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Abbreviation: DR
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Long forms: 973

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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
diabetic retinopathy
(5121 times)
Ophthalmology
(1549 times)
PDR (516 times)
DM (452 times)
NPDR (431 times)
1975 [Analysis of the progressive phases of diabetic retinopathy. Prevention and treatment by photocoagulation (author's transl)].
dietary restriction
(700 times)
Geriatrics
(198 times)
AL (132 times)
ROS (28 times)
SD (18 times)
1988 Influences of aging and dietary restriction on serum thymosin alpha 1 levels in mice.
drug resistance
(325 times)
Physiology
(48 times)
DIO (99 times)
TB (66 times)
MDR (35 times)
1985 Hemodynamics of human arterial stenoses.
detection rate
(312 times)
Obstetrics
(120 times)
FPR (117 times)
NT (31 times)
PE (31 times)
1988 Preoperative staging of primary breast cancer. A multicentric study.
death receptor
(278 times)
Neoplasms
(93 times)
TRAIL (99 times)
TNF (29 times)
ROS (18 times)
1998 p53-dependent and -independent regulation of the death receptor KILLER/DR5 gene expression in response to genotoxic stress and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
digital radiography
(251 times)
Radiology
(93 times)
CR (56 times)
CT (20 times)
DAP (12 times)
1979 Digital radiograph of the chest using a computed tomography instrument.
dorsal raphe
(249 times)
Neurology
(100 times)
LC (53 times)
MR (24 times)
DA (19 times)
1979 Effects of midbrain raphe stimulation and lesion on EEG activity in rats.
dorsal raphe nucleus
(200 times)
Neurology
(94 times)
LC (24 times)
VTA (18 times)
CRF (13 times)
1976 Dorsal raphe stimulation produces inhibitory effect on trigeminal nucleus neurons.
direct repeat
(166 times)
Microbiology
(44 times)
RFLP (14 times)
IR (13 times)
RXR (12 times)
1989 Characterization of enhancer elements and their mutations in the long terminal repeat of feline endogenous RD-114 proviruses.
10  distant recurrence
(129 times)
Neoplasms
(80 times)
LR (42 times)
OS (30 times)
CI (21 times)
1999 Predictive value of race in post-transplantation recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children.
11  Dahl salt-resistant
(120 times)
Vascular Diseases
(66 times)
DS (107 times)
LV (8 times)
MAP (8 times)
1984 The effect of indomethacin on the duration of the hypotensive action of bradykinin in Dahl salt-resistant rats: role of cyclooxygenase inhibition.
12  delivery room
(111 times)
Pediatrics
(47 times)
NICU (21 times)
CPAP (12 times)
PPV (9 times)
1996 Can asphyxiated infants at risk for neonatal seizures be rapidly identified by current high-risk markers?
13  dopamine receptor
(100 times)
Neurology
(25 times)
DA (10 times)
PD (9 times)
NAc (5 times)
1994 Molecular biological perspectives in treating neuropsychiatric disorders with dopaminergic drugs.
14  dynamic range
(99 times)
Audiology
(26 times)
CI (12 times)
SNR (8 times)
CIMT (5 times)
1989 [Ultrasonographic diagnosis of mild fatty infiltration of the liver with the difference between liver and kidney echolevels].
15  Dominican Republic
(95 times)
Public Health
(19 times)
FSW (5 times)
HIV (5 times)
NYC (4 times)
1981 Acceptability of the contraceptive vaginal ring by rural and urban population in two Latin American countries.
16  dorsal root
(90 times)
Neurology
(46 times)
VR (21 times)
NMDA (9 times)
VLF (7 times)
1969 Reflex discharges into thoracic white rami elicited by somatic and visceral afferent excitation.
17  diabetes-resistant
(76 times)
Endocrinology
(30 times)
DP (60 times)
BB (12 times)
IDDM (12 times)
1985 Lymphoid cells of BB/W diabetic rats are cytotoxic to islet beta cells in vitro.
18  delayed response
(74 times)
Neurology
(26 times)
DA (11 times)
DLPFC (9 times)
DMS (6 times)
1972 Cortical steady potential shifts and anodal polarization during delayed response performance.
19  diffuse reflectance
(74 times)
Chemistry
(17 times)
FTIR (8 times)
NIR (8 times)
AF (7 times)
2001 Determination of optical parameters for light penetration in particulate materials and soils with diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy.
20  dietary records
(67 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(43 times)
FFQ (33 times)
ICC (6 times)
BMI (5 times)
1998 Effect of additional questions about fat on the validity of fat estimates from a food frequency questionnaire. Study Group of MRS SWEA.
21  dimensionality reduction
(63 times)
Medical Informatics
(27 times)
PCA (7 times)
KNN (3 times)
LDA (3 times)
2006 Spectral embedding finds meaningful (relevant) structure in image and microarray data.
22  ductular reaction
(62 times)
Gastroenterology
(27 times)
HPCs (10 times)
HCC (6 times)
CK (4 times)
2007 Ductular reaction is helpful in defining early stromal invasion, small hepatocellular carcinomas, and dysplastic nodules.
23  dose rate
(55 times)
Pharmacology
(17 times)
Hex (4 times)
Hin (4 times)
Raeq (4 times)
1976 A quantitative study of metiamide, a histamine H2-antagonist, on the isolated whole rat stomach.
24  dose-response
(45 times)
Pharmacology
(11 times)
5-HT (3 times)
NE (3 times)
5-CT (2 times)
1975 The steepness of the dose-response curve in radiation therapy. Theoretical considerations and experimental results.
25  double-row
(42 times)
Orthopedics
(25 times)
SR (32 times)
SB (7 times)
TOE (6 times)
2009 A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing arthroscopic single- and double-row rotator cuff repair: magnetic resonance imaging and early clinical evaluation.
26  diagnostic radiology
(36 times)
Radiology
(23 times)
IR (16 times)
NM (7 times)
ABR (4 times)
2010 Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry.
27  dorsal
(36 times)
Neurology
(13 times)
MR (7 times)
LH (4 times)
MnR (4 times)
1977 Characteristics in aggressive behavior induced by midbrain raphe lesions in rats.
28  distal radius
(33 times)
Orthopedics
(13 times)
BMD (17 times)
LS (11 times)
FN (9 times)
1992 Low bone mass in hypogonadal males. Effect of testosterone substitution therapy, a densitometric study.
29  dark-reared
(32 times)
Neurology
(12 times)
LR (8 times)
NR (6 times)
BD (2 times)
1978 The effect of visual deprivation in the rat on transfer effects after form discrimination training.
30  desmoplastic reaction
(32 times)
Pathology
(14 times)
CRC (10 times)
RFS (6 times)
TB (4 times)
2004 Type I collagen promotes the malignant phenotype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
31  radial diffusivity
(30 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
FA (25 times)
DA (24 times)
MD (19 times)
2007 Diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing white matter in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer disease: preliminary evidence of axonal degeneration in the temporal lobe.
32  delayed-release
(29 times)
Pharmacology
(8 times)
ER (8 times)
IR (8 times)
BMD (3 times)
2002 Comparison of the bioavailability of unequal doses of divalproex sodium extended-release formulation relative to the delayed-release formulation in healthy volunteers.
33  discrimination ratio
(29 times)
Medicine
(8 times)
DG (4 times)
VGLUT1 (4 times)
CA1 (3 times)
1984 Age-dependent decrease of the passive Rb+ and K+ permeability of the nerve cell membranes in rat brain cortex as revealed by in vivo measurement of the Rb+ discrimination ratio.
34  doubly robust
(28 times)
Statistics as Topic
(18 times)
IPW (8 times)
PS (6 times)
OR (4 times)
2006 Doubly robust estimation in missing data and causal inference models.
35  diet-restricted
(27 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(6 times)
AL (12 times)
ZD (4 times)
AG (3 times)
1985 Factors of increase in serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in uremic rats.
36  direct radiography
(27 times)
Radiology
(18 times)
CR (20 times)
SFM (4 times)
CI (3 times)
1998 The development of a new direct digital extra-oral radiographic system prototype using a thin-film transistor panel.
37  dissociative recombination
(27 times)
Chemistry
(16 times)
SECH (2 times)
CASSCF (1 time)
EMU (1 time)
2001 Dynamics of three-body breakup in dissociative recombination: H(2)O(+).
38  diffusion reflection
(26 times)
Nanotechnology
(4 times)
GNRs (6 times)
GNR (4 times)
FLIM (3 times)
2003 A comparative study of mid-infrared diffuse reflection (DR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy for the detection of fungal infection on RWA2-corn.
39  dielectric relaxation
(25 times)
Chemistry
(19 times)
DESs (3 times)
ILs (2 times)
LiBr (2 times)
2001 Phase-fluorimetry study on dielectric relaxation of human serum albumin.
40  delayed recall
(23 times)
Geriatrics
(5 times)
IR (10 times)
AD (4 times)
MCI (4 times)
1997 Cross-validation of predicted Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised scores in a normative sample of 25- to 34-year-old patients.
41  delivery rate
(21 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(17 times)
PR (9 times)
ART (5 times)
EIM (4 times)
2002 Laser-assisted hatching of embryos is better than the chemical method for enhancing the pregnancy rate in women with advanced age.
42  diazoresin
(21 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(9 times)
LbL (5 times)
MB (4 times)
BSA (3 times)
2003 Fabrication of a stable inorganic-organic hybrid multilayer film with uniform and dense inorganic nanoparticle deposition.
43  HLA-DR
(21 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(9 times)
DM (5 times)
BM (2 times)
gB (2 times)
1987 Mechanisms of HLA-DR antigen expression in phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells in man. Requirement of T cell recognition of self HLA-DR antigen expressed on the surface of monocytes.
44  delayed ratio
(20 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(6 times)
ER (11 times)
RI (7 times)
MIBI (3 times)
1985 [Delayed reaction and delayed alternation in the cat: common factors and differences].
45  daunorubicin
(18 times)
Neoplasms
(7 times)
ADR (3 times)
DX (3 times)
6-MP (1 time)
1981 Studies in mice treated with ICRF-159 combined with daunorubicin or doxorubicin.
46  dielectric resonator
(18 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(7 times)
EPR (4 times)
CMT (2 times)
CP (2 times)
1992 Cooled, ultrahigh Q, sapphire dielectric resonators for low-noise, microwave signal generation.
47  defense response
(17 times)
Molecular Biology
(6 times)
QTL (4 times)
CRMs (2 times)
HR (2 times)
1975 Defensive responses to phobic stimuli.
48  dose reduction
(17 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
UC (5 times)
OS (4 times)
DLQI (3 times)
2007 Impact of preemptive warfarin dose reduction on anticoagulation after initiation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or levofloxacin.
49  diet record
(16 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
FFQ (11 times)
BDHQ (1 time)
CI (1 time)
1998 Food consumption methods. Development, reproducibility and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for vitamin B6.
50  doxorubicin
(16 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
CKD (3 times)
CP (2 times)
AFP (1 time)
1990 [Intravital estimation of doxorubicin accumulation in various types of cell cultures].
51  duration of response
(16 times)
Neoplasms
(12 times)
ORR (8 times)
PFS (7 times)
TTP (7 times)
2000 Response criteria for NHL: importance of 'normal' lymph node size and correlations with response rates.
52  dark rearing
(15 times)
Neurology
(10 times)
BDNF (4 times)
EE (2 times)
iTBS (2 times)
1984 Influence of dark-rearing on the ontogenetic development of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Cichlidae, Teleostei): II. Effects on allometrical growth relations and differentiation of the optic tectum.
53  dead reckoning
(15 times)
Biosensing Techniques
(13 times)
EKF (4 times)
GPS (4 times)
IMU (3 times)
2013 Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.
54  derealization
(15 times)
Psychiatry
(8 times)
DP (15 times)
CDS (2 times)
CBT (1 time)
1994 The experimental induction of depersonalization and derealization in panic disorder and nonanxious subjects.
55  diagnostic ratios
(15 times)
Environmental Health
(7 times)
PAHs (4 times)
PCA (2 times)
PM10 (2 times)
1997 [Nontraditional methods for prevention of recurrent tuberculosis].
56  dorsalis
(15 times)
Brain
(6 times)
PAG (4 times)
5-HTP (3 times)
LS (3 times)
1975 The effect of apomorphine on serotonin neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus and catecholamine nerve terminals in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Histofluorescence studies.
57  decisional regret
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
DC (4 times)
DRS (3 times)
SDM (2 times)
2013 Decision regret in men undergoing dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
58  deltamethrin-resistant
(13 times)
Parasitology
(7 times)
DS (11 times)
qRT-PCR (4 times)
CDC (2 times)
2012 Functional characterization of an arrestin gene on insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens pallens.
59  down-regulation
(13 times)
Biophysics
(2 times)
UR (6 times)
AIF (2 times)
LDF (2 times)
1983 Down-regulation of prostaglandin E receptors and homologous desensitization of isolated adipocytes.
60  differential relaxation
(12 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
MAS (3 times)
AFM (1 time)
BB (1 time)
2006 Structure and growth of thin films of aniline on silver: nucleation and premelting of nanocrystallites, porosity, and crystallization.
61  direct revascularization
(12 times)
Vascular Diseases
(10 times)
IR (9 times)
CLI (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2012 Factors influencing wound healing of critical ischaemic foot after bypass surgery: is the angiosome important in selecting bypass target artery?
62  downhill running
(12 times)
Sports Medicine
(6 times)
LR (5 times)
UR (3 times)
AVA (2 times)
2016 Delayed Onset Vascular Stiffening Induced by Eccentric Resistance Exercise and Downhill Running.
63  dry-rolled
(12 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(11 times)
SF (9 times)
OM (2 times)
AAN (1 time)
1987 Site of protein digestion in steers fed sorghum grain diets. II. Effect of grain processing methods.
64  dead region
(11 times)
Audiology
(9 times)
PTCs (4 times)
TEN (3 times)
DLFs (1 time)
2005 Factors affecting psychophysical tuning curves for hearing-impaired subjects with high-frequency dead regions.
65  diameter reduction
(11 times)
General Surgery
(8 times)
DSA (3 times)
ICA (3 times)
BA (2 times)
1985 Classification of carotid bifurcation disease using quantitative Doppler spectrum analysis.
66  Diaphragmatic rupture
(11 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ADR (1 time)
CIs (1 time)
DDDR (1 time)
2002 Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.
67  dark respiration
(10 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(4 times)
PS (3 times)
CELSS (2 times)
PR (2 times)
1984 The effect of light quality and gibberellic acid (GA3) on photosynthesis and respiration rates of pea seedlings.
68  deep red
(10 times)
Biology
(2 times)
NIR (3 times)
2DGE (1 time)
ACC (1 time)
2004 A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora.
69  deformable registration
(10 times)
Radiotherapy
(6 times)
CBCT (3 times)
pCT (3 times)
DSC (2 times)
2008 Comparison of 12 deformable registration strategies in adaptive radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck tumors.
70  distortion ratio
(10 times)
Radiology
(4 times)
ADC (4 times)
CNR (4 times)
SNR (4 times)
2006 Characterization of concentrated colloidal ceramics suspension: a new approach.
71  DR group
(10 times)
Ophthalmology
(4 times)
DM (4 times)
OCTA (2 times)
T2DM (2 times)
2013 Anterior capsule contraction and flare intensity in the early stages after cataract surgery in eyes with diabetic retinopathy.
72  drug release
(10 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
CCD (2 times)
CCS (2 times)
DSC (2 times)
2004 Microencapsulation of a hydrophilic drug into a hydrophobic matrix using a salting-out procedure. II. Effects of adsorbents on microsphere properties.
73  Drynariae Rhizoma
(10 times)
Pharmacology
(5 times)
AD (1 time)
ALP (1 time)
BBB (1 time)
2003 Inhibition of Drynariae Rhizoma extracts on bone resorption mediated by processing of cathepsin K in cultured mouse osteoclasts.
74  death rate
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
AG (2 times)
ATV (1 time)
ATVs (1 time)
1989 All terrain vehicles (ATVs). A recreational gamble.
75  dietary restraint
(9 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(6 times)
EA (2 times)
ED (2 times)
MD (2 times)
2008 Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women.
76  directly repeated
(9 times)
Microbiology
(3 times)
IR (2 times)
CoA (1 time)
CoR (1 time)
1991 A single-stranded region located downstream of the repeated sequence in the ori region of pSC101 is required for binding of the Rep protein in vitro.
77  disease relapse
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(5 times)
OS (6 times)
cHL (2 times)
DFS (2 times)
1987 Patterns of disease in localized extranodal lymphomas.
78  double resonance
(9 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(5 times)
ECD (3 times)
IRMPD (2 times)
CAD (1 time)
2006 The effect of radical trap moieties on electron capture dissociation spectra of substance P.
79  dummy run
(9 times)
Neoplasms
(9 times)
QA (6 times)
ICR (2 times)
IMRT (2 times)
2008 EORTC 22972-26991/MRC BR10 trial: fractionated stereotactic boost following conventional radiotherapy of high grade gliomas. Clinical and quality-assurance results of the stereotactic boost arm.
80  decay rate
(8 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
MDP (3 times)
ADT (1 time)
ADTSR (1 time)
2002 Modal analysis of the maxillary dentition in cleft lip and palate patients before and after bone grafting.
81  degradation rate
(8 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
ACE (1 time)
AChR (1 time)
Ang II (1 time)
1986 A protocol for estimation of cortisol plasma clearance in acid-exposed rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).
82  delayed rectifier
(8 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
TEA (2 times)
TGF-beta (2 times)
4-AP (1 time)
1995 Single voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channels in the somata of rat motoneurones.
83  direct repeat sequence
(8 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
PGRS (2 times)
RFLP (2 times)
ccr (1 time)
1996 Induction of c-Erb A-AP-1 interactions and c-Erb A transcriptional activity in myoblasts by RXR. Consequences for muscle differentiation.
84  dispersion of repolarization
(8 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
LQT (2 times)
VTs (2 times)
AP (1 time)
1999 Mechanism of arrhythmogenicity of the short-long cardiac sequence that precedes ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the long QT syndrome.
85  diuretic resistance
(8 times)
Heart Failure
(2 times)
AHF (5 times)
HF (3 times)
IQR (2 times)
2017 Markers of diuretic resistance in emergency department patients with acute heart failure.
86  drag reduction
(8 times)
Chemistry
(3 times)
cryo-TEM (2 times)
XG (2 times)
DHCs (1 time)
2005 Co-solvent effects on drag reduction, rheological properties and micelle microstructures of cationic surfactants.
87  drug repurposing
(8 times)
Medical Informatics
(5 times)
AD (1 time)
CI (1 time)
COVID-19 (1 time)
2011 Literature mining, ontologies and information visualization for drug repurposing.
88  dynamic retinoscopy
(8 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
AA (3 times)
CI (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2003 The repeatability and validity of dynamic retinoscopy in assessing the accommodative response.
89  3,4-didehydroretinol
(7 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(5 times)
DRA (3 times)
VA (3 times)
MRDR (2 times)
1987 Use of 3,4-didehydroretinol to assess vitamin A status in rats.
90  Dahl resistant
(7 times)
Cardiology
(2 times)
DS (6 times)
HR (3 times)
DBP (2 times)
1983 Cardiac regression and blood pressure control in the Dahl rat treated with either enalapril maleate (MK 421, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or hydrochlorothiazide.
91  denitrification rate
(7 times)
Environmental Health
(4 times)
TN (2 times)
ABFR (1 time)
COD (1 time)
2006 Organic carbon and nitrogen removal from a strong wastewater using a denitrifying suspended growth reactor and a horizontal-flow biofilm reactor.
92  diabetic rats
(7 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
CR (4 times)
ASA (1 time)
BG (1 time)
1991 Effects of nifedipine on global myocardial ischemic injury in hearts from diabetic and age-matched control rats.
93  disability rate
(7 times)
Rehabilitation
(3 times)
C/NC (1 time)
DI (1 time)
DLHS-4, 2012-2013 (1 time)
1977 Evoked brain potentials and disability in brain-damaged patients.
94  discordance rate
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(4 times)
BC (1 time)
BI-RADS (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2012 Hormonal receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, and Ki67 discordance between primary breast cancer and paired metastases: clinical impact.
95  disposal rate
(7 times)
Physiology
(5 times)
DI (1 time)
TBS (1 time)
1978 Effect of propranolol on extrathyroidal metabolism of thyroxine and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine evaluated by noncompartmental kinetics.
96  diuretic response
(7 times)
Cardiology
(3 times)
AHF (4 times)
ADHF (2 times)
HF (2 times)
1990 Alterations of glucose metabolism in chronic liver disease.
97  dream recall
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
EEG (3 times)
BOSC (1 time)
CPSs (1 time)
2002 Dream recall frequency in epilepsy patients with partial and generalized seizures: a dream diary study.
98  drug repositioning
(7 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
AD (1 time)
ADR (1 time)
CRC (1 time)
2016 Drug Repositioning for Cancer Therapy Based on Large-Scale Drug-Induced Transcriptional Signatures.
99  durable response
(7 times)
Neoplasms
(2 times)
CR (3 times)
HR (2 times)
ORR (2 times)
1976 Double responding in classical nictitating membrane conditioning with single-CS dual-ISI training.
100  dysanapsis ratio
(7 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
CON (2 times)
EFL (2 times)
FVC (2 times)
2014 Dysanapsis ratio as a predictor for expiratory flow limitation.