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Abbreviation: CD
Appearance Frequency: 46845 time(s)
Long forms: 1992

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Crohn's disease
(15014 times)
Gastroenterology
(7413 times)
UC (6115 times)
IBD (5125 times)
CI (838 times)
1975 Humoral immune system activity in inflammatory bowel disease.
circular dichroism
(9146 times)
Biochemistry
(3722 times)
FTIR (506 times)
HSA (386 times)
BSA (376 times)
1969 The circular dichroism of suspensions of frog rod outer segments.
celiac disease
(4748 times)
Gastroenterology
(1414 times)
GFD (737 times)
tTG (284 times)
HLA (208 times)
1975 A family study of coeliac disease.
cluster of differentiation
(1675 times)
Neoplasms
(372 times)
IL (200 times)
IFN (59 times)
NK (59 times)
1984 Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations. IUIS-WHO Nomenclature Subcommittee.
conduct disorder
(1133 times)
Psychiatry
(588 times)
ADHD (407 times)
ODD (338 times)
CU (76 times)
1985 Electrodermal activity of undersocialized aggressive children: a pilot study.
cyclodextrin
(864 times)
Chemistry
(213 times)
CE (48 times)
HP-beta-CD (39 times)
beta-CD (32 times)
1984 Cyclodextrin polymer, a new tablet disintegrating agent.
Cushing's disease
(845 times)
Endocrinology
(538 times)
ACTH (134 times)
CS (134 times)
TSS (106 times)
1979 Plasma cortisol profiles in Cushing's syndrome.
cesarean delivery
(775 times)
Obstetrics
(315 times)
CI (113 times)
VD (75 times)
OR (63 times)
1993 [Perinatal infant mortality and cesarean section].
Chagas disease
(514 times)
Tropical Medicine
(153 times)
BZ (27 times)
CCC (19 times)
T. cruzi (18 times)
1985 Chagas' disease: serodiagnosis with purified Gp25 antigen.
10  Castleman's disease
(507 times)
Hematology
(71 times)
MCD (75 times)
UCD (53 times)
HHV-8 (43 times)
1986 Giant lymph node hyperplasia: a disease of primary follicle/mantle zone lymphocytes?
11  cervical dystonia
(489 times)
Neurology
(304 times)
TWSTRS (85 times)
BoNT (60 times)
BoNT-A (34 times)
1991 Cervical dystonia: clinical findings and associated movement disorders.
12  control diet
(480 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(93 times)
HFD (181 times)
WD (34 times)
NAFLD (23 times)
1978 The effect of protein-free diet on blood pressure in the Wistar rat.
13  conjugated dienes
(384 times)
Biochemistry
(70 times)
TBARS (125 times)
MDA (111 times)
SOD (92 times)
1986 Plasma fatty acid pattern including diene-conjugated linoleic acid in ethanol users and patients with ethanol-related liver disease.
14  cytosine deaminase
(358 times)
Neoplasms
(149 times)
5-FC (206 times)
5-FU (90 times)
TK (33 times)
1986 Sensitization to X ray by 5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine co-administered with tetrahydrouridine in several mammalian cell lines and studies of 2'-chloro derivatives.
15  collecting duct
(328 times)
Nephrology
(139 times)
ENaC (39 times)
AQP2 (38 times)
CNT (33 times)
1973 Concentrating engines and the kidney. I. Central core model of the renal medulla.
16  beta-cyclodextrin
(294 times)
Chemistry
(91 times)
AD (16 times)
SEM (10 times)
CE (7 times)
1985 Nutritional significance of cyclodextrins: indigestibility and hypolipemic effect of alpha-cyclodextrin.
17  cytochalasin D
(232 times)
Cell Biology
(83 times)
CB (23 times)
NRK (7 times)
PKC (6 times)
1974 Action of cytochalasin D on cells of established lines. I. Early events.
18  circular dichroism spectroscopy
(219 times)
Biochemistry
(81 times)
DSC (18 times)
TEM (16 times)
AFM (14 times)
1981 Antifreeze glycoprotein. Conformational model based on vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism data.
19  Clavien-Dindo
(185 times)
General Surgery
(69 times)
CI (13 times)
LOS (13 times)
CCI (12 times)
2012 Risk assessment using a novel score to predict anastomotic leak and major complications after oesophageal resection.
20  cathepsin D
(157 times)
Neoplasms
(45 times)
ER (14 times)
CB (12 times)
EGFR (8 times)
1981 Immunocytochemical localization of cathepsin D in rat neural tissue.
21  Clostridium difficile
(149 times)
Communicable Diseases
(35 times)
CDI (23 times)
CDAD (6 times)
CI (6 times)
1991 Tube feeding-related diarrhea in acutely Ill patients.
22  cortical dysplasia
(133 times)
Neurology
(91 times)
MRI (12 times)
BBB (8 times)
EEG (8 times)
1997 [Cerebral cortical dysplasia associated with epilepsy: MRI and clinical aspects].
23  crypt depth
(124 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(55 times)
VH (109 times)
ADG (16 times)
FCR (16 times)
2004 Effects of early nutrition intervention on IGF1, IGFBP3, intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation rats.
24  color Doppler
(120 times)
Radiology
(19 times)
US (48 times)
PD (25 times)
RI (6 times)
1990 [On the mechanisms of mitral regurgitation in rheumatic mitral valve disease: with special reference to the role of mitral valve prolapse].
25  capillary density
(116 times)
Physiology
(24 times)
OCTA (14 times)
VEGF (12 times)
FCSA (8 times)
1979 Changes in the capillarity of skeletal muscle in the growing rat.
26  contact dermatitis
(116 times)
Dermatology
(52 times)
AD (14 times)
DNFB (12 times)
ACD (11 times)
1985 Heterogeneity of dermal OKT6+ cells in inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases.
27  catalytic domain
(115 times)
Biochemistry
(24 times)
CBM (15 times)
CBD (12 times)
BD (5 times)
1993 Expression of protein kinase C isozymes in rat glial cell line.
28  convective drying
(110 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(11 times)
FD (13 times)
HD (12 times)
VMD (10 times)
1977 A double-blind trial of high versus conventional dosages of gold salts for rheumatoid arthritis.
29  carbon dot
(109 times)
Chemistry
(21 times)
FRET (7 times)
LOD (5 times)
ROS (5 times)
2012 Synthesis of gold@carbon dots composite nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering.
30  cardiac death
(107 times)
Cardiology
(58 times)
MI (40 times)
CI (21 times)
HR (19 times)
1986 The orthogonal electrocardiogram as risk indicator for the prediction of myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death.
31  compact disc
(106 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(20 times)
LOD (4 times)
CT (3 times)
PACS (3 times)
1988 Materials developments for write-once and erasable phase-change optical recording.
32  complete denture
(103 times)
Dentistry
(87 times)
RPD (14 times)
IOD (13 times)
OHRQoL (10 times)
1991 Oral sugar clearance in elderly people with prosthodontic reconstructions.
33  choline-deficient
(99 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
CS (37 times)
PC (9 times)
GGT (8 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
34  chow diet
(99 times)
Biochemistry
(13 times)
HFD (67 times)
NAFLD (10 times)
WD (8 times)
1996 Effect of aging on cortical spreading depression.
35  chromatic dispersion
(94 times)
Ophthalmology
(91 times)
OSNR (19 times)
PMD (18 times)
SSMF (15 times)
2003 Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres.
36  cocaine dependence
(88 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(28 times)
HC (13 times)
MRI (8 times)
fMRI (7 times)
1993 Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with cocaine dependence.
37  core decompression
(87 times)
Orthopedics
(36 times)
ONFH (46 times)
THA (26 times)
HHS (15 times)
2004 Magnetic resonance imaging criteria of successful core decompression in avascular necrosis of the hip.
38  gamma-cyclodextrin
(87 times)
Chemistry
(26 times)
SDS (5 times)
DSC (3 times)
HP-beta-CD (3 times)
1985 Effect of cyclodextrin cavity size on sensitization of room-temperature phosphorescence of biacetyl.
39  Canavan disease
(78 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
NAA (46 times)
ASPA (40 times)
CNS (12 times)
1992 Biochemical diagnosis of Canavan disease.
40  cervical deformity
(78 times)
Orthopedics
(20 times)
cSVA (28 times)
NDI (18 times)
CL (16 times)
2015 Magnitude of preoperative cervical lordotic compensation and C2-T3 angle are correlated to increased risk of postoperative sagittal spinal pelvic malalignment in adult thoracolumbar deformity patients at 2-year follow-up.
41  cognitive dysfunction
(76 times)
Rheumatology
(18 times)
SLE (14 times)
MoCA (7 times)
ANAM (6 times)
1985 Cognitive dysfunction and mild closed head injury in traumatic spinal cord injury.
42  chlordecone
(75 times)
Toxicology
(57 times)
PB (13 times)
3H-T (4 times)
ND (4 times)
1982 Preferential binding of chlordecone to the protein and high density lipoprotein fractions of plasma from humans and other species.
43  cardiovascular disease
(73 times)
Medicine
(10 times)
IHD (9 times)
HF (5 times)
CRP (4 times)
1988 Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland.
44  cell density
(71 times)
Ophthalmology
(30 times)
CCT (17 times)
CV (16 times)
HEX (12 times)
1984 Cell proliferation in carcinoma in bilharzial bladder: influence of pre-operative irradiation and clinical implications.
45  corneal diameter
(70 times)
Ophthalmology
(25 times)
ACD (17 times)
AL (16 times)
ND (10 times)
1985 Anterior segment and intraocular pressure measurements of the unanesthetized premature infant.
46  cow dung
(69 times)
Environmental Health
(32 times)
PM (5 times)
TOC (5 times)
PD (4 times)
2001 Assessment of sustainable vermiconversion of water hyacinth at different reactor efficiencies employing Eudrilus eugeniae kinberg.
47  canine distemper
(65 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(35 times)
CDV (33 times)
RT-PCR (4 times)
MS (3 times)
1958 A bivalent live virus vaccine against canine distemper (CD) and infectious canine hepatitis (ICH).
48  conversion disorder
(64 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DES (4 times)
PNES (3 times)
BDNF (2 times)
2002 Conversion motor paralysis disorder: overview and rehabilitation model.
49  Cotrel-Dubousset
(63 times)
Orthopedics
(50 times)
AIS (5 times)
H-L (2 times)
ODI (2 times)
1987 A comparative biomechanical study of spinal fixation using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation.
50  correlation dimension
(62 times)
Physiology
(14 times)
HRV (12 times)
ApEn (11 times)
LLE (10 times)
1994 A nonlinear dynamical (chaos) approach to the analysis of broiler growth.
51  contrast-detail
(60 times)
Biophysics
(32 times)
MTF (12 times)
CNR (7 times)
CR (7 times)
1984 Analysis of variations in contrast-detail experiments.
52  cognitive decline
(59 times)
Geriatrics
(23 times)
MMSE (9 times)
OR (6 times)
AD (5 times)
1999 Impaired olfaction as a marker for cognitive decline: interaction with apolipoprotein E epsilon4 status.
53  campomelic dysplasia
(58 times)
Genetics, Medical
(28 times)
ACD (6 times)
HMG (6 times)
PRS (6 times)
1993 Campomelic dysplasia--an underdiagnosed condition?
54  current density
(54 times)
Environmental Health
(26 times)
EC (13 times)
COD (8 times)
DC (5 times)
1995 Voltage-dependent calcium currents are enhanced in dorsal root ganglion neurones from the Bio Bred/Worchester diabetic rat.
55  cluster designation
(51 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
NK (6 times)
IL-2 (3 times)
Ab (2 times)
1987 Generation of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity from human thymocytes.
56  cone dystrophy
(49 times)
Ophthalmology
(31 times)
ERG (6 times)
RP (6 times)
CRD (5 times)
1997 Cone and rod function in cone degenerations.
57  cadaveric donor
(48 times)
Transplantation
(29 times)
LD (20 times)
LRD (12 times)
NAPRTCS (8 times)
1981 Diagnostic and prognostic significance of an increase in fractional protein clearance ratio before and during rejection of renal transplant.
58  carbidopa
(47 times)
Neurology
(11 times)
LD (33 times)
PD (12 times)
PK (6 times)
1983 [Various aspects of dopaminergic function in patients with prolactin-secreting hypophyseal adenoma].
59  cumulative dose
(47 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
DAP (12 times)
FT (10 times)
KAP (6 times)
1988 Cumulative dose-response with infusion: a technique to determine neuromuscular blocking potency of atracurium and vecuronium.
60  cystic duct
(47 times)
General Surgery
(25 times)
CBD (21 times)
LC (16 times)
ICG (10 times)
1989 Choledochoscopy via the cystic duct: evaluation of a new ultrathin disposable choledochoscope.
61  cytoplasmic domain
(47 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
ED (5 times)
HIV-1 (4 times)
RV (4 times)
1991 Structure-function relationships in the mast cell high affinity receptor for IgE. Role of the cytoplasmic domains and of the beta subunit.
62  alpha-cyclodextrin
(46 times)
Chemistry
(17 times)
PEO (3 times)
PR (3 times)
CGTase (2 times)
1990 Cytotoxic activity of polyacetylene compounds in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.
63  choroidal detachment
(42 times)
Ophthalmology
(30 times)
IOP (15 times)
RRD (15 times)
PPV (4 times)
1978 Molecular sieving in suprachoroidal fluid formation in man.
64  common deletion
(41 times)
Molecular Biology
(5 times)
mtDNA (25 times)
D-gal (5 times)
NOX (4 times)
1993 Respiratory chain and mitochondrial DNA in muscle and brain in Parkinson's disease patients.
65  critical difference
(37 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(9 times)
ANOVA (4 times)
CV (3 times)
ALA (2 times)
1984 A comparative study of the traditional long case with the objective structured clinical examination in Lagos, Nigeria.
66  critical dimension
(36 times)
Biophysics
(12 times)
EUV (5 times)
DSA (3 times)
LER (3 times)
2006 Effect of critical dimension variation on SAW correlator energy.
67  cafeteria diet
(34 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(11 times)
SD (5 times)
STD (4 times)
GSPE (3 times)
1984 Pinealectomy has no effect on diet-induced thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue proliferation in rats.
68  coefficient of determination
(32 times)
Genetics
(6 times)
PEVD (3 times)
AF (2 times)
BLUP (2 times)
1977 A path analysis of the causal relationships between red cell glycolytic intermediates, ADP and ATP in sickle cell anemia.
69  corneal densitometry
(32 times)
Ophthalmology
(19 times)
CCT (7 times)
DMEK (7 times)
AS-OCT (5 times)
2016 Effect of Light Scattering and Higher-order Aberrations on Visual Performance in Eyes with Granular Corneal Dystrophy.
70  crural diaphragm
(32 times)
Gastroenterology
(22 times)
LES (21 times)
EGJ (15 times)
GERD (11 times)
2000 The effect of mechanoreceptor stimulation of the laryngopharynx on the oesophago-gastric junction.
71  communication deviance
(31 times)
Psychiatry
(22 times)
EE (8 times)
AS (4 times)
TAT (3 times)
1984 Parental communication deviance and forms of thinking in male schizophrenic offspring.
72  Caton-Deschamps
(30 times)
Orthopedics
(21 times)
BP (22 times)
IS (22 times)
MIS (8 times)
2000 Reliability and interobserver variability in radiological patellar height ratios.
73  Clostridioides difficile
(30 times)
Microbiology
(9 times)
CDI (10 times)
CI (3 times)
GDH (3 times)
2018 HMW-profiling using MALDI-TOF MS: A screening method for outbreaks of Clostridioides difficile.
74  central defenders
(29 times)
Sports Medicine
(11 times)
CM (18 times)
FB (12 times)
FW (12 times)
2011 Does on-field sprinting performance in young soccer players depend on how fast they can run or how fast they do run?
75  chemical dependency
(29 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(16 times)
MH (4 times)
OR (3 times)
BI (2 times)
1989 Chemical dependence treatment review guidelines.
76  cell death
(28 times)
Botany
(4 times)
AD (2 times)
AML (2 times)
ara-C (2 times)
1992 Blocking the Ca(2+)-activated cytotoxic mechanisms of cholinergic neuronal death: a novel treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease.
77  chromodomain
(28 times)
Molecular Biology
(9 times)
CSD (9 times)
HP1 (9 times)
PfHP1 (2 times)
2000 Dimerisation of a chromo shadow domain and distinctions from the chromodomain as revealed by structural analysis.
78  contamination degree
(28 times)
Environmental Health
(23 times)
CF (9 times)
EF (7 times)
PLI (7 times)
2007 [Geogenic distribution and baseline concentrations of cadmium in surficial soil of Guiyang, China].
79  change detection
(27 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(6 times)
VHR (3 times)
CVA (2 times)
DL (2 times)
2010 A context-sensitive technique robust to registration noise for change detection in VHR multispectral images.
80  chronic dialysis
(27 times)
Nephrology
(9 times)
ESRD (5 times)
GFR (4 times)
ICU (3 times)
1997 Psychosocial problem assessment and end-stage renal disease patient outcomes.
81  corollary discharge
(27 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
MD (2 times)
SC (2 times)
ASD (1 time)
2008 Brain circuits for the internal monitoring of movements.
82  methyl-beta-cyclodextrin
(27 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
MeJA (3 times)
CHO (2 times)
PR (2 times)
1998 Growth and survival of Helicobacter pylori in defined medium and susceptibility to Brij 78.
83  2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
(25 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
NPC (3 times)
CCs (2 times)
HPMC (2 times)
1993 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances phorbol ester effects on glucose transport and/or protein kinase C-beta translocation to the plasma membrane in rat adipocytes and soleus muscles.
84  charge density
(25 times)
Environmental Health
(9 times)
MW (6 times)
ST (3 times)
AF (2 times)
2000 QSAR studies on antimalarial activities of 2-phenyl-4-quinoline-carbinolamines.
85  conduction disturbances
(25 times)
Cardiology
(11 times)
TAVR (5 times)
LBBB (4 times)
PPM (4 times)
1979 Conduction disturbances in patients with calcified mitral annulus diagnosed by echocardiography.
86  charge distribution
(23 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
MUSIC (5 times)
MO/DFT (4 times)
DFT (2 times)
1996 Multisite Adsorption of Cadmium on Goethite
87  chest depth
(22 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
BL (14 times)
HW (10 times)
BW (7 times)
2010 Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of bovine UQCC and its association with body measurement traits.
88  cognitive debriefing
(22 times)
Patient Reported Outcome Measures
(10 times)
CE (18 times)
PRO (10 times)
HRQoL (4 times)
2011 The bladder pain/interstitial cystitis symptom score: development, validation, and identification of a cut score.
89  colostrum-deprived
(21 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(16 times)
CF (10 times)
CR (3 times)
LPS (3 times)
1975 Antibody responses to neonatal immunisation in calves.
90  calving difficulty
(20 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(10 times)
GL (6 times)
SB (4 times)
BW (3 times)
1979 Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analyses of factors causing calving difficulty.
91  commercial diet
(20 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
AAT (2 times)
FM (2 times)
HD (2 times)
1983 Modifying factors in pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster model. I. Effect of protein-free diet fed during the early stages of carcinogenesis.
92  conduction delay
(20 times)
Cardiology
(10 times)
AF (10 times)
CB (5 times)
BB (3 times)
1989 Characterization of concentration- and use-dependent effects of quinidine from conduction delay and declining conduction velocity in canine Purkinje fibers.
93  corona discharge
(20 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(17 times)
IMS (10 times)
APCI (3 times)
EC (2 times)
2009 Single-walled carbon nanotube sensor monitoring the dissociation of argon gas.
94  cervical dislocation
(19 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
HD (3 times)
KED (2 times)
MCD (2 times)
1976 Uterine work in parturition.
95  communicable diseases
(19 times)
Public Health
(8 times)
NCD (7 times)
AMR (1 time)
ART (1 time)
1993 International migration and control of communicable diseases.
96  coronary disease
(19 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
LAD (3 times)
DF (2 times)
EDV/S (2 times)
1983 [Treatment of pain in patients with ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis of the cervicothoracic vertebrae].
97  cycle day
(19 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(14 times)
ICSI (2 times)
IVF (2 times)
AUC (1 time)
1983 Anovulatory luteal cycles in primates.
98  chemically defined
(18 times)
Biotechnology
(7 times)
CHO (6 times)
GFAP (3 times)
mAb (2 times)
1983 Differentiation of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium.
99  Cholesky decomposition
(18 times)
Chemistry
(17 times)
DF (4 times)
CCSD (3 times)
ERIs (3 times)
2007 Unbiased auxiliary basis sets for accurate two-electron integral approximations.
100  choline-devoid
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
CS (7 times)
GGT (6 times)
PHB (5 times)
1978 Enhancement of DL-ethionine-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats fed a choline-devoid diet.