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Abbreviation: CS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
chitosan
(3352 times)
Biochemistry
(603 times)
SEM (291 times)
NPs (216 times)
FTIR (212 times)
1990 Effect of interpolymer complex formation on bioadhesive property and drug release phenomenon of compressed tablet consisting of chitosan and sodium hyaluronate.
cesarean section
(2587 times)
Obstetrics
(1037 times)
CI (182 times)
VD (149 times)
OR (130 times)
1976 Increasing caesarean section rate.
conditioned stimulus
(2301 times)
Neurology
(885 times)
US (946 times)
CR (182 times)
UCS (117 times)
1973 Unilateral cortical spreading depression and conditioned eye blink responses in rabbits.
chondroitin sulfate
(1978 times)
Biochemistry
(480 times)
HA (354 times)
HS (327 times)
GAGs (310 times)
1975 The effects of glycosaminoglycans on surface-mediated interactions of lymphoid cells.
cigarette smoke
(1782 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(290 times)
COPD (586 times)
CSE (284 times)
BALF (115 times)
1975 Chronic inhalation of nickel oxide and cigarette smoke by hamsters.
compressed sensing
(1299 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(305 times)
MRI (88 times)
SNR (48 times)
DTS (45 times)
1985 Correlation between the compressive strength of iliac and vertebral trabecular bone in normal individuals.
coronary sinus
(1218 times)
Cardiology
(870 times)
AF (151 times)
LV (138 times)
CRT (133 times)
1975 Abnormal regional metabolism and mechanical function in patients with ischemic heart diseases: improvement after successful regional revascularization by aortocoronary bypass.
corticosteroids
(1163 times)
Rheumatology
(117 times)
HA (44 times)
UC (40 times)
HPA (36 times)
1975 Diurnal variations in plasma corticosterone and growth hormone as corrlelated with regional variations in norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin content of rat brain.
Cushing's syndrome
(1054 times)
Endocrinology
(625 times)
ACTH (146 times)
CD (131 times)
UFC (85 times)
1981 The relationship of adrenal iodomethylnorcholesterol uptake to indices of adrenal cortical function in Cushing's syndrome.
10  citrate synthase
(1036 times)
Physiology
(291 times)
LDH (190 times)
PFK (82 times)
COX (67 times)
1975 M. Quadriceps femoris of man, a muscle with an unusual enzyme activity pattern of energy supplying metabolism in mammals.
11  contrast sensitivity
(955 times)
Ophthalmology
(416 times)
VA (178 times)
BCVA (86 times)
IOL (44 times)
1976 Adjuvant effect of lysolecithin analogues on the development of contact sensitivity in mice.
12  cardiogenic shock
(938 times)
Cardiology
(535 times)
AMI (217 times)
PCI (163 times)
STEMI (125 times)
1976 Early care of acute myocardial infarction.
13  Cockayne syndrome
(748 times)
Genetics, Medical
(130 times)
XP (171 times)
NER (108 times)
TTD (62 times)
1978 Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Recognition and relationship to neurological abnormalities in Cockayne's syndrome.
14  circumsporozoite
(399 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(135 times)
CTL (23 times)
ELISA (23 times)
PCR (9 times)
1983 Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes.
15  cardiac sarcoidosis
(376 times)
Cardiology
(194 times)
CMR (50 times)
PET (40 times)
FDG (37 times)
1986 [Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS)].
16  cavernous sinus
(320 times)
Neurosurgery
(153 times)
ICA (47 times)
DAVF (22 times)
IPS (20 times)
1982 Visualization of the superior ophthalmic vein on carotid angiography.
17  conservative surgery
(310 times)
Neoplasms
(69 times)
RT (33 times)
FNA (23 times)
LBC (23 times)
1983 EVI antibodies in patients with Chagas' disease: relationship with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulins and effects of specific treatment.
18  Constant score
(244 times)
Orthopedics
(141 times)
SSV (56 times)
VAS (32 times)
ASES (23 times)
1999 A multicenter study of 210 rotator cuff tears treated by arthroscopic acromioplasty.
19  clinical stage
(234 times)
Neoplasms
(97 times)
PS (35 times)
HD (31 times)
RT (24 times)
1976 Results of involved field and extended field radiotherapy in patients with pathologic state I and II Hodgkin's disease.
20  cold storage
(225 times)
Transplantation
(118 times)
MP (51 times)
DCD (37 times)
DGF (30 times)
1986 Comparison of cold storage and perfusion of dog livers on function of tissue slices.
21  control subjects
(204 times)
Neurology
(41 times)
RA (24 times)
AD (11 times)
PD (11 times)
1979 Correlative studies of lymphocyte transformation and plasma protein levels in ankylosing spondylitis.
22  calcium silicate
(197 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(48 times)
SBF (12 times)
SEM (12 times)
ALP (10 times)
2002 Bone regeneration with calcium sulfate: evidence for increased angiogenesis in rabbits.
23  ciclosporin
(191 times)
Nephrology
(45 times)
AZA (7 times)
LPS (5 times)
BUN (4 times)
1983 Activity of some natural and modified (fluorescent) cyclosporins on T cells.
24  central sensitization
(188 times)
Neurology
(62 times)
CSI (66 times)
OA (18 times)
QST (15 times)
1975 Serum IgE-concentrations in patients with contact sensitization.
25  circumferential strain
(172 times)
Cardiology
(69 times)
LS (86 times)
LV (66 times)
RS (56 times)
2000 Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant curved tube model of a coronary artery.
26  cryptogenic stroke
(150 times)
Neurology
(37 times)
PFO (70 times)
AF (39 times)
ICM (14 times)
1998 Coagulation abnormalities in adults with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.
27  congenital syphilis
(142 times)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(26 times)
CI (7 times)
aOR (6 times)
LB (6 times)
1990 Resurgence of congenital syphilis in Trinidad.
28  cortical stimulation
(140 times)
Neurology
(19 times)
SS (9 times)
IS (8 times)
TS (8 times)
1976 Effects of para-chlorophenylalanine and tryptophan on learning of a brightness discrimination in rats.
29  congenital scoliosis
(133 times)
Orthopedics
(51 times)
AIS (21 times)
IS (14 times)
SCM (6 times)
1983 Abnormalities of aggregation, thromboxane A2 synthesis, and 14C serotonin release in platelets of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
30  conscious sedation
(133 times)
Neurology
(26 times)
GA (99 times)
AIS (19 times)
EVT (17 times)
1991 Functional assessment of coloanal anastomosis with reservoir and excision of the anal transition zone.
31  corn starch
(131 times)
Biochemistry
(35 times)
FTIR (11 times)
RS (11 times)
SEM (9 times)
1990 The influence of supplemental corn oil and free fatty acids on the reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
32  corn stover
(127 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(45 times)
CM (12 times)
RS (12 times)
AD (11 times)
2008 Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations--effects of saccharification and particle size.
33  Chinese Spring
(126 times)
Genetics
(63 times)
FISH (6 times)
GISH (5 times)
SSR (5 times)
1981 Nitrate reductase activity (in vivo and in vitro) of ditelosomic stocks of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
34  chondrosarcoma
(126 times)
Neoplasms
(50 times)
OS (24 times)
ES (10 times)
LR (8 times)
1982 Ultrastructural study of conventional chondrosarcomas and myxoid- and mesenchymal-chondrosarcomas.
35  corn silage
(126 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(95 times)
DM (40 times)
AH (19 times)
NDF (15 times)
1979 Variables associated with peripartum traits in dairy cows. I. Effect of dietary forages and disorders on voluntary intake of feed, body weight and milk yield.
36  Costello syndrome
(114 times)
Genetics, Medical
(61 times)
CFC (21 times)
NS (21 times)
CFCS (12 times)
1998 A case of Costello syndrome with endocrine features.
37  chemical shift
(112 times)
Chemistry
(56 times)
EFG (21 times)
MAS (19 times)
NMR (8 times)
1996 Deuterium Quadrupole-Coupling and Chemical-Shielding Tensors in the Model Dipeptide Glycylglycine Monohydrochloride Monohydrate
38  charge separation
(108 times)
Chemistry
(88 times)
CR (51 times)
ET (20 times)
CT (14 times)
2001 Modulating charge separation and charge recombination dynamics in porphyrin-fullerene linked dyads and triads: Marcus-normal versus inverted region.
39  carcinosarcoma
(106 times)
Neoplasms
(63 times)
LMS (17 times)
ESS (15 times)
OS (15 times)
1984 A clinical and pathologic study of 30 cases of malignant mixed mullerian epithelial and mesenchymal ovarian tumors: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
40  cholesterol sulfate
(103 times)
Biochemistry
(37 times)
CH (7 times)
RXLI (6 times)
DHEAS (5 times)
1980 Deuterium magnetic resonance of selectively deuterated cholesteryl esters in phosphatidylcholine vesicles.
41  charge-separated
(102 times)
Chemistry
(87 times)
ET (14 times)
CT (9 times)
CR (6 times)
2000 Direct comparison of electron transfer properties of two distinct semisynthetic triads with non-protein based triad: unambiguous experimental evidences on protein matrix effects.
42  cardiac surgery
(95 times)
Cardiology
(25 times)
AKI (15 times)
CPB (11 times)
OR (7 times)
1983 Thymic lymphocyte subpopulations in myasthenia gravis.
43  Cordyceps sinensis
(94 times)
Complementary Therapies
(24 times)
SCr (6 times)
BUN (5 times)
StAR (5 times)
1991 [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb and serum renotropin on tubular epithelial cell growth].
44  corticospinal
(94 times)
Neurology
(60 times)
MEPs (15 times)
TMS (15 times)
CST (7 times)
1976 Spinal branching of corticospinal axons in the cat.
45  compassion satisfaction
(89 times)
Nursing
(31 times)
BO (50 times)
CF (42 times)
STS (42 times)
2011 Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in heart and vascular nurses.
46  craniosynostosis
(89 times)
Dentistry
(20 times)
CT (7 times)
ICP (7 times)
WT (4 times)
1992 Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve.
47  compartment syndrome
(88 times)
Traumatology
(21 times)
ICP (8 times)
CK (3 times)
OR (3 times)
1986 Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG): do they precipitate lower-extremity compartment syndromes?
48  calcium score
(87 times)
Cardiology
(35 times)
CAD (23 times)
CT (10 times)
CAC (9 times)
2000 Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography.
49  cervical spondylosis
(87 times)
Neurology
(27 times)
VAS (12 times)
NDI (9 times)
CI (7 times)
1981 [Roentgenological measurement of the cervical vertebral bodies in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical spondylosis (CS) (author's transl)].
50  Comprehensive System
(86 times)
Psychology
(72 times)
R-PAS (9 times)
MCMI-III (2 times)
RIM (2 times)
2000 Impaired Wisconsin card sorting test performance in first-episode schizophrenia: resource or motivation deficit?
51  complex spike
(81 times)
Neurology
(33 times)
SS (39 times)
PC (14 times)
PCs (14 times)
1977 Purkinje cell activity during motor learning.
52  carotid stenosis
(77 times)
Vascular Diseases
(21 times)
CEA (18 times)
CAS (7 times)
PAD (5 times)
1994 Surgical management in patients with coexistent coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Long-term results.
53  conditional survival
(77 times)
Neoplasms
(45 times)
OS (25 times)
SEER (11 times)
CSS (8 times)
2007 Conditional survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: results from the SEER dataset 1973-1998.
54  carcinoid syndrome
(75 times)
Endocrinology
(18 times)
NETs (21 times)
CHD (15 times)
TE (7 times)
1977 Pituitary-gonadal function in the carcinoid syndrome: effect of parachlorophynylalanine therapy.
55  calf serum
(74 times)
Cell Biology
(17 times)
FBS (11 times)
FCS (7 times)
DMEM (4 times)
1970 Propagation and growth cycle of Rickettsia quintana in a new liquid medium.
56  clinically significant
(73 times)
Urology
(30 times)
PCa (38 times)
mpMRI (20 times)
MRI (9 times)
1996 Some comments on "assessing clinical significance".
57  cytoreductive surgery
(68 times)
Neoplasms
(38 times)
HIPEC (34 times)
PC (22 times)
IPHC (8 times)
1992 [Surgery called tumoral reduction: myth or reality?].
58  critical speed
(67 times)
Sports Medicine
(38 times)
CP (6 times)
3 MT (5 times)
3MT (5 times)
1995 Times to exhaustion at 90, 100 and 105% of velocity at VO2 max (maximal aerobic speed) and critical speed in elite long-distance runners.
59  chronic stress
(66 times)
Pharmacology
(10 times)
AS (8 times)
LC (5 times)
TyrPho (5 times)
1999 Circadian rhythms and depression: effects of exercise in an animal model.
60  Carnegie stage
(65 times)
Anatomy
(34 times)
CRL (3 times)
HPE (2 times)
HSCs (2 times)
1993 Neural tube defects in the parietal region of human embryos: failure to close or closure-reopening?
61  corpus striatum
(64 times)
Neurology
(23 times)
DA (16 times)
SN (12 times)
CC (5 times)
1979 Interactions between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in rat brain demonstrated by small unilateral lesions of the raphe nuclei.
62  colonoscopy
(63 times)
Gastroenterology
(24 times)
EGD (10 times)
CRC (8 times)
UC (7 times)
1995 Colonic investigations in the elderly: colonoscopy or barium enema?
63  cold stress
(60 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
CAT (6 times)
SOD (6 times)
HS (5 times)
1986 Assessment of myocardial perfusion during cold stress using thallium-201 scintigraphy in diabetic patients with abnormal changes in left ventricular function during cold stress.
64  composite score
(60 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
ROC (5 times)
TIA (5 times)
ASI (4 times)
1986 Surgical treatment of cerebrovascular occlusive disease. A follow-up study.
65  culture supernatant
(60 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(25 times)
LA (4 times)
LPS (4 times)
DCs (3 times)
1973 Micropolyspora faeni and farmer's lung disease.
66  corn stalk
(59 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(25 times)
AD (4 times)
PS (4 times)
RS (4 times)
2009 Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: a comparative study.
67  cyclic stretch
(57 times)
Cell Biology
(18 times)
VILI (15 times)
EC (12 times)
ECs (8 times)
2003 Magnitude-dependent regulation of pulmonary endothelial cell barrier function by cyclic stretch.
68  corpuscles of Stannius
(56 times)
Endocrinology
(27 times)
STC (17 times)
aa (5 times)
CaSR (3 times)
1976 On the cytoarchitecture of the corpuscles of Stannius of the catfish, Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch).
69  circumsporozoite protein
(53 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(23 times)
TRAP (5 times)
CTL (3 times)
MVA (3 times)
1984 Neutralization of the infectivity of sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi by antibodies to a synthetic peptide.
70  cuckoo search
(51 times)
Medical Informatics
(12 times)
PSO (17 times)
ABC (8 times)
DE (5 times)
2012 A hybrid metaheuristic DE/CS algorithm for UCAV three-dimension path planning.
71  central sulcus
(50 times)
Neurology
(17 times)
SEPs (5 times)
ECoG (4 times)
MR (4 times)
1989 Human cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of the median nerve. I. Cytoarchitectonic areas generating short-latency activity.
72  crush syndrome
(50 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
AKI (7 times)
ARF (3 times)
CK (3 times)
1985 [Role of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions in the cardiodepressive action of blood plasma in burn shock and the crush syndrome].
73  Currarino syndrome
(49 times)
Pediatrics
(12 times)
ARM (5 times)
MNX1 (4 times)
ARMs (2 times)
1999 Exclusion of the Sonic Hedgehog gene as responsible for Currarino syndrome and anorectal malformations with sacral hypodevelopment.
74  current smokers
(47 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(7 times)
NS (35 times)
FS (17 times)
ES (8 times)
1989 Twins, smoking and mortality: a 12-year prospective study of smoking-discordant twin pairs.
75  cholesterol
(46 times)
Cardiology
(14 times)
TG (13 times)
IHD (5 times)
HDLP (4 times)
1977 Factors affecting bilirubin excretion in patients with cholesterol or pigment gallstones.
76  cervical spine
(45 times)
Traumatology
(8 times)
CT (10 times)
MRI (9 times)
RA (7 times)
1984 On the pathogenesis of spondylosis deformans and arthrosis uncovertebralis: comparative form-analytical radiological and statistical studies on lumbar and cervical vertebral bodies.
77  corn straw
(44 times)
Environmental Health
(25 times)
CM (9 times)
RS (6 times)
FW (4 times)
2007 Influence of different organic amendments on the degradation, metabolism, and adsorption of terbuthylazine.
78  cancer survivors
(43 times)
Neoplasms
(27 times)
PA (7 times)
QoL (4 times)
OR (3 times)
2008 An audiovisual information resource to assist in the transition from completion of potentially curative treatment for cancer through to survivorship: a systematic development process.
79  chronic sinusitis
(43 times)
Otolaryngology
(22 times)
AR (6 times)
NP (6 times)
ESS (4 times)
1991 Neutrophil elastase and its complex with alpha 1-antitrypsin in soluble and insoluble fractions of nasal secretions of chronic sinusitis.
80  clinical supervision
(43 times)
Nursing
(29 times)
AHPs (3 times)
AH (1 time)
ANUMs (1 time)
1998 Clinical supervision: insider reports of a private world.
81  complement system
(43 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(7 times)
AP (9 times)
CP (4 times)
MBL (4 times)
1998 [The complement-activating action of modern x-ray contrast agents].
82  core-shell
(43 times)
Chemistry
(11 times)
NPs (8 times)
QDs (5 times)
XRD (4 times)
2006 General equation for size nanocharacterization of the core-shell nanoparticles by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
83  cromolyn sodium
(42 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
MC (4 times)
AUC (2 times)
BDP (2 times)
1981 A clinical trial of combined cromolyn/beclomethasone treatment for chronic asthma.
84  cysteine synthase
(42 times)
Biochemistry
(15 times)
SAT (12 times)
CBS (4 times)
PCs (4 times)
1997 Cysteine synthesis in plants: protein-protein interactions of serine acetyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
85  cellulose sulfate
(41 times)
Biotechnology
(6 times)
DS (5 times)
PEI (4 times)
PLL (4 times)
1974 Promotion of growth of tumour cells in acutely inflamed tissues.
86  choline-supplemented
(41 times)
Neoplasms
(17 times)
CD (38 times)
GGT (8 times)
DEN (5 times)
1968 Choline-deficiency fatty liver: impaired release of hepatic triglycerides.
87  circular stapler
(41 times)
General Surgery
(28 times)
LS (18 times)
HS (13 times)
CI (6 times)
1992 Direct comparison between Czerny-Lembert and circular-stapled anastomotic techniques in colorectal anastomosis: a similar pattern of healing for both.
88  cross-sectional
(41 times)
Cardiology
(4 times)
OCT (8 times)
CBCT (3 times)
LT (3 times)
1991 Comparative study of three different approaches on the estimation of the lung-heart ratio in thallium 201 scintigrams in relation to the extent of coronary artery disease and left ventricular function.
89  compensatory sweating
(40 times)
General Surgery
(26 times)
ETS (10 times)
TS (6 times)
QoL (5 times)
2003 Results of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) on hyperhidrosis, facial blushing, angina pectoris, vascular disorders and pain syndromes of the hand and arm.
90  cytokine storm
(40 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
COVID-19 (13 times)
SARS-CoV-2 (11 times)
ARDS (10 times)
2020 Mitigating Coronavirus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by Radiotherapy.
91  Constant-Murley score
(39 times)
Orthopedics
(23 times)
SSV (6 times)
OSS (4 times)
SF-36 (4 times)
2009 Short-term results after reversed shoulder arthroplasty (Delta III) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and irreparable rotator cuff tear.
92  Clinical Skills
(38 times)
Education
(24 times)
USMLE (14 times)
CK (4 times)
SPs (4 times)
1999 Early clinical experience enhances third-year pediatrics clerkship performance.
93  communication skills
(38 times)
Education
(10 times)
OSCE (5 times)
CSAS (3 times)
CST (2 times)
2000 Testing health care professionals' communication skills: the usefulness of highly emotional standardized role-playing sessions with simulators.
94  centrum semiovale
(37 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
BG (17 times)
EPVS (7 times)
WM (7 times)
1993 Evaluation of myelination by means of the T2 value on magnetic resonance imaging.
95  cognitive stimulation
(37 times)
Geriatrics
(14 times)
AD (12 times)
CT (11 times)
CR (8 times)
2008 Evaluation of effect of cognitive intervention programs for the community-dwelling elderly with subjective memory complaints.
96  continuous suture
(37 times)
General Surgery
(10 times)
IS (9 times)
UT (5 times)
NH (4 times)
1984 Reproductive response to suckling manipulation in Spanish goats.
97  cleavage site
(35 times)
Virology
(12 times)
HA (8 times)
PR (7 times)
HIV-1 (5 times)
1999 Role of exonucleolytic degradation in group I intron homing in phage T4.
98  controls
(35 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
MS (3 times)
AC (2 times)
AD (2 times)
1978 Effect of isometric strength training of mechanical, electrical, and metabolic aspects of muscle function.
99  crystalline silica
(35 times)
Toxicology
(13 times)
AMs (6 times)
AES (2 times)
COPD (2 times)
2007 Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles.
100  cortisol
(34 times)
Complementary Therapies
(6 times)
ACTH (7 times)
PRL (5 times)
AD (4 times)
1978 Hormonal response to stress in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).