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Abbreviation: DS
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
Down syndrome
(5410 times)
Neurology
(870 times)
AD (711 times)
TD (216 times)
ID (140 times)
1975 Hepatitis B surface antigen and its subtypes in an institution for the mentally retarded.
degree of substitution
(912 times)
Biochemistry
(279 times)
FTIR (68 times)
MW (63 times)
SEM (46 times)
1976 Affinity and specificity of penicillin-antibody interaction determined by an enzyme (E. coli beta-galactosidase) immunoassay.
dermatan sulfate
(642 times)
Biochemistry
(197 times)
CS (249 times)
HS (212 times)
GAGs (184 times)
1975 [Age-related changes in the content and characteristics of glycosaminoglycans in human aortas].
Dravet syndrome
(344 times)
Neurology
(189 times)
CBD (27 times)
LGS (27 times)
SUDEP (17 times)
1992 [Drash's syndrome and its variants. A report of 3 cases].
Dahl salt-sensitive
(319 times)
Vascular Diseases
(172 times)
DR (106 times)
LV (29 times)
SBP (21 times)
1981 Psychobiology of experimental hypertension: evaluation of the Dahl rat lines.
dextran sulfate
(313 times)
Pharmacology
(37 times)
CS (23 times)
LDL (15 times)
LPS (15 times)
1975 Dextran sulphate: a synthetic activator of C3 via the alternative pathway. I. Influence of molecular size and degree of sulphation on the activation potency.
diclofenac sodium
(243 times)
Pharmacology
(74 times)
SEM (19 times)
DSC (15 times)
FTIR (15 times)
1985 Effects of sodium diclofenac on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in experimental osteoarthritis in rabbits.
dietary supplements
(210 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(37 times)
FDA (8 times)
DSHEA (4 times)
MVM (4 times)
2001 Dietary supplements: how they are used and regulated.
degenerative spondylolisthesis
(206 times)
Orthopedics
(95 times)
SS (23 times)
LSS (20 times)
ODI (20 times)
1979 [Radiographical and anatomical studies on the pathogenesis of degenerative spondylolisthesis (author's transl)].
10  depressive symptoms
(168 times)
Psychiatry
(39 times)
OR (13 times)
PA (11 times)
CI (10 times)
1997 [The importance of bodily complaints in patients with chronic back pain].
11  directionally selective
(160 times)
Neurology
(96 times)
GCs (10 times)
RF (10 times)
SACs (10 times)
1975 Direction-selective units in the rabbit's nucleus of the optic tract.
12  diameter stenosis
(138 times)
Cardiology
(83 times)
FFR (38 times)
MLD (33 times)
QCA (30 times)
1988 Correlations between quantitative cineangiography, coronary flow reserve measured with digital subtraction cineangiography and exercise thallium perfusion scintigraphy.
13  dorsal striatum
(127 times)
Neurology
(55 times)
DA (21 times)
NAc (20 times)
VS (13 times)
1993 Transsynaptic induction of c-fos in basal forebrain, diencephalic and midbrain neurons following AMPA-induced activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum.
14  duodenal switch
(119 times)
General Surgery
(85 times)
BMI (31 times)
RYGB (26 times)
BPD (19 times)
1998 Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch.
15  discriminative stimulus
(108 times)
Pharmacology
(44 times)
CS (7 times)
DA (7 times)
NAc (5 times)
1978 Acquisition and discrimination of appetitively and aversively conditioned heart rate responses in rhesus monkeys.
16  drought stress
(91 times)
Botany
(30 times)
WW (27 times)
ABA (7 times)
AMF (6 times)
1998 Induction of genes for the stress proteins PR-10 and PAL in relation to growth, visible injuries and stomatal conductance in birch (Betula pendula) clones exposed to ozone and/or drought.
17  dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
(81 times)
Endocrinology
(35 times)
DHEA (6 times)
PRL (6 times)
LH (5 times)
1975 Circulating concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate during puberty.
18  deep sclerectomy
(76 times)
Ophthalmology
(66 times)
IOP (57 times)
MMC (16 times)
OAG (8 times)
1997 [Comparative results of deep sclerectomy transformed to trabeculectomy and classical trabeculectomy].
19  denture stomatitis
(67 times)
Dentistry
(28 times)
aPDT (4 times)
CFU (4 times)
PDI (3 times)
1979 Yeast-like fungi isolated from patients with denture stomatitis (DS) as seen in scanning microscope.
20  draw solution
(65 times)
Environmental Health
(39 times)
FO (46 times)
FS (19 times)
FDFO (7 times)
2010 Direct microscopic observation of forward osmosis membrane fouling.
21  dry solids
(63 times)
Environmental Health
(46 times)
EPS (18 times)
SRF (15 times)
CST (11 times)
1998 Environmental Assessment of Benthic Impacts Associated with Pulp Mill Discharges. II. Distribution of Sediment EOX in Relation to Environmental Factors
22  dielectric spectroscopy
(60 times)
Chemistry
(29 times)
NMR (8 times)
DSC (5 times)
PCS (4 times)
2001 Intrinsic structural differences between "tight couples" and Kaltschmidt-Wittmann ribosomes evidenced by dielectric spectroscopy and scanning microcalorimetry.
23  Digit Span
(59 times)
Neurology
(21 times)
RDS (5 times)
WM (5 times)
CASI (4 times)
1995 Attention in multiple sclerosis: correlates of impairment on the WAIS-R Digit Span Test.
24  disulfiram
(54 times)
Pharmacology
(19 times)
ALDH (8 times)
DDC (4 times)
CSCs (3 times)
1975 Effect of disulfiram and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on tyrosine and dopamine-beta-hydroxylases activities in rat brain and heart.
25  differentiation syndrome
(51 times)
Neoplasms
(16 times)
APL (39 times)
ATRA (27 times)
ATO (9 times)
2007 The association of ICAM-1 Exon 6 (E469K) but not of ICAM-1 Exon 4 (G241R) and PECAM-1 Exon 3 (L125V) polymorphisms with the development of differentiation syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
26  direct stenting
(51 times)
Cardiology
(38 times)
CS (20 times)
STEMI (11 times)
MACE (10 times)
2000 Immediate and late outcomes after direct stent implantation without balloon predilation.
27  Deauville score
(48 times)
Hematology
(16 times)
PFS (22 times)
DLBCL (15 times)
OS (12 times)
2013 Quantitative and qualitative analysis of metabolic response at interim positron emission tomography scan combined with International Prognostic Index is highly predictive of outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
28  dynamic stretching
(47 times)
Physiology
(27 times)
SS (27 times)
ROM (14 times)
CMJ (9 times)
2008 Pretesting static and dynamic stretching does not affect maximal strength.
29  disease severity
(42 times)
Botany
(7 times)
QTL (8 times)
AUDPC (7 times)
DI (7 times)
1998 Mammographic screening in women more than 64 years old: a comparison of 1- and 2-year intervals.
30  digital subtraction
(40 times)
Neurosurgery
(34 times)
CT (16 times)
MR (7 times)
SAH (4 times)
1986 Carotid bifurcation imaging model for more accurately comparing imaging techniques.
31  drug substance
(39 times)
Pharmacology
(19 times)
DP (10 times)
mAb (5 times)
HCPs (4 times)
1976 Nutrient turnover studies in alpine ecosystems : I. Phytomass and nutrient relations in four mat communities of the Northern Calcareous Alps.
32  deficit schizophrenia
(36 times)
Psychiatry
(24 times)
NDS (30 times)
HCs (9 times)
HC (7 times)
2002 Correlations between negative symptoms and peripheral G protein levels in mononuclear leukocytes of deficit and nondeficit schizophrenics. Preliminary results.
33  dodecyl sulfate
(35 times)
Chemistry
(13 times)
SDS (7 times)
DBS (6 times)
CMC (3 times)
1983 Extraction and determination of anionic surfactants with copper (II)-ethylenediamine derivative complexes.
34  desiccating stress
(34 times)
Ophthalmology
(17 times)
DED (5 times)
GC (4 times)
MMP (4 times)
2006 Desiccating stress induces T cell-mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis.
35  degenerative scoliosis
(33 times)
Orthopedics
(7 times)
ODI (10 times)
VAS (9 times)
LL (7 times)
2005 [Application of restorative laminoplasty combined with spinous process osteotomy and internal fixation for treatment of degenerative scoliosis].
36  duplex scanning
(33 times)
General Surgery
(18 times)
DSA (3 times)
GSV (3 times)
AP (2 times)
1983 Noninvasive echo-Doppler duplex measurements of common femoral artery blood flow variables during supine exercise and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia.
37  decayed surfaces
(32 times)
Dentistry
(27 times)
FS (8 times)
DFS (7 times)
DT (4 times)
1987 Caries and treatment patterns in children related to school lunch program eligibility.
38  Durie-Salmon
(31 times)
Hematology
(11 times)
MM (28 times)
ISS (17 times)
OS (9 times)
1986 Prognostic factors and staging in multiple myeloma: a reappraisal.
39  daytime sleepiness
(29 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
ESS (7 times)
PD (7 times)
NS (4 times)
1995 Daytime sleepiness, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux amongst young adults in three European countries.
40  deep sedation
(29 times)
Cardiology
(6 times)
GA (17 times)
ICU (5 times)
PMVR (4 times)
2000 Single sweep analysis of event related auditory potentials for the monitoring of sedation in cardiac surgery patients.
41  direct sequencing
(29 times)
Neoplasms
(15 times)
EGFR (11 times)
CRC (6 times)
FFPE (4 times)
2002 Allele-specific PCR amplification due to sequence identity between a PCR primer and an amplicon: is direct sequencing so reliable?
42  drug-sensitive
(29 times)
Communicable Diseases
(5 times)
TB (13 times)
MDR (11 times)
DR (9 times)
2006 Drug-sensitive tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults: comparisons of thin-section CT findings.
43  dead space
(28 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(11 times)
VT (4 times)
STM (3 times)
CSA (2 times)
1975 Effect of preinspiratory lung volume on closing volume determination by nitrogen method.
44  deletion syndrome
(28 times)
Psychiatry
(6 times)
OSA (2 times)
PPF (2 times)
PSG (2 times)
2004 Associations between prepulse inhibition and executive visual attention in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome.
45  design space
(28 times)
Pharmacology
(16 times)
QbD (15 times)
CQAs (11 times)
DoE (10 times)
2010 A new PAT/QbD approach for the determination of blend homogeneity: combination of on-line NIRS analysis with PC Scores Distance Analysis (PC-SDA).
46  drug-susceptible
(28 times)
Pulmonary Medicine
(6 times)
TB (15 times)
MDR (13 times)
DT (6 times)
2001 Infection and disease among household contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
47  diagnostic score
(27 times)
Neoplasms
(10 times)
ROC (4 times)
AA (3 times)
AAP (3 times)
1992 A prospective study of tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) in breast cancer diagnosis.
48  dumping syndrome
(27 times)
General Surgery
(11 times)
ES (2 times)
OAGB (2 times)
PBH (2 times)
1969 [Changes in some fractions of acid-soluble phosphorus of the erythrocytes during dumping syndrome (DS)].
49  diopter sphere
(26 times)
Ophthalmology
(17 times)
DC (12 times)
SE (4 times)
BCVA (3 times)
1988 IOL prediction: an evaluation of preoperatively determined intraocular lens power accuracy.
50  dual-source
(26 times)
Radiology
(16 times)
SS (11 times)
CT (10 times)
DE (7 times)
2008 Modulation transfer function-based assessment of temporal resolution: validation for single- and dual-source CT.
51  Doppler sonography
(25 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
RI (5 times)
CCSVI (4 times)
IJVs (3 times)
1980 Radionuclide angiography and Doppler sonography to detect patients with cerebrovascular disease. A correlation with radiographic angiography.
52  Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive
(24 times)
Vascular Diseases
(16 times)
eNOS (7 times)
DR (5 times)
iNOS (3 times)
1987 Cataracts and hypertension in salt-sensitive rats. A possible ion transport defect.
53  desynchronized sleep
(24 times)
Brain
(8 times)
SS (8 times)
Ta (3 times)
DPT (2 times)
1978 Sleep patterns in cat induced by gammahydroxybutyric acid.
54  discriminant score
(23 times)
Medicine
(5 times)
DEGs (5 times)
RF (5 times)
AUC (2 times)
1980 An evaluation of speech audiometry by bone conduction in hearing-impaired adults.
55  downstream
(23 times)
Environmental Health
(10 times)
US (19 times)
IM/DD (3 times)
ONU (3 times)
1997 The secY gene of V. cholerae: identification, cloning and characterization.
56  deficit syndrome
(22 times)
Psychiatry
(10 times)
NDS (6 times)
PANSS (3 times)
PDS (3 times)
1996 Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.
57  dermal sheath
(22 times)
Dermatology
(9 times)
DP (14 times)
HF (3 times)
ORS (3 times)
1996 Human hair follicle dermal papilla cell, dermal sheath cell and interstitial dermal fibroblast characteristics.
58  direct standardization
(22 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(17 times)
PDS (10 times)
PLS (4 times)
DWPDS (3 times)
2003 Multivariate calibration standardization across instruments for the determination of glucose by Fourier transform near-infrared spectrometry.
59  double scattering
(22 times)
Biophysics
(14 times)
PBS (14 times)
IMRT (4 times)
MC (4 times)
2012 An experimental investigation into the effect of periodic motion on proton dosimetry using polymer gel dosimeters and a programmable motion platform.
60  dry season
(22 times)
Biology
(4 times)
RS (8 times)
WS (8 times)
GY (2 times)
1996 Corpus luteum activity, fertility, and adrenal cortex response in lactating Carora cows during rainy and dry seasons in the tropics of Venezuela.
61  dynamic systems
(20 times)
Psychology
(7 times)
ANN (2 times)
TS (2 times)
A-NDSs (1 time)
1994 Conditions for periodic and aperiodic behavior of formal neural nets.
62  degree of swelling
(19 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(5 times)
SEM (3 times)
CS (2 times)
GL (2 times)
2003 Preparation of acrylic grafted chitin for wound dressing application.
63  derivative spectrophotometry
(19 times)
Pharmacology
(7 times)
CWT (7 times)
HPLC (4 times)
PLS (3 times)
1986 Plasma hemoglobin determination by recording derivative spectrophotometry.
64  dissociative seizures
(19 times)
Neurology
(14 times)
CBT (4 times)
RCT (3 times)
RFE (3 times)
2016 Emotion and dissociative seizures: A phenomenological analysis of patients' perspectives.
65  detergent-soluble
(18 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
AChE (11 times)
SS (9 times)
LSS (5 times)
1980 Collagen-tailed and hydrophobic components of acetylcholinesterase in Torpedo marmorata electric organ.
66  Discovery Studio
(18 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
MD (4 times)
BC (2 times)
DFT (2 times)
2009 Insight to pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by molecular docking.
67  Donohue syndrome
(18 times)
Endocrinology
(9 times)
INSR (11 times)
RMS (4 times)
IGF-1 (2 times)
1997 Community-based study of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
68  dyad symmetry
(18 times)
Virology
(7 times)
EBV (9 times)
FR (7 times)
oriP (7 times)
1991 Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 mediates a DNA loop within the latent replication origin of Epstein-Barr virus.
69  Day Surgery
(17 times)
General Surgery
(7 times)
DVT (1 time)
ED (1 time)
GSVV (1 time)
1994 Day surgery--how much is possible? A Delphi consensus among surgeons.
70  deep squat
(17 times)
Physical Fitness
(6 times)
FMS (10 times)
ASLR (5 times)
HS (4 times)
2010 Relationship between core stability, functional movement, and performance.
71  delivery system
(17 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(5 times)
NGF (3 times)
CIT (2 times)
GDNF (2 times)
2005 Is preceptorship valuable?
72  Demoralization Scale
(17 times)
Therapeutics
(5 times)
PHQ-9 (6 times)
DT (2 times)
HADS (2 times)
2011 Demoralization and depression in patients with advanced cancer: validation of the German version of the demoralization scale.
73  dental students
(17 times)
Dentistry
(13 times)
VC (4 times)
MS (3 times)
ANOVA (2 times)
2001 A comparison of changes in dental students' and medical students' approaches to learning during professional training.
74  diazepam-sensitive
(17 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
DI (9 times)
BZR (6 times)
DR (5 times)
1988 Genetic selection for benzodiazepine ataxia produces functional changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor chloride channel complex.
75  digested sludge
(17 times)
Environmental Health
(8 times)
AS (3 times)
WAS (3 times)
RS (2 times)
2000 Performance enhancement of batch aerobic digesters via addition of digested sludge.
76  dissipative soliton
(17 times)
Ophthalmology
(17 times)
CS (2 times)
NPR (2 times)
SA (2 times)
2009 Dissipative soliton evolution in ultra-large normal-cavity-dispersion fiber lasers.
77  downshifting
(17 times)
Chemistry
(7 times)
UC (11 times)
NIR (3 times)
CET (2 times)
2014 Lanthanide-doped Sr2YF7 nanoparticles: controlled synthesis, optical spectroscopy and biodetection.
78  driving simulator
(17 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
SDLP (3 times)
BAC (2 times)
IVF (2 times)
2009 Detection and prediction of drowsiness by reflexive eye movements.
79  dynamic spectrum
(17 times)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
(11 times)
SNR (5 times)
PCAB (2 times)
RBF (2 times)
2007 Study on the error in the dynamic spectrum method relative with the pathlength factor as a function of wavelength.
80  decision support
(16 times)
Medical Informatics
(6 times)
US (3 times)
CPOE (2 times)
PONV (2 times)
2004 A method for subdividing clinical guidelines into process modules with associated triggers and objectives to facilitate implementation.
81  DHEA sulfate
(16 times)
Endocrinology
(9 times)
DHEA (13 times)
PRL (3 times)
DHT (2 times)
1980 Delayed puberty in males with chronic renal failure.
82  duplex sonography
(16 times)
Diagnostic Imaging
(4 times)
CT (2 times)
GCA (2 times)
ICA (2 times)
1990 Comparison of Duplex sonography and color Doppler imaging in renal allograft evaluation: a prospective study.
83  defect score
(15 times)
Nuclear Medicine
(9 times)
SPECT (5 times)
LVEF (4 times)
AMI (2 times)
1990 Exercise-induced ST-segment elevation in leads over infarcted area and residual myocardial ischemia in patients with previous myocardial infarction.
84  Dependence Scale
(15 times)
Neurology
(9 times)
AD (10 times)
DAD (2 times)
BDRS (1 time)
2005 Neuropsychological predictors of dependency in patients with Alzheimer disease.
85  desensitization
(15 times)
Physiology
(4 times)
IVIG (3 times)
PSP (3 times)
PP (2 times)
1975 Recovery of sensitivity to acetylcholine following desensitization in muscles of different vertebrate species.
86  developmental stuttering
(15 times)
Speech-Language Pathology
(5 times)
TMS (4 times)
FS (2 times)
PDS (2 times)
1998 Features resembling Tourette's syndrome in developmental stutterers.
87  diagonal stride
(15 times)
Physiology
(6 times)
DP (13 times)
GE (4 times)
KDP (2 times)
1989 The energy cost of level cross-country skiing and the effect of the friction of the ski.
88  digestible starch
(15 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(7 times)
RS (13 times)
TS (3 times)
CA (2 times)
2000 Effect of processing on potato starch: in vitro availability and glycaemic index.
89  disseminated sclerosis
(15 times)
Medicine
(7 times)
ADEM (1 time)
AEPs (1 time)
ATSD (1 time)
1974 Amine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with disseminated sclerosis.
90  distribution system
(15 times)
Environmental Health
(13 times)
HPC (3 times)
HAAs (2 times)
THMs (2 times)
2001 Bacterial dynamics in the drinking water distribution system of Brussels.
91  dural sac
(15 times)
Radiology
(3 times)
CM (3 times)
EV (3 times)
MRI (3 times)
1981 A comparative study of the pineal complex of nineteen species of Indian freshwater fishes.
92  daily smokers
(14 times)
Public Health
(4 times)
ITS (13 times)
CITS (3 times)
NITS (3 times)
2011 Smoking cessation behavior among intermittent smokers versus daily smokers.
93  discharge summary
(14 times)
Medicine
(3 times)
GP (3 times)
GPs (2 times)
CCI (1 time)
1999 Communication between hospitals and isolated aboriginal community health clinics.
94  diverting stoma
(14 times)
General Surgery
(5 times)
AL (6 times)
LAR (4 times)
AR (2 times)
2010 Diverting stoma in rectal cancer surgery. A retrospective study of 329 patients from Japanese cancer centers.
95  drip and ship
(14 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
MS (7 times)
mRS (5 times)
DD (4 times)
2018 Stroke Transfer and its Organizational Paradigm : Review of Organizational Paradigms and the Impact on Outcome.
96  dendritic spines
(13 times)
Neurology
(8 times)
AD (1 time)
ASS (1 time)
BWT (1 time)
1983 Three-dimensional analysis of dendritic spines. I. Quantitative observations related to dendritic spine and synaptic morphology in cerebral and cerebellar cortices.
97  diagonal sequence
(13 times)
Anthropology
(8 times)
LS (8 times)
AQ (1 time)
COM (1 time)
2004 Locomotor mechanics of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus).
98  Diencephalic syndrome
(13 times)
Neoplasms
(8 times)
JPA (2 times)
MRI (2 times)
CBDCA (1 time)
1997 Diencephalic syndrome and disseminated juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamic-optic chiasm region.
99  Digit Symbol
(13 times)
Psychiatry
(4 times)
BD (4 times)
AVLT (2 times)
MMSE (2 times)
1992 Risk factors for cognitive aging in adult twins.
100  direct smears
(13 times)
Cell Biology
(5 times)
FNA (2 times)
FNAs (2 times)
ICC (2 times)
1997 Immunocytochemistry on the Thinprep processor.