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Abbreviation: GL
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Long Form No. Long Form Research Area Co-occurring Abbreviation PubMed/MEDLINE Info. (Year, Title)
glycemic load
(533 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(267 times)
GI (439 times)
BMI (46 times)
CI (41 times)
2001 Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women.
glycyrrhizin
(299 times)
Pharmacology
(92 times)
GA (84 times)
HMGB1 (33 times)
LPS (13 times)
1979 Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on delta 4-5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductase in rat liver.
gastrocnemius lateralis
(97 times)
Physiology
(33 times)
GM (40 times)
TA (39 times)
SOL (21 times)
1989 Discharge patterns of gamma motoneurone populations of extensor and flexor hindlimb muscles during walking in the thalamic cat.
glycolipid
(89 times)
Microbiology
(33 times)
PL (38 times)
DPG (24 times)
PG (20 times)
1975 Biological activity of phthalated endotoxin.
glomerular layer
(82 times)
Neurology
(42 times)
OB (34 times)
EPL (26 times)
MOB (20 times)
1981 Quantitative study of synapse formation in the duck olfactory bulb.
gestation length
(70 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(46 times)
CI (13 times)
BW (11 times)
AFC (10 times)
1980 Factors influencing gestation length, birth weight and calf survival of Angus, Zebu and Zebu cross beef cattle.
glycerol
(66 times)
Chemistry
(9 times)
EG (15 times)
PG (11 times)
CA (5 times)
1994 Study of the influence of auxiliary substances on the partition coefficients of some substituted phenylcarbamic acid derivatives.
glycyrrhizic acid
(58 times)
Pharmacology
(21 times)
GA (28 times)
GAMG (5 times)
PF (4 times)
1994 Release of isosorbide dinitrate from polymer film dosage forms and absorption of this drug through the oral mucosa of rats.
Ganoderma lucidum
(55 times)
Pharmacology
(9 times)
PL (3 times)
AM (2 times)
GC-MS (2 times)
1990 Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation.
10  glucose
(52 times)
Physiology
(9 times)
TG (10 times)
TC (7 times)
LA (6 times)
1977 Circadian and seasonal variations of some metabolic parameters in the serum of the albino laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus var. alba).
11  germline
(48 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(32 times)
CSR (6 times)
Ig (5 times)
RA (4 times)
1992 Clonal expansion in follicular lymphoma occurs subsequent to antigenic selection.
12  grain length
(45 times)
Plant Physiological Phenomena
(10 times)
GW (32 times)
TGW (16 times)
QTL (13 times)
2003 Mapping quantitative trait loci underlying appearance quality of rice grains (Oryza sativa L.).
13  green light
(45 times)
Biology
(8 times)
RL (30 times)
BL (21 times)
WL (16 times)
1992 Photosynthetic membrane topography: quantitative in situ localization of photosystems I and II.
14  guidelines
(45 times)
Medical Informatics
(10 times)
FN (4 times)
AR (2 times)
BC (2 times)
2003 [Evaluation of the adherence to the asthma guidelines by the administration of a questionnaire in community pharmacies].
15  granulosa-luteal
(44 times)
Endocrinology
(17 times)
mRNA (6 times)
mRNAs (4 times)
IVF (3 times)
1987 Specific receptor-mediated stimulation of progesterone secretion and cGMP accumulation by rat atrial natriuretic factor in cultured human granulosa-lutein (G-L) cells.
16  granular lymphocytes
(35 times)
Hematology
(21 times)
LDGL (13 times)
NK (7 times)
GLPD (4 times)
1984 Chromosome studies in patients with T-CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia and expansions of granular lymphocytes.
17  gastric lavage
(29 times)
Pediatrics
(9 times)
IS (5 times)
AFB (4 times)
BAL (4 times)
1986 Efficacy of gastric emptying: gastric lavage versus emesis induced with ipecac.
18  gelatin
(24 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(4 times)
CS (4 times)
FTIR (4 times)
PCL (3 times)
1993 Systemic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ointment containing protease inhibitor or gelatin in rats with burns or open wounds.
19  glossopharyngeal
(24 times)
Physiology
(12 times)
CT (21 times)
GSP (4 times)
MSG (3 times)
1991 Gustatory neural responses in preweanling mice.
20  graft loss
(24 times)
Transplantation
(10 times)
AR (6 times)
HR (4 times)
CI (3 times)
2005 Multivariate analysis of antibody induction therapy and their associated outcomes in deceased donor transplants.
21  Ginzburg-Landau
(22 times)
Biophysics
(13 times)
ASGL (1 time)
ATP (1 time)
BCS (1 time)
2000 First-order transition in the ginzburg-landau model
22  globule leucocytes
(22 times)
Parasitology
(12 times)
MMC (10 times)
FEC (3 times)
IMC (3 times)
1977 [Origin and function of globular leukocytes].
23  granular layer
(22 times)
Neurology
(7 times)
ML (7 times)
CNS (4 times)
CA (3 times)
1990 The expression of excitatory amino acid binding sites during neuritogenesis in the developing rat cerebellum.
24  grassland
(22 times)
Environmental Health
(11 times)
CL (5 times)
FL (5 times)
AL (4 times)
2014 Abundance and diversity of soybean-nodulating rhizobia in black soil are impacted by land use and crop management.
25  gastric leak
(19 times)
Metabolism
(12 times)
SG (10 times)
LSG (6 times)
CT (4 times)
2000 Gross morphology and topography of the adult intestinal tract of the tilapian fish, Oreochromis niloticus L.
26  glabellar lines
(19 times)
General Surgery
(14 times)
CFL (8 times)
FHL (5 times)
FLSQ (5 times)
2011 Rapid onset of response and patient-reported outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA treatment of moderate-to-severe glabellar lines.
27  glargine
(17 times)
Endocrinology
(13 times)
BIL (9 times)
T2D (4 times)
HbA1c (3 times)
2007 Comparison of once-daily glargine plus sulfonylurea with twice-daily 70/30 aspart premix in insulin-naive Japanese patients with diabetes.
28  glossopharyngeal nerve
(16 times)
Neurology
(6 times)
CT (10 times)
GSP (3 times)
Sham (2 times)
1979 Lingual projections to the dorsal pons of the rat, studied by the field potential analysis.
29  glucosinolate
(14 times)
Botany
(3 times)
ds (3 times)
ITC (3 times)
SOTs (3 times)
2002 Growth inhibition, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia by the isothiocyanate sulforaphane.
30  gravity line
(14 times)
Orthopedics
(10 times)
ASD (4 times)
ODI (3 times)
PT (3 times)
1998 An algorithm for determining gravity line location from posturographic recordings.
31  glaucoma
(13 times)
Ophthalmology
(6 times)
DR (5 times)
NGF (5 times)
AMD (3 times)
2002 Revisiting early postoperative follow-up after phacoemulsification.
32  Great Lakes
(13 times)
Environmental Health
(9 times)
PCBs (4 times)
GLSCF (2 times)
ANOVA (1 time)
1998 Health advisories for consumers of Great Lakes sport fish: is the message being received?
33  glucagon
(12 times)
Physiology
(2 times)
PP (2 times)
AST (1 time)
CAG (1 time)
1981 Adenylate cyclase and cell cyclic AMP of rat cortical thick ascending limb of Henle.
34  gray level
(12 times)
Dentistry
(4 times)
CBCT (2 times)
NIR-AF (2 times)
qAF (2 times)
2003 A digital equalisation technique improving visualisation of dense mammary gland and breast periphery in mammography.
35  glibenclamide
(11 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
AC (1 time)
AEO (1 time)
Ang-1 (1 time)
1986 Mutagenic evaluation of tolbutamide and glybenclamide on the bone marrow cells of mice.
36  glycerin
(11 times)
Biomedical Engineering
(3 times)
PVA (2 times)
CIRI (1 time)
CMCS (1 time)
1995 Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response.
37  generalized lipodystrophy
(10 times)
Endocrinology
(4 times)
PL (4 times)
CI (2 times)
FPLD (2 times)
2007 Long-term efficacy of leptin replacement in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy.
38  geniculate nucleus
(10 times)
Neurology
(5 times)
ChAT (2 times)
HRP (2 times)
PBG (2 times)
1979 Response properties of units in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the domestic chick (Gallus domesticus).
39  global layer
(10 times)
Ophthalmology
(5 times)
OL (10 times)
EOMs (6 times)
MR (3 times)
2001 Fibre types and myosin heavy chain expression in the ocular medial rectus muscle of the adult rat.
40  glomerular
(10 times)
Medicine
(4 times)
NO (2 times)
Af-Art (1 time)
AOB (1 time)
1990 Effects of endothelin on peptide-dependent cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation along the nephron segments of the rat.
41  glucosamine
(9 times)
Pharmacology
(4 times)
CS (3 times)
CH (2 times)
14C-Gl (1 time)
1984 Influence of 'cytoprotective' drugs (carbenoxolone, zolimidine, prostanoic acid) on mucus secretion in patients with gastric ulcer.
42  glutaraldehyde
(9 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
BP (2 times)
AA (1 time)
ADC (1 time)
1998 Orthotropic mechanical properties of chemically treated bovine pericardium.
43  glyoxal
(9 times)
Chemistry
(2 times)
MG (4 times)
MGL (3 times)
DG (2 times)
1989 Chromosome aberrations induced by pyrolysates of carbohydrates in Chinese hamster V79 cells.
44  lateral gastrocnemius
(9 times)
Physiology
(3 times)
TA (4 times)
BF (3 times)
RF (3 times)
1983 The innervation of skeletal muscles in chickens curarized during early development.
45  gestation and lactation
(8 times)
Psychopharmacology
(2 times)
BPA (1 time)
BW (1 time)
CAT (1 time)
1979 Imparied thermal regulation in juvenile rats following perinatal methadone exposure.
46  Giardia lamblia
(8 times)
Medicine
(2 times)
AL (1 time)
C2d-HS (1 time)
CS (1 time)
1987 Mechanism of killing of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by complement.
47  glia limitans
(8 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
ANP (2 times)
l-NNA (2 times)
BBB (1 time)
1985 Dorsal-ventral differences in the glia limitans of the spinal cord: an ultrastructural study in developing normal and irradiated rats.
48  greatest length
(8 times)
Anatomy
(5 times)
CRL (2 times)
GS (2 times)
Bd (1 time)
1984 Embryonic length and cerebral landmarks in staged human embryos.
49  green liquor
(8 times)
Technology
(4 times)
XMG (3 times)
AQ (1 time)
CBU (1 time)
2010 Evaluation of enzyme mixtures in releasing fermentable sugars from pre-pulping extracts of mixed northeast hardwoods.
50  ground level
(8 times)
Aerospace Medicine
(4 times)
AL (2 times)
DCS (2 times)
NAL (2 times)
1978 Altitude tolerance of general aviation pilots with normal or partially impaired spirometric function.
51  L-glutamic acid and L-lysine
(8 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(8 times)
DNP-PLL (2 times)
DH (1 time)
DNP (1 time)
1970 Carrier function in anti-hapten immune responses. II. Specific properties of carrier cells capable of enhancing anti-hapten antibody responses.
52  Galiellalactone
(7 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
STAT (2 times)
STAT3 (2 times)
CSCs (1 time)
2010 Induction of tolerogenic lung CD4+ T cells by local treatment with a pSTAT-3 and pSTAT-5 inhibitor ameliorated experimental allergic asthma.
53  Genital lymphedema
(7 times)
General Surgery
(4 times)
LEL (2 times)
LVA (2 times)
LVAs (2 times)
2010 Simultaneous multi-site lymphaticovenular anastomoses for primary lower extremity and genital lymphoedema complicated with severe lymphorrhea.
54  granule cell layer
(7 times)
Neurology
(3 times)
ML (3 times)
PL (2 times)
AM (1 time)
2003 Immunolocalization of the acid-sensing ion channel 2a in the rat cerebellum.
55  group living
(7 times)
Geriatrics
(3 times)
TI (2 times)
DAT (1 time)
VD (1 time)
1993 Development and consequences of group living in Sweden. A new mode of care for the demented elderly.
56  GuideLiner
(7 times)
Cardiology
(5 times)
PCI (4 times)
ABT (1 time)
AHA/ACC (1 time)
2012 Usefulness and safety of the GuideLiner catheter to enhance intubation and support of guide catheters: insights from the Twente GuideLiner registry.
57  galactolipids
(6 times)
Botany
(3 times)
PC (3 times)
DGDG (2 times)
MGDG (2 times)
1995 Prevention of postoperative adhesions by single intraperitoneal medication.
58  gasless laparoscopy
(6 times)
General Surgery
(3 times)
ML (3 times)
CTC (1 time)
GA (1 time)
1999 Central nervous system metabolic and physiologic effects of laparoscopy.
59  genetic lines
(6 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(3 times)
aa (1 time)
AV (1 time)
CP (1 time)
2007 Molecular epidemiology of rabies in Colombia 1994-2005 based on partial nucleoprotein gene sequences.
60  gliclazide
(6 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
AUC (1 time)
DPPH (1 time)
LOD (1 time)
1999 Study of the complexation behaviour of gliclazide with partially methylated beta-cyclodextrin in solution and solid state.
61  glucono-delta-lactonase
(6 times)
Biotechnology
(4 times)
GFOR (6 times)
HPLC (2 times)
CSL (1 time)
1999 Bioconversion of glucose and fructose to sorbitol and gluconic acid by untreated cells of Zymomonas mobilis.
62  glycolate
(6 times)
Biotechnology
(4 times)
PHA (3 times)
3HB (2 times)
LA (2 times)
2011 Biosynthesis of glycolate-based polyesters containing medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoates in recombinant Escherichia coli expressing engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase.
63  glycosphingolipids
(6 times)
Nephrology
(2 times)
AFD (3 times)
alpha-Gal A (2 times)
a-Gal (1 time)
1994 Antibodies against sulfated glycosphingolipids of peripheral nerve myelins detected in patients with human cytomegalovirus infection.
64  Guest Lecture
(6 times)
Radiology
(6 times)
CC (6 times)
HL (6 times)
RC (6 times)
2000 Guest Lecture (GL) Honorary Lectures (HL) Categorical Courses (CC) Refresher Courses (RC) Workshops (WS) State-of-the-Art Symposia (SA) Special Focus Sessions (SF) : Sunday.
65  low-glycemic load
(6 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
ALA (1 time)
BMI (1 time)
CVD (1 time)
2008 A proposal for a new national diet: a low-glycemic load diet with a unique macronutrient composition.
66  gastric lipase
(5 times)
Physiology
(1 time)
CEL (2 times)
ALO (1 time)
CE (1 time)
1991 Effect of pancreatic phospholipase A2 and gastric lipase on the action of pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase against lipid substrates in vitro.
67  gastric lymphoma
(5 times)
Pathology
(2 times)
GC (2 times)
MZ (1 time)
1991 The role of the endoscopic biopsy in the diagnosis of gastric lymphoma: a morphologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal.
68  German Landrace
(5 times)
Reproductive Medicine
(2 times)
CuZnSOD (1 time)
dpc (1 time)
GSH-Px (1 time)
2008 Effect of polymorphisms in the genes for LIF and RBP4 on litter size in two German pig lines.
69  germinal layer
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
ABZ (1 time)
AS (1 time)
BC (1 time)
2004 Cellular organization and appearance of differentiated structures in developing stages of the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus.
70  gingival level
(5 times)
Dentistry
(3 times)
BOP (3 times)
SRP (3 times)
CAL (2 times)
2006 Peri-implant soft-tissue health surrounding cement- and screw-retained implant restorations: a multi-center, 3-year prospective study.
71  globulin
(5 times)
Molecular Biology
(1 time)
AL (2 times)
ALB (2 times)
GLU (2 times)
1990 [Staphylococcal binding with immobilized proteins in the bacteriosorption reaction].
72  glottic larynx
(5 times)
Neoplasms
(3 times)
SGL (4 times)
CRT (2 times)
BOT (1 time)
2009 Clinical and dosimetric factors associated with a prolonged feeding tube requirement in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for head and neck cancers.
73  gluconolactone
(5 times)
Biochemistry
(2 times)
APMA (1 time)
CD (1 time)
Dsg1 (1 time)
1997 Simultaneous enzymatic synthesis of gluconic acid and sorbitol: production, purification, and application of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase and gluconolactonase.
74  glycogenolysis
(5 times)
Endocrinology
(3 times)
GNG (5 times)
EGP (3 times)
FFA (3 times)
1999 The effects of free fatty acids on gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in normal subjects.
75  glyphosate
(5 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
HC (2 times)
LC (2 times)
ASR (1 time)
2013 The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.
76  gold lotion
(5 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(4 times)
ACF (1 time)
AOM (1 time)
CFA (1 time)
2013 Effective suppression of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in mice with citrus peel flavonoids.
77  L-galactono-gamma-lactone
(5 times)
Botany
(3 times)
ASC (2 times)
ACE (1 time)
ACF (1 time)
2000 Ascorbate biosynthesis in mitochondria is linked to the electron transport chain between complexes III and IV.
78  geniculate body
(4 times)
Neurology
(4 times)
PB (1 time)
PHT (1 time)
VPA (1 time)
1986 Effects of allylglycine on photosensitivity in the lateral geniculate-kindled cat.
79  glandular
(4 times)
Veterinary Medicine
(2 times)
SE (2 times)
SL (2 times)
AD (1 time)
1986 Steroid dynamics in the normal and carcinomatous mammary gland.
80  global
(4 times)
Ophthalmology
(3 times)
EOMs (4 times)
OL (4 times)
APH (1 time)
2001 Quantitative analysis of rectus extraocular muscle layers in monkey and humans.
81  glucosaminidase
(4 times)
Bacteriology
(2 times)
AM (4 times)
LS (1 time)
LZ (1 time)
1998 Zymographic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall.
82  GoLoco
(4 times)
Biochemistry
(3 times)
RBD (1 time)
2009 RGS14 is a multifunctional scaffold that integrates G protein and Ras/Raf MAPkinase signalling pathways.
83  Gongronema latifolium
(4 times)
Biology
(1 time)
ACE (1 time)
BUN (1 time)
DEX (1 time)
2011 Kinetics of the inhibition of renin and angiotensin i converting enzyme by polar and non-polar polyphenolic extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium leaves.
84  granulomatous lymphadenitis
(4 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
NGL (3 times)
FNAB (2 times)
HIV (1 time)
1989 Granulomatous and nongranulomatous lymphadenitis in sarcoidosis. An immunophenotypic study of seven cases.
85  green leaves
(4 times)
Nutritional Sciences
(2 times)
ABGs (1 time)
BL (1 time)
CJ (1 time)
2009 Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.
86  green luminescence
(4 times)
Nanotechnology
(2 times)
PL (2 times)
YL (2 times)
CL (1 time)
2008 Spatially resolved photoluminescence study of single ZnO tetrapods.
87  groundwater level
(4 times)
Environmental Health
(2 times)
BRT (1 time)
CS (1 time)
ETa (1 time)
2016 Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.
88  GABA-linoleamide
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(3 times)
GS (2 times)
LG (2 times)
GP (1 time)
1985 [The effect of various new GABAergics on motor and oral stereotypes with apomorphine in the rat].
89  Gaussia luciferase
(3 times)
Biotechnology
(2 times)
CXCL12 (1 time)
CXCL12-GL (1 time)
CXCR (1 time)
2009 Bioluminescent CXCL12 fusion protein for cellular studies of CXCR4 and CXCR7.
90  gelatinase
(3 times)
Biophysics
(1 time)
ECM (1 time)
FIB-CL (1 time)
IL-1 (1 time)
1993 Cytokine-mediated regulation of rat ovarian function: interleukin-1 stimulates the accumulation of a 92-kilodalton gelatinase.
91  Genotype List
(3 times)
Allergy and Immunology
(3 times)
DaSH (1 time)
HLA (1 time)
HML (1 time)
2013 Genotype List String: a grammar for describing HLA and KIR genotyping results in a text string.
92  germane load
(3 times)
Patient Simulation
(1 time)
EL (2 times)
IL (2 times)
CCL (1 time)
2021 The Validation and Further Development of the Multidimensional Cognitive Load Scale for Physical and Online Lectures (MCLS-POL).
93  Getting lost
(3 times)
Neurology
(2 times)
PwAD (2 times)
QuENA (2 times)
AD (1 time)
2012 Development of a questionnaire on everyday navigational ability to assess topographical disorientation in Alzheimer's disease.
94  ginkgolide
(3 times)
Complementary Therapies
(3 times)
CIRI (1 time)
DAS 3.2.6 (1 time)
GA (1 time)
2005 [Effects of ginkgolide on cerebral blood flow in dogs].
95  ginseng leaves
(3 times)
Pharmacology
(2 times)
RG (3 times)
AG (2 times)
GS (2 times)
2016 The ginseng's fireness is associated with the lowering activity of liver Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.
96  gliadin
(3 times)
Nanotechnology
(1 time)
BLG (1 time)
BSA (1 time)
CMP (1 time)
1987 Size distribution of serum IgA antibodies to food proteins: bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gliadin (GL).
97  global/local
(3 times)
Neurology
(1 time)
MPP (2 times)
CP (1 time)
HFA (1 time)
2009 Emergence of global shape processing continues through adolescence.
98  glomerular lesion
(3 times)
Medicine
(1 time)
BP (1 time)
BUN (1 time)
CKD (1 time)
1975 [Proceedings: Classification and anatomo-clinical correlations of glomerular nephropathies].
99  glucose levels
(3 times)
General Surgery
(1 time)
AMI (1 time)
CHV (1 time)
DM (1 time)
2005 The effect of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on uncontrolled hemorrhage in a rodent model.
100  glucose-lowering
(3 times)
Endocrinology
(2 times)
HR (2 times)
BPL (1 time)
CAD (1 time)
2007 Glucose lowering treatment in patients with coronary artery disease is prognostically important not only in established but also in newly detected diabetes mellitus: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart.