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Abbreviation: CD
Appearance Frequency: 41900 time(s)
Long forms: 1813

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Crohn's disease
(13218 times)
Gastroenterology
(6804 times)
UC (5389 times)
IBD (4455 times)
CI (727 times)
1975 Humoral immune system activity in inflammatory bowel disease.
circular dichroism
(8514 times)
Biochemistry
(3622 times)
FTIR (454 times)
HSA (365 times)
BSA (355 times)
1969 The circular dichroism of suspensions of frog rod outer segments.
celiac disease
(4338 times)
Gastroenterology
(1351 times)
GFD (653 times)
tTG (278 times)
EMA (186 times)
1975 A family study of coeliac disease.
cluster of differentiation
(1489 times)
Neoplasms
(356 times)
IL (186 times)
IFN (53 times)
NK (52 times)
1984 Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations. IUIS-WHO Nomenclature Subcommittee.
conduct disorder
(1073 times)
Psychiatry
(560 times)
ADHD (397 times)
ODD (322 times)
CU (66 times)
1985 Electrodermal activity of undersocialized aggressive children: a pilot study.
cyclodextrin
(750 times)
Chemistry
(186 times)
CE (45 times)
HP-beta-CD (33 times)
beta-CD (27 times)
1984 Cyclodextrin polymer, a new tablet disintegrating agent.
Cushing's disease
(736 times)
Endocrinology
(484 times)
CS (114 times)
ACTH (110 times)
TSS (97 times)
1979 Plasma cortisol profiles in Cushing's syndrome.
cesarean delivery
(629 times)
Obstetrics
(254 times)
CI (86 times)
VD (66 times)
OR (53 times)
1993 [Perinatal infant mortality and cesarean section].
Castleman's disease
(447 times)
Hematology
(66 times)
MCD (61 times)
HHV-8 (41 times)
IL-6 (41 times)
1986 Giant lymph node hyperplasia: a disease of primary follicle/mantle zone lymphocytes?
10  cervical dystonia
(433 times)
Neurology
(281 times)
TWSTRS (72 times)
BoNT (48 times)
BoNT-A (30 times)
1991 Cervical dystonia: clinical findings and associated movement disorders.
11  control diet
(417 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(84 times)
HFD (160 times)
WD (29 times)
HF (20 times)
1978 The effect of protein-free diet on blood pressure in the Wistar rat.
12  Chagas disease
(382 times)
Tropical Medicine
(107 times)
BZ (23 times)
T. cruzi (14 times)
CCC (13 times)
1985 Chagas' disease: serodiagnosis with purified Gp25 antigen.
13  conjugated dienes
(371 times)
Biochemistry
(68 times)
TBARS (123 times)
MDA (108 times)
SOD (88 times)
1986 Plasma fatty acid pattern including diene-conjugated linoleic acid in ethanol users and patients with ethanol-related liver disease.
14  cytosine deaminase
(356 times)
Neoplasms
(149 times)
5-FC (206 times)
5-FU (90 times)
TK (33 times)
1986 Sensitization to X ray by 5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine co-administered with tetrahydrouridine in several mammalian cell lines and studies of 2'-chloro derivatives.
15  collecting duct
(301 times)
Nephrology
(137 times)
AQP2 (37 times)
ENaC (37 times)
CNT (31 times)
1973 Concentrating engines and the kidney. I. Central core model of the renal medulla.
16  beta-cyclodextrin
(253 times)
Chemistry
(80 times)
AD (13 times)
SEM (9 times)
CE (7 times)
1985 Nutritional significance of cyclodextrins: indigestibility and hypolipemic effect of alpha-cyclodextrin.
17  cytochalasin D
(228 times)
Cell Biology
(82 times)
CB (23 times)
NRK (7 times)
PKC (6 times)
1974 Action of cytochalasin D on cells of established lines. I. Early events.
18  circular dichroism spectroscopy
(197 times)
Biochemistry
(80 times)
DSC (17 times)
TEM (16 times)
AFM (13 times)
1981 Antifreeze glycoprotein. Conformational model based on vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism data.
