer adhesive systems to human coronal carious dentin.
18  Cystic adventitial disease
(44 times)
General Surgery
(27 times)
CT (4 times)
MRI (3 times)
CFA (2 times)
1994 Recurrence of cystic adventitial disease in an interposed vein graft.
19  cardiovascular disease
(42 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
BMI (4 times)
CAC (3 times)
ADH1C (2 times)
1998 [Markers of hemostatic activation in the coronary sinus versus peripheral circulation in coronary artery disease. Effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty].
20  carotid artery disease
(41 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
CAS (9 times)
CEA (7 times)
TIA (5 times)
1982 Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion. II. Occurrence in central and branch retinal artery occlusion.
21  coronary disease
(40 times)
Cardiology
(22 times)
EF (3 times)
LV (3 times)
CABG (2 times)
1977 The effect of near-maximal isometric stress on the presence and amplitude of fourth heart sounds.
22  Computer-aided detection and diagnosis
(39 times)
Radiology
(11 times)
CNNs (3 times)
MRI (3 times)
AAPM (2 times)
2001 Digital and Computer-Aided Mammography.
23  carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamoylase/dihydroorotase
(30 times)
Molecular Biology
(7 times)
PALA (3 times)
BBF (2 times)
DHFR (2 times)
1986 Regulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase gene expression in growing and arrested cells.
24  cadaveric donor
(26 times)
Transplantation
(15 times)
LRD (19 times)
GFR (4 times)
LD (4 times)
1983 The effect of cyclosporine on early graft function in human renal transplantation.
25  cationic amphiphilic drug
(25 times)
Toxicology
(6 times)
PLD (3 times)
BRO (2 times)
cPLA2 (2 times)
1985 Cationic amphiphilic drugs inhibit the synthesis of long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A in rat brain microsomes.
26  cadaver
(24 times)
Transplantation
(14 times)
LRD (11 times)
LD (4 times)
PRA (3 times)
1979 Renal transplantation for patients with type I and type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: serial complement and nephritic factor measurements and the problem of recurrence of disease.
27  continuous androgen deprivation
(24 times)
Urology
(17 times)
IAD (16 times)
ADT (5 times)
OS (5 times)
1995 Overview analysis issues using combined androgen deprivation overview analysis as an example.
28  2-chloroadenosine
(22 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
NECA (9 times)
CPA (4 times)
NO (3 times)
1989 Adenosine receptor-mediated relaxation in coronary artery: evidence for a guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory protein involvement.
29  caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease
(21 times)
Science
(3 times)
ICAD (4 times)
ALL (2 times)
DFF40 (2 times)
1998 A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD.
30  CAD group
(20 times)
Cardiology
(7 times)
HD (2 times)
hs-CRP (2 times)
MBF (2 times)
1984 Significant coronary artery disease detected by amyl nitrite and systolic time intervals.
31  Color Assessment and Diagnosis
(20 times)
Ophthalmology
(10 times)
RG (7 times)
YB (6 times)
AMD (4 times)
2005 Evaluation of the new web-based "Colour Assessment and Diagnosis" test.
32  C-terminal transactivation domain
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
FIH (9 times)
HIF (4 times)
HIF-1alpha (4 times)
1999 Molecular mechanisms of transcription activation by HLF and HIF1alpha in response to hypoxia: their stabilization and redox signal-induced interaction with CBP/p300.
33  cadherin
(17 times)
Molecular Biology
(4 times)
ALP (5 times)
APN (4 times)
Bt (3 times)
1993 Molecular cloning of mouse pancreatic islet R-cadherin: differential expression in endocrine and exocrine tissue.
34  cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase
(17 times)
Microbiology
(9 times)
IA (6 times)
ELISA (2 times)
icd (2 times)
2005 Purification and characterization of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase from Aspergillus terreus TN484-M1.
35  chronic airway diseases
(16 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(7 times)
BAL (4 times)
IL-8 (3 times)
NCF (3 times)
1991 [C5 contents and neutrophil chemotactic activities in bronchiolar and alveolar regions].
36  Cath.a-differentiated
(15 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
PD (2 times)
2-AG (1 time)
AC6 (1 time)
2002 Heterologous sensitization of adenylate cyclase is protein kinase A-dependent in Cath.a differentiated (CAD)-D2L cells.
37  cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction
(12 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
BRS (2 times)
DBP (2 times)
HRV (2 times)
1989 Importance of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in IDDM subjects with diabetic nephropathy.
38  cadence
(11 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
HR (4 times)
FFS (3 times)
PD (3 times)
1989 Improving the validity of clinical exercise testing: the relationship between practice and performance.
39  computer-aided detection system
(11 times)
Radiology
(4 times)
CT (2 times)
CNC (1 time)
DDSM (1 time)
2001 Tumour detection rate of a new commercially available computer-aided detection system.
40  chronic aortic dissection
(10 times)
Vascular Diseases
(6 times)
AAD (4 times)
FL (3 times)
FET (2 times)
1995 [Management of patients with closing aortic dissection].
41  crossed aphasia in dextrals
(10 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
18F-FDG PET (1 time)
ACA (1 time)
ARL (1 time)
2002 Acquired crossed aphasia in dextral children revisited.
42  cervicocerebral artery dissection
(9 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
EAD (1 time)
IAD (1 time)
ICA (1 time)
2001 Spontaneous Arterial Dissection.
43  CRAC activation domain
(9 times)
Science
(3 times)
ER (5 times)
STIM1 (5 times)
CaM (1 time)
2009 STIM1 clusters and activates CRAC channels via direct binding of a cytosolic domain to Orai1.
44  cricoarytenoideus dorsalis
(9 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(7 times)
RLN (5 times)
CAL (1 time)
CT (1 time)
1992 Histologic evaluation of nerve muscle pedicle graft used as a treatment for left laryngeal hemiplegia in standardbreds.
45  cumulative abstinence duration
(9 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(5 times)
AUD (4 times)
ABST (1 time)
ACT (1 time)
1998 Combined efficacy of acamprosate and disulfiram in the treatment of alcoholism: a controlled study.
46  comorbid anxiety and depression
(8 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
aOR (1 time)
CI (1 time)
EDS (1 time)
2005 Comorbidity of depression and anxiety in nursing home patients.
47  cystic adventitial degeneration
(8 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
IVUS (2 times)
1977 Cystic adventitial degeneration of the common femoral artery.
48  Cardiac autonomic dysfunction
(7 times)
Endocrinology
(1 time)
HR (2 times)
HRV (2 times)
MS (2 times)
2004 Effects of different dialysis modalities on cardiac autonomic dysfunctions in end-stage renal disease patients: one year prospective study.
49  circular anal dilator
(7 times)
Gastroenterology
(4 times)
TEM (2 times)
CSA (1 time)
CSS (1 time)
2005 New devices for stapled rectal mucosectomy: a multicenter experience.
50  citric acid derivative
(7 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
ACE (1 time)
AlCol (1 time)
AM (1 time)
2006 Amniotic membrane immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) hybrid polymer as an artificial cornea scaffold that supports a stratified and differentiated corneal epithelium.
51  compensatory articulation disorder
(7 times)
Otolaryngology
(4 times)
SI (2 times)
VPI (2 times)
CLP (1 time)
1999 A comparative trial of two modalities of speech intervention for compensatory articulation in cleft palate children, phonologic approach versus articulatory approach.
52  complete axillary dissection
(7 times)
General Surgery
(4 times)
SLN (4 times)
AD (1 time)
ASLN (1 time)
1983 Biopsy and definitive radiation therapy in Stage I and II adenocarcinoma of the female breast: analysis of cosmesis and the role of electron beam supplementation.
53  complicated acute diverticulitis
(7 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
AD (3 times)
RPA (2 times)
CRC (1 time)
2010 Missed opportunities for primary repair in complicated acute diverticulitis.
54  Cumulative Advantage and Disadvantage
(7 times)
Aging
(4 times)
SRH (2 times)
SEP (1 time)
WFC (1 time)
2009 An investigation of family SES-based inequalities in depressive symptoms from early adolescence to emerging adulthood.
55  cis-aconityl-doxorubicin
(6 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(4 times)
PEI (3 times)
DOX (2 times)
CAA (1 time)
2013 A pH-sensitive charge-conversion system for doxorubicin delivery.
56  community-acquired diarrhea
(6 times)
Virology
(2 times)
HAD (3 times)
ANI (1 time)
NAD (1 time)
1999 Differential yield of pathogens from stool testing of nosocomial versus community-acquired paediatric diarrhea.
57  compound adsorption device
(6 times)
Hematology
(5 times)
PCT (3 times)
HSR (2 times)
PAS III (2 times)
2002 Pharmacokinetic and toxicology assessment of INTERCEPT (S-59 and UVA treated) platelets.
58  computer-aided diagnosis/detection
(6 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(2 times)
PACS (2 times)
SR (2 times)
AI (1 time)
2007 CAD-PACS integration tool kit based on DICOM secondary capture, structured report and IHE workflow profiles.
59  constitutive activation domain
(6 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
CREB (5 times)
KID (3 times)
TAF (2 times)
1994 Three distinct regions within the constitutive activation domain of cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB) are required for transcription activation.
60  CAD and IS
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
IS (3 times)
SNP (3 times)
HDL-C (2 times)
2013 Association of genetic polymorphisms in ADH and ALDH2 with risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
61  Canadian
(5 times)
General Surgery
(2 times)
BCBS (1 time)
CRIF (1 time)
GI (1 time)
2009 Financial impact of spinal cord stimulation on the healthcare budget: a comparative analysis of costs in Canada and the United States.
62  computed-aided detection
(5 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
CT (3 times)
2005 [Understanding CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) in mammography].
63  contact allergic dermatitis
(5 times)
Pharmacology
(1 time)
DNFB (2 times)
PEA (2 times)
PPAR-alpha (2 times)
1992 Topical ketoconazole does not potentiate oral cyclosporin A in allergic contact dermatitis.
64  carbamoyltransferase/dihydroorotase
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
APL (1 time)
ATRA (1 time)
1992 Heat sensitivity and Sp1 activation of complex formation at the Syrian hamster carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)/aspartate carbamoyltransferase/dihydroorotase promoter in vitro.
65  caries-affected
(4 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
SD (3 times)
CHX (2 times)
CSEB (1 time)
2009 Effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate on the bond strength to normal versus caries-affected dentin.
66  cathepsin D
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(2 times)
AGT (1 time)
APOE (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
2003 Metabolic priorities during starvation: enzyme sparing in liver and white muscle of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.
67  cavernosal artery diameter
(4 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(3 times)
PSV (4 times)
ICI (3 times)
PPDU (2 times)
2006 Diagnostic value of nitric oxide, lipoprotein(a), and malondialdehyde levels in the peripheral venous and cavernous blood of diabetics with erectile dysfunction.
68  cecropin AD
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
CELP (1 time)
DI (1 time)
DLPG (1 time)
1994 Binding and state of aggregation of spin-labeled cecropin AD in phospholipid bilayers: effects of surface charge and fatty acyl chain length.
69  children and adolescents
(4 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
APS (1 time)
BIPS (1 time)
IQ (1 time)
2015 Twelve-month psychosis-predictive value of the ultra-high risk criteria in children and adolescents.
70  Cinnamaldehyde
(4 times)
Toxicology
(2 times)
2MOCA (1 time)
c-di-GMP (1 time)
COL (1 time)
2004 Combined effects of ethanol and cinnamaldehyde in the Japanese medaka embryo-larval assay (MELA).
71  Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
(4 times)
Communicable Diseases
(3 times)
CDT (1 time)
CROP (1 time)
1988 Results of a prospective, 18-month clinical evaluation of culture, cytotoxin testing, and culturette brand (CDT) latex testing in the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
72  confined aquatic disposal
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
DAMOS (1 time)
PAF (1 time)
2004 Understanding the physical and environmental consequences of dredged material disposal: history in New England and current perspectives.
73  conserved ATPase domain
(4 times)
Molecular Biology
(3 times)
--- 1996 A component of the 26S proteasome binds on orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily.
74  contact area difference
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
cRMSD (1 time)
ICM (1 time)
1997 Contact area difference (CAD): a robust measure to evaluate accuracy of protein models.
75  conventional adenoma
(4 times)
Pathology
(3 times)
TSA (2 times)
ADR (1 time)
CIR (1 time)
2010 Serrated lesions of the appendix: a morphologic and immunohistochemical appraisal.
76  cumulative aphid-days
(4 times)
Zoology
(4 times)
EILs (1 time)
IPM (1 time)
NDVI (1 time)
2012 Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) development on soybean with Rag1 alone, Rag2 alone, and both genes combined.
77  current alcohol dependence
(4 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
AUDIT (1 time)
BAC (1 time)
1998 Screening trauma patients for alcoholism according to NIAAA guidelines with alcohol use disorders identification test questions.
78  cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, dexamethasone
(4 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
ABSCT (2 times)
PBSC (2 times)
CTC (1 time)
2001 Cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and dexamethasone (CAD) is a highly effective therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma.
79  cadaveric donation
(3 times)
Transplantation
(3 times)
LD (2 times)
FSGS (1 time)
GN (1 time)
2000 Cadaveric versus living donor kidney transplantation: a Medicare payment analysis.
80  canine AD
(3 times)
Dermatology
(2 times)
AD (3 times)
cDNA (1 time)
GSD (1 time)
2013 Expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in canine atopic dermatitis.
81  cannabis abuse and dependence
(3 times)
Psychiatry
(2 times)
SUDs (1 time)
2008 Measured environmental contributions to cannabis abuse/dependence in an offspring of twins design.
82  cardiac assist devices
(3 times)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
CPB (1 time)
CT (1 time)
ESS (1 time)
2009 Conventional radiography and computed tomography of cardiac assist devices.
83  caspase-dependent DNase
(3 times)
Toxicology
(1 time)
AIF (2 times)
AD (1 time)
AMI (1 time)
2002 Molecular mechanisms of non-apoptosis by Fas stimulation alone versus apoptosis with an additional actinomycin D in cultured cardiomyocytes.
84  cassava anthracnose disease
(3 times)
Microbiology
(1 time)
DI (1 time)
IITA (1 time)
MAPK (1 time)
2002 In vitro, greenhouse and field assessments of cassava lines for resistance to anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. manihotis.
85  catalytic domain
(3 times)
Biotechnology
(1 time)
EC (1 time)
2005 Molecular cloning and structural analysis of the gene encoding Bacillus cereus exochitinase Chi36.
86  catecholamine A differentiated
(3 times)
Biochemistry
(1 time)
CRMP2 (1 time)
SUMO (1 time)
2013 CRMP2 protein SUMOylation modulates NaV1.7 channel trafficking.
87  Cervicocephalic artery dissection
(3 times)
Brain
(2 times)
APS (1 time)
CCADS (1 time)
MCA (1 time)
2008 Postpartum cervicocephalic artery dissection.
88  charged aerosol
(3 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
HPLC (2 times)
CV (1 time)
MS (1 time)
2013 Quantification of individual phenolic compounds' contribution to antioxidant capacity in apple: a novel analytical tool based on liquid chromatography with diode array, electrochemical, and charged aerosol detection.
89  Chronic renal allograft damage
(3 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
13cRA (1 time)
ADC (1 time)
CADI (1 time)
2011 Modulation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways is linked to retinoic acid-induced amelioration of chronic allograft dysfunction.
90  cis-aconitic anhydride-modified doxorubicin
(3 times)
Biocompatible Materials
(2 times)
Ce6 (3 times)
DOX (3 times)
EPR (2 times)
2015 pH-Sensitive self-assembling nanoparticles for tumor near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic combination therapy.
91  computer-aided lung nodule detection
(3 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
CT (1 time)
LIDC (1 time)
MSCT (1 time)
2005 Computer-aided lung nodule detection in CT: results of large-scale observer test.
92  conventional anaerobic digestion
(3 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
AD (1 time)
AD-THP (1 time)
AnMBR (1 time)
2017 Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 Simulation of High Solids Anaerobic Digestion with Feasibility Study for El Gabal El Asfar Water Resource Recovery Facility.
93  coronary artery heart disease
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
AUC (1 time)
BNP (1 time)
CNKI (1 time)
2016 There is no association between TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms and the risk of coronary artery heart disease: a meta-analysis.
94  cytokine adsorption device
(3 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
IL-10 (2 times)
IL-6 (2 times)
TNF (2 times)
2008 A simple mathematical model of cytokine capture using a hemoadsorption device.
95  CA disease
(2 times)
Cardiology
(1 time)
CA (2 times)
ALMCA (1 time)
CAAO (1 time)
1981 Regional coronary angiographic observations during cold stimulation in patient with exertional chest pain: comparison of diameter responses in normal and fixed stenotic vessels.
96  CAD patients than in control subjects
(2 times)
Vascular Diseases
(1 time)
BMI (1 time)
BP (1 time)
2011 Circulating omentin is associated with coronary artery disease in men.
97  cad protein
(2 times)
Biology
(2 times)
cad (2 times)
Bcd (1 time)
UTR (1 time)
1990 Effects of ectopic expression of caudal during Drosophila development.
98  CAD-patients
(2 times)
Diabetes Complications
(1 time)
AMI (2 times)
RBP4 (1 time)
ROC (1 time)
2014 Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 are associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease.
99  cadaveric donor graft
(2 times)
Nephrology
(1 time)
ALG (1 time)
GFR (1 time)
LD (1 time)
1983 Acute rejection episodes after renal transplantation in children.
100  cadaveric kidney
(2 times)
Transplantation
(2 times)
ERPF (1 time)
GFR (1 time)
i.v (1 time)
1999 Graft function 5-7 years after renal transplantation in early childhood.