19  cathepsin D
(156 times)
Neoplasms
(45 times)
ER (14 times)
CB (12 times)
EGFR (8 times)
1981 Immunocytochemical localization of cathepsin D in rat neural tissue.
20  Clostridium difficile
(145 times)
Communicable Diseases
(35 times)
CDI (22 times)
CDAD (6 times)
CI (6 times)
1991 Tube feeding-related diarrhea in acutely Ill patients.
21  cortical dysplasia
(132 times)
Neurology
(90 times)
MRI (12 times)
EEG (8 times)
BBB (7 times)
1997 [Cerebral cortical dysplasia associated with epilepsy: MRI and clinical aspects].
22  Clavien-Dindo
(123 times)
General Surgery
(44 times)
CCI (11 times)
LOS (10 times)
CI (8 times)
2012 Risk assessment using a novel score to predict anastomotic leak and major complications after oesophageal resection.
23  color Doppler
(111 times)
Radiology
(18 times)
US (47 times)
PD (23 times)
RI (6 times)
1990 [On the mechanisms of mitral regurgitation in rheumatic mitral valve disease: with special reference to the role of mitral valve prolapse].
24  catalytic domain
(105 times)
Biochemistry
(24 times)
CBM (15 times)
CBD (11 times)
BD (5 times)
1993 Expression of protein kinase C isozymes in rat glial cell line.
25  compact disc
(103 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(19 times)
CT (3 times)
LOD (3 times)
PACS (3 times)
1988 Materials developments for write-once and erasable phase-change optical recording.
26  capillary density
(98 times)
Physiology
(22 times)
VEGF (11 times)
OCTA (9 times)
FCSA (8 times)
1979 Changes in the capillarity of skeletal muscle in the growing rat.
27  cardiac death
(98 times)
Cardiology
(56 times)
MI (37 times)
CI (19 times)
TLR (18 times)
1986 The orthogonal electrocardiogram as risk indicator for the prediction of myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death.
28  choline-deficient
(98 times)
Neoplasms
(26 times)
CS (37 times)
PC (9 times)
GGT (8 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
29  contact dermatitis
(98 times)
Dermatology
(49 times)
AD (13 times)
DNFB (11 times)
ACD (10 times)
1985 Heterogeneity of dermal OKT6+ cells in inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases.
30  complete denture
(90 times)
Dentistry
(78 times)
IOD (11 times)
RPD (11 times)
OHRQoL (7 times)
1991 Oral sugar clearance in elderly people with prosthodontic reconstructions.
31  conventional drilling
(89 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(9 times)
HD (12 times)
VMD (9 times)
FD (8 times)
1977 A double-blind trial of high versus conventional dosages of gold salts for rheumatoid arthritis.
32  cocaine dependence
(85 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(27 times)
HC (13 times)
fMRI (7 times)
MRI (7 times)
1993 Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with cocaine dependence.
33  chromatic dispersion
(82 times)
Optics and Photonics
(80 times)
OSNR (18 times)
PMD (18 times)
SSMF (11 times)
2003 Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres.
34  gamma-cyclodextrin
(80 times)
Chemistry
(24 times)
SDS (5 times)
HP-beta-CD (3 times)
CGTase (2 times)
1985 Effect of cyclodextrin cavity size on sensitization of room-temperature phosphorescence of biacetyl.
35  carbon dot
(75 times)
Chemistry
(14 times)
FRET (7 times)
LOD (4 times)
ROS (4 times)
2012 Synthesis of gold@carbon dots composite nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering.
36  crypt depth
(75 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(33 times)
VH (66 times)
FCR (10 times)
BWG (6 times)
2004 Effects of early nutrition intervention on IGF1, IGFBP3, intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation rats.
37  chlordecone
(74 times)
Toxicology
(56 times)
PB (13 times)
3H-T (4 times)
ND (4 times)
1982 Preferential binding of chlordecone to the protein and high density lipoprotein fractions of plasma from humans and other species.
38  chow diet
(74 times)
Endocrinology
(12 times)
HFD (50 times)
NAFLD (7 times)
HF (6 times)
1996 Effect of aging on cortical spreading depression.
39  Canavan disease
(72 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
NAA (42 times)
ASPA (37 times)
CNS (10 times)
1992 Biochemical diagnosis of Canavan disease.
40  core decompression
(69 times)
Orthopedics
(30 times)
ONFH (32 times)
THA (19 times)
AVN (12 times)
2004 Magnetic resonance imaging criteria of successful core decompression in avascular necrosis of the hip.
41  cardiovascular disease
(64 times)
Medicine
(9 times)
IHD (8 times)
CRP (4 times)
DM (4 times)
1988 Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland.
42  Cotrel-Dubousset
(63 times)
Orthopedics
(50 times)
AIS (5 times)
H-L (2 times)
ODI (2 times)
1987 A comparative biomechanical study of spinal fixation using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation.
43  canine distemper
(62 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(33 times)
CDV (30 times)
MS (3 times)
RT-PCR (3 times)
1958 A bivalent live virus vaccine against canine distemper (CD) and infectious canine hepatitis (ICH).
44  cognitive dysfunction
(61 times)
Rheumatology
(13 times)
SLE (13 times)
ANAM (5 times)
MoCA (5 times)
1985 Cognitive dysfunction and mild closed head injury in traumatic spinal cord injury.
45  correlation dimension
(61 times)
Physiology
(14 times)
HRV (12 times)
ApEn (11 times)
LLE (10 times)
1994 A nonlinear dynamical (chaos) approach to the analysis of broiler growth.
46  cell density
(60 times)
Ophthalmology
(26 times)
CCT (14 times)
CV (13 times)
HEX (11 times)
1984 Cell proliferation in carcinoma in bilharzial bladder: influence of pre-operative irradiation and clinical implications.
47  conversion disorder
(59 times)
Neurology
(22 times)
DES (4 times)
PNES (3 times)
BDNF (2 times)
2002 Conversion motor paralysis disorder: overview and rehabilitation model.
48  campomelic dysplasia
(57 times)
Genetics, Medical
(28 times)
ACD (6 times)
HMG (6 times)
PRS (6 times)
1993 Campomelic dysplasia--an underdiagnosed condition?
49  contrast-detail
(56 times)
Biophysics
(30 times)
MTF (10 times)
CR (7 times)
IQF (7 times)
1984 Analysis of variations in contrast-detail experiments.
50  corneal diameter
(55 times)
Ophthalmology
(16 times)
ACD (11 times)
AL (11 times)
ND (9 times)
1985 Anterior segment and intraocular pressure measurements of the unanesthetized premature infant.
51  cow dung
(55 times)
Technology
(28 times)
PD (4 times)
PM (4 times)
TOC (4 times)
2001 Assessment of sustainable vermiconversion of water hyacinth at different reactor efficiencies employing Eudrilus eugeniae kinberg.
52  cluster designation
(49 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(11 times)
NK (6 times)
IL-2 (3 times)
Ab (2 times)
1987 Generation of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity from human thymocytes.
53  cadaveric donor
(48 times)
Transplantation
(29 times)
LD (20 times)
LRD (12 times)
NAPRTCS (8 times)
1981 Diagnostic and prognostic significance of an increase in fractional protein clearance ratio before and during rejection of renal transplant.
54  cone dystrophy
(48 times)
Ophthalmology
(31 times)
ERG (6 times)
RP (6 times)
CRD (5 times)
1997 Cone and rod function in cone degenerations.
55  cervical deformity
(47 times)
Orthopedics
(14 times)
cSVA (19 times)
ASD (9 times)
CL (9 times)
2015 Magnitude of preoperative cervical lordotic compensation and C2-T3 angle are correlated to increased risk of postoperative sagittal spinal pelvic malalignment in adult thoracolumbar deformity patients at 2-year follow-up.
56  carbidopa
(45 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
LD (31 times)
PD (12 times)
3-OMD (5 times)
1983 [Various aspects of dopaminergic function in patients with prolactin-secreting hypophyseal adenoma].
57  cognitive decline
(45 times)
Geriatrics
(21 times)
MMSE (8 times)
OR (6 times)
AD (5 times)
1999 Impaired olfaction as a marker for cognitive decline: interaction with apolipoprotein E epsilon4 status.
58  cumulative dose
(45 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
DAP (12 times)
FT (10 times)
KAP (6 times)
1988 Cumulative dose-response with infusion: a technique to determine neuromuscular blocking potency of atracurium and vecuronium.
59  alpha-cyclodextrin
(44 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
PEO (3 times)
CGTase (2 times)
PAEs (2 times)
1990 Cytotoxic activity of polyacetylene compounds in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.
60  cytoplasmic domain
(44 times)
Biochemistry
(8 times)
ED (5 times)
HIV-1 (4 times)
RV (4 times)
1991 Structure-function relationships in the mast cell high affinity receptor for IgE. Role of the cytoplasmic domains and of the beta subunit.
61  common deletion
(40 times)
Molecular Biology
(5 times)
mtDNA (24 times)
D-gal (5 times)
NOX (4 times)
1993 Respiratory chain and mitochondrial DNA in muscle and brain in Parkinson's disease patients.
62  current density
(40 times)
Environmental Health
(20 times)
EC (12 times)
COD (5 times)
DC (3 times)
1995 Voltage-dependent calcium currents are enhanced in dorsal root ganglion neurones from the Bio Bred/Worchester diabetic rat.
63  cystic duct
(40 times)
General Surgery
(23 times)
CBD (16 times)
LC (12 times)
ICG (7 times)
1989 Choledochoscopy via the cystic duct: evaluation of a new ultrathin disposable choledochoscope.
64  critical difference
(35 times)
Chemistry, Clinical
(8 times)
ANOVA (4 times)
CV (3 times)
ALA (2 times)
1984 A comparative study of the traditional long case with the objective structured clinical examination in Lagos, Nigeria.
65  choroidal detachment
(33 times)
Ophthalmology
(22 times)
RRD (14 times)
IOP (12 times)
PPV (4 times)
1978 Molecular sieving in suprachoroidal fluid formation in man.
66  cafeteria diet
(31 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(11 times)
SD (5 times)
GSPE (3 times)
ITI (3 times)
1984 Pinealectomy has no effect on diet-induced thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue proliferation in rats.
67  communication deviance
(31 times)
Psychiatry
(22 times)
EE (8 times)
AS (4 times)
TAT (3 times)
1984 Parental communication deviance and forms of thinking in male schizophrenic offspring.
68  crural diaphragm
(31 times)
Gastroenterology
(21 times)
LES (20 times)
EGJ (15 times)
GERD (11 times)
2000 The effect of mechanoreceptor stimulation of the laryngopharynx on the oesophago-gastric junction.
69  coefficient of determination
(30 times)
Genetics
(6 times)
PEVD (3 times)
AF (2 times)
BLUP (2 times)
1977 A path analysis of the causal relationships between red cell glycolytic intermediates, ADP and ATP in sickle cell anemia.
70  chemical dependency
(29 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(16 times)
MH (4 times)
OR (3 times)
BI (2 times)
1989 Chemical dependence treatment review guidelines.
71  critical dimension
(28 times)
Biophysics
(10 times)
EUV (4 times)
DSA (3 times)
AFM (2 times)
2006 Effect of critical dimension variation on SAW correlator energy.
72  chromodomain
(26 times)
Molecular Biology
(9 times)
HP1 (9 times)
CSD (8 times)
PfHP1 (2 times)
2000 Dimerisation of a chromo shadow domain and distinctions from the chromodomain as revealed by structural analysis.
73  chronic dialysis
(26 times)
Nephrology
(9 times)
ESRD (5 times)
GFR (4 times)
ICU (3 times)
1997 Psychosocial problem assessment and end-stage renal disease patient outcomes.
74  methyl-beta-cyclodextrin
(26 times)
Biochemistry
(5 times)
MeJA (3 times)
CHO (2 times)
PR (2 times)
1998 Growth and survival of Helicobacter pylori in defined medium and susceptibility to Brij 78.
75  cell death
(25 times)
Cell Biology
(3 times)
AML (2 times)
HI (2 times)
PCD (2 times)
1992 Blocking the Ca(2+)-activated cytotoxic mechanisms of cholinergic neuronal death: a novel treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease.
76  Caton-Deschamps
(24 times)
Orthopedics
(16 times)
BP (20 times)
IS (18 times)
mIS (8 times)
2000 Reliability and interobserver variability in radiological patellar height ratios.
77  charge density
(22 times)
Environmental Health
(9 times)
MW (6 times)
ESP (2 times)
PAC (2 times)
2000 QSAR studies on antimalarial activities of 2-phenyl-4-quinoline-carbinolamines.
78  charge distribution
(22 times)
Chemistry
(13 times)
MUSIC (5 times)
MO/DFT (4 times)
DFT (2 times)
1996 Multisite Adsorption of Cadmium on Goethite
79  corollary discharge
(22 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
MD (2 times)
SC (2 times)
CRF (1 time)
2008 Brain circuits for the internal monitoring of movements.
80  colostrum-deprived
(21 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(16 times)
CF (10 times)
CR (3 times)
LPS (3 times)
1975 Antibody responses to neonatal immunisation in calves.
81  central defenders
(20 times)
Sports Medicine
(9 times)
CM (12 times)
FW (9 times)
FB (8 times)
2011 Does on-field sprinting performance in young soccer players depend on how fast they can run or how fast they do run?
82  contamination degree
(20 times)
Environmental Health
(16 times)
CF (5 times)
EF (4 times)
PLI (4 times)
2007 [Geogenic distribution and baseline concentrations of cadmium in surficial soil of Guiyang, China].
83  hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
(20 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
NPC (3 times)
CCs (2 times)
AAR (1 time)
1993 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances phorbol ester effects on glucose transport and/or protein kinase C-beta translocation to the plasma membrane in rat adipocytes and soleus muscles.
84  corneal densitometry
(19 times)
Ophthalmology
(12 times)
DMEK (4 times)
CCT (3 times)
CDVA (3 times)
2016 Effect of Light Scattering and Higher-order Aberrations on Visual Performance in Eyes with Granular Corneal Dystrophy.
85  change detection
(18 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(4 times)
CVA (2 times)
IT (2 times)
LULC (2 times)
2010 A context-sensitive technique robust to registration noise for change detection in VHR multispectral images.
86  choline-devoid
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
CS (7 times)
GGT (6 times)
PHB (5 times)
1978 Enhancement of DL-ethionine-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats fed a choline-devoid diet.
87  commercial diet
(18 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
AAT (2 times)
FM (2 times)
HD (2 times)
1983 Modifying factors in pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster model. I. Effect of protein-free diet fed during the early stages of carcinogenesis.
88  common docking
(18 times)
Biochemistry
(6 times)
MAP (2 times)
MAPK (2 times)
MAPKs (2 times)
2001 Identification of a docking groove on ERK and p38 MAP kinases that regulates the specificity of docking interactions.
89  conduction delay
(18 times)
Cardiology
(9 times)
AF (8 times)
BB (3 times)
CB (3 times)
1989 Characterization of concentration- and use-dependent effects of quinidine from conduction delay and declining conduction velocity in canine Purkinje fibers.
90  conduction disturbances
(18 times)
Cardiology
(8 times)
LBBB (3 times)
CI (2 times)
ECG (2 times)
1979 Conduction disturbances in patients with calcified mitral annulus diagnosed by echocardiography.
91  corona discharge
(18 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(16 times)
IMS (9 times)
APCI (3 times)
EC (2 times)
2009 Single-walled carbon nanotube sensor monitoring the dissociation of argon gas.
92  cycle day
(18 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(13 times)
ICSI (2 times)
IVF (2 times)
CC (1 time)
1983 Anovulatory luteal cycles in primates.
93  cervical dislocation
(17 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(5 times)
HD (3 times)
KED (2 times)
MCD (2 times)
1976 Uterine work in parturition.
94  chemically defined
(17 times)
Biotechnology
(6 times)
CHO (5 times)
GFAP (3 times)
ADCF (1 time)
1983 Differentiation of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium.
95  communicable diseases
(17 times)
Public Health
(7 times)
NCD (7 times)
AMR (1 time)
ART (1 time)
1993 International migration and control of communicable diseases.
96  conserved domain
(17 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
TM (3 times)
RBD (2 times)
ACE2 (1 time)
1990 Ability of the HPV16 E7 protein to bind RB and induce DNA synthesis is not sufficient for efficient transforming activity in NIH3T3 cells.
97  coronary disease
(17 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
LAD (3 times)
DF (2 times)
EDV/S (2 times)
1983 [Treatment of pain in patients with ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis of the cervicothoracic vertebrae].
98  calving difficulty
(16 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(9 times)
GL (5 times)
BW (3 times)
BWT (3 times)
1979 Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analyses of factors causing calving difficulty.
99  cannabis dependence
(16 times)
Substance-Related Disorders
(6 times)
PPI (3 times)
AD (2 times)
AUC (2 times)
2008 Genetic and environmental contributions to nicotine, alcohol and cannabis dependence in male twins.
100  chlorine dioxide
(16 times)
Microbiology
(5 times)
RH (3 times)
VAS (3 times)
SH (2 times)
1990 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization under Square-Wave Conditions